Publications by authors named "Walter H Meisen"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Analysis of miRNA in Normal Appearing White Matter to Identify Altered CNS Pathways in Multiple Sclerosis.

J Autoimmune Disord 2015;1(1)

Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Genetic studies suggest that the immune system is the greatest genetic contributor to multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. Yet, these immune-related genes do not explain why inflammation is limited to the CNS in MS. We hypothesize that there is an underlying dysregulation in the CNS of MS patients that makes them more vulnerable to CNS inflammation. The sparsity of CNS-related genes associated with MS suggests that epigenetic changes in the CNS may play a role. Thus, a miRNA profiling study was performed in NAWM of MS patients and control subjects to determine if specific CNS pathways can be identified that may be altered due to miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional dysregulation. There were 15 differentially expressed miRNAs found in the MS patients' NAWM. Pathway analysis indicated that the MAPK pathway and pathways associated with the blood-brain barrier were predicted to be significantly affected by these miRNAs. Using target predication and mRNA analysis, an inverse relationship was found between miR-191 and BDNF, SOX4, FZD5 and WSB1. The pathway and target analysis of the MS-associated miRNAs suggests that MS patients' CNS is more prone to inflammation and less capable of repair, yet enriched in neuroprotective mechanisms.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755487PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.21767/2471-8153.100006DOI Listing
January 2015

TGFβ Treatment Enhances Glioblastoma Virotherapy by Inhibiting the Innate Immune Response.

Cancer Res 2015 Dec 2;75(24):5273-82. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Oncolytic viruses, including oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV), have produced provocative therapeutic responses in patients with glioblastoma, the most aggressive brain tumor. Paradoxically, innate immune responses mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages/microglia appear to limit oHSV efficacy. Therefore, we investigated whether pretreatment with an immunosuppressive cytokine, TGFβ, might reverse these effects and thereby potentiate oHSV efficacy. TGFβ treatment of NK cells rendered them less cytolytic against oHSV-infected glioblastoma cells and stem-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, TGFβ treatment of NK cells, macrophages, or microglia increased viral titers of oHSV in cocultures with glioblastoma cells. In a syngeneic mouse model of glioblastoma, administering TGFβ prior to oHSV injection inhibited intracranial infiltration and activation of NK cells and macrophages. Notably, a single administration of TGFβ prior to oHSV therapy was sufficient to phenocopy NK-cell depletion and suppress tumor growth and prolong survival in both xenograft and syngeneic models of glioblastoma. Collectively, our findings show how administering a single dose of TGFβ prior to oncolytic virus treatment of glioblastoma can transiently inhibit innate immune cells that limit efficacy, thereby improving therapeutic responses and survival outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-0894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681611PMC
December 2015

CAR-Engineered NK Cells Targeting Wild-Type EGFR and EGFRvIII Enhance Killing of Glioblastoma and Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Stem Cells.

Sci Rep 2015 Jul 9;5:11483. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Glioblastoma (GB) remains the most aggressive primary brain malignancy. Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified immune cells has emerged as a promising anti-cancer approach, yet the potential utility of CAR-engineered natural killer (NK) cells to treat GB has not been explored. Tumors from approximately 50% of GB patients express wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR) and in fewer cases express both wtEGFR and the mutant form EGFRvIII; however, previously reported CAR T cell studies only focus on targeting EGFRvIII. Here we explore whether both wtEGFR and EGFRvIII can be effectively targeted by CAR-redirected NK cells to treat GB. We transduced human NK cell lines NK-92 and NKL, and primary NK cells with a lentiviral construct harboring a second generation CAR targeting both wtEGFR and EGFRvIII and evaluated the anti-GB efficacy of EGFR-CAR-modified NK cells. EGFR-CAR-engineered NK cells displayed enhanced cytolytic capability and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with GB cells or patient-derived GB stem cells in an EGFR-dependent manner. In two orthotopic GB xenograft mouse models, intracranial administration of NK-92-EGFR-CAR cells resulted in efficient suppression of tumor growth and significantly prolonged the tumor-bearing mice survival. These findings support intracranial administration of NK-92-EGFR-CAR cells represents a promising clinical strategy to treat GB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep11483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4496728PMC
July 2015

Aurora-A inhibition offers a novel therapy effective against intracranial glioblastoma.

Cancer Res 2014 Oct 8;74(19):5364-70. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio. Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio.

Glioblastoma remains a devastating disease for which novel therapies are urgently needed. Here, we report that the Aurora-A kinase inhibitor alisertib exhibits potent efficacy against glioblastoma neurosphere tumor stem-like cells in vitro and in vivo. Many glioblastoma neurosphere cells treated with alisertib for short periods undergo apoptosis, although some regain proliferative activity upon drug removal. Extended treatment, however, results in complete and irreversible loss of tumor cell proliferation. Moreover, alisertib caused glioblastoma neurosphere cells to partially differentiate and enter senescence. These effects were also observed in glioma cells treated with the Aurora-A inhibitor TC-A2317 or anti-Aurora-A siRNA. Furthermore, alisertib extended median survival of mice bearing intracranial human glioblastoma neurosphere tumor xenografts. Alisertib exerted similar effects on glioblastoma neurosphere cells in vivo and resulted in markedly reduced activated phosphoThr288Aurora-A and increased abnormal mitoses and cellular ploidy, consistent with on-target activity. Our results offer preclinical proof-of-concept for alisertib as a new therapeutic for glioma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528677PMC
October 2014

Role of cysteine-rich 61 protein (CCN1) in macrophage-mediated oncolytic herpes simplex virus clearance.

Mol Ther 2014 Sep 4;22(9):1678-87. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Dardinger Laboratory for Neuro-oncology and Neurosciences, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Glioblastoma is a devastating disease, and there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies, such as oncolytic HSV1 (OV) to effectively target tumor cells. OV therapy depends on tumor-specific replication leading to destruction of neoplastic tissues. Host responses that curtail virus replication limit its efficacy in vivo. We have previously shown that cysteine-rich 61 protein (CCN1) activates a type 1 IFN antiviral defense response in glioblastoma cells. Incorporating TCGA data, we found CCN1 expression to be a negative prognostic factor for glioblastoma patients. Based on this, we used neutralizing antibodies against CCN1 to investigate its effect on OV therapy. Use of an anti-CCN1 antibody in mice bearing glioblastomas treated with OV led to enhanced virus expression along with reduced immune cell infiltration. OV-induced CCN1 increases macrophage migration toward infected glioblastoma cells by directly binding macrophages and also by enhancing the proinflammatory activation of macrophages inducing MCP-1 expression in glioblastoma cells. Activation of macrophages by CCN1 also increases viral clearance. Neutralization of integrin αMβ2 reversed CCN1-induced macrophage activation and migration, and reduced MCP-1 expression by glioblastoma cells. Our findings reveal that CCN1 plays a novel role in pathogen clearance; increasing macrophage infiltration and activation resulting in increased virus clearance in tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2014.101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4435480PMC
September 2014

Systemic delivery of SapC-DOPS has antiangiogenic and antitumor effects against glioblastoma.

Mol Ther 2013 Aug 4;21(8):1517-25. Epub 2013 Jun 4.

Dardinger Laboratory for Neuro-oncology and Neurosciences, Department of Neurological Surgery, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine (SapC-DOPS) nanovesicles are a nanotherapeutic which effectively target and destroy cancer cells. Here, we explore the systemic use of SapC-DOPS in several models of brain cancer, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and the molecular mechanism behind its tumor-selective targeting specificity. Using two validated spontaneous brain tumor models, we demonstrate the ability of SapC-DOPS to selectively and effectively cross the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) to target brain tumors in vivo and reveal the targeting to be contingent on the exposure of the anionic phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Increased cell surface expression of PtdSer levels was found to correlate with SapC-DOPS-induced killing efficacy, and tumor targeting in vivo was inhibited by blocking PtdSer exposed on cells. Apart from cancer cell killing, SapC-DOPS also exerted a strong antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, unlike traditional chemotherapy, hypoxic cells were sensitized to SapC-DOPS-mediated killing. This study emphasizes the importance of PtdSer exposure for SapC-DOPS targeting and supports the further development of SapC-DOPS as a novel antitumor and antiangiogenic agent for brain tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2013.114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3734660PMC
August 2013

Tuba, a Cdc42 GEF, is required for polarized spindle orientation during epithelial cyst formation.

J Cell Biol 2010 May;189(4):661-9

Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

The Cdc42 guanosine triphosphatase is essential for cell polarization in several organisms and in vitro for the organization of polarized epithelial cysts. A long-standing question concerns the identity of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that controls this process. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells grown in Matrigel, we screened 70 GEFs by RNA interference. Of these, six positives were identified that caused a multilumen phenotype, including Tuba, a Cdc42-specific GEF localized below the apical cortex. Loss of Tuba abolishes Cdc42 enrichment at the apical cortex. Normal lumen formation is rescued by human Tuba or active Cdc42 but not by a GEF-negative Tuba mutant. Silencing Cdc42 causes a similar phenotype, including multilumen formation and reduced atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) activity. Lumen disorganization after depletion of Tuba or Cdc42 or inhibition of aPKC is caused by defective spindle orientation. Together, our findings implicate Tuba as a key activator of the Cdc42 GTPase during epithelial ductal morphogenesis, which in turn activates apical aPKC to ensure that spindles orient parallel to the lateral plane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201002097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2872902PMC
May 2010