Publications by authors named "Walter E DeWolf"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery and preclinical development of AR453588 as an anti-diabetic glucokinase activator.

Bioorg Med Chem 2020 01 2;28(1):115232. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Array BioPharma Inc., 3200 Walnut St., Boulder, CO 80301, United States.

Glucose flux through glucokinase (GK) controls insulin release from the pancreas in response to high levels of glucose. Flux through GK is also responsible for reducing hepatic glucose output. Since many individuals with type 2 diabetes appear to have an inadequacy or defect in one or both of these processes, identifying compounds that can activate GK could provide a therapeutic benefit. Herein we report the further structure activity studies of a novel series of glucokinase activators (GKA). These studies led to the identification of pyridine 72 as a potent GKA that lowered post-prandial glucose in normal C57BL/6J mice, and after 14d dosing in ob/ob mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2019.115232DOI Listing
January 2020

A Next-Generation TRK Kinase Inhibitor Overcomes Acquired Resistance to Prior TRK Kinase Inhibition in Patients with TRK Fusion-Positive Solid Tumors.

Cancer Discov 2017 09 3;7(9):963-972. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Larotrectinib, a selective TRK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated histology-agnostic efficacy in patients with TRK fusion-positive cancers. Although responses to TRK inhibition can be dramatic and durable, duration of response may eventually be limited by acquired resistance. LOXO-195 is a selective TRK TKI designed to overcome acquired resistance mediated by recurrent kinase domain (solvent front and xDFG) mutations identified in multiple patients who have developed resistance to TRK TKIs. Activity against these acquired mutations was confirmed in enzyme and cell-based assays and tumor models. As clinical proof of concept, the first 2 patients with TRK fusion-positive cancers who developed acquired resistance mutations on larotrectinib were treated with LOXO-195 on a first-in-human basis, utilizing rapid dose titration guided by pharmacokinetic assessments. This approach led to rapid tumor responses and extended the overall duration of disease control achieved with TRK inhibition in both patients. LOXO-195 abrogated resistance in TRK fusion-positive cancers that acquired kinase domain mutations, a shared liability with all existing TRK TKIs. This establishes a role for sequential treatment by demonstrating continued TRK dependence and validates a paradigm for the accelerated development of next-generation inhibitors against validated oncogenic targets. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5581710PMC
September 2017

Novel Series of Potent Glucokinase Activators Leading to the Discovery of AM-2394.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2016 Jul 23;7(7):714-8. Epub 2016 May 23.

Departments of Therapeutic Discovery, Metabolic Disorders, and Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Amgen Inc. , 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States.

Glucokinase (GK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. We present the structure-activity relationships leading to the discovery of AM-2394, a structurally distinct GKA. AM-2394 activates GK with an EC50 of 60 nM, increases the affinity of GK for glucose by approximately 10-fold, exhibits moderate clearance and good oral bioavailability in multiple animal models, and lowers glucose excursion following an oral glucose tolerance test in an ob/ob mouse model of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948016PMC
July 2016

5-Alkyl-2-urea-Substituted Pyridines: Identification of Efficacious Glucokinase Activators with Improved Properties.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2016 Jul 1;7(7):666-70. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

Amgen Inc. , 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States.

Two 1-(4-aryl-5-alkyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-methylurea glucokinase activators were identified with robust in vivo efficacy. These two compounds possessed higher solubilities than the previously identified triaryl compounds (i.e., AM-2394). Structure-activity relationship studies are presented along with relevant pharmacokinetic and in vivo data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948010PMC
July 2016

C5-Alkyl-2-methylurea-Substituted Pyridines as a New Class of Glucokinase Activators.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2014 Dec 22;5(12):1284-9. Epub 2014 Nov 22.

Amgen, Inc. , 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States.

Glucokinase (GK) activators represent a class of type 2 diabetes therapeutics actively pursued due to the central role that GK plays in regulating glucose homeostasis. Herein we report a novel C5-alkyl-2-methylurea-substituted pyridine series of GK activators derived from our previously reported thiazolylamino pyridine series. Our efforts in optimizing potency, enzyme kinetic properties, and metabolic stability led to the identification of compound 26 (AM-9514). This analogue showed a favorable combination of in vitro potency, enzyme kinetic properties, acceptable pharmacokinetic profiles in preclinical species, and robust efficacy in a rodent PD model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ml500341wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4265826PMC
December 2014

Discovery of 2-pyridylureas as glucokinase activators.

J Med Chem 2014 Oct 17;57(19):8180-6. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Array BioPharma Inc. , 3200 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 80301, United States.

Glucokinase (GK) is the rate-limiting step for insulin release from the pancreas in response to high levels of glucose. Flux through GK also contributes to reducing hepatic glucose output. Since many individuals with type 2 diabetes appear to have an inadequacy or defect in one or both of these processes, identifying compounds that can allosterically activate GK may address this issue. Herein we report the identification and initial optimization of a novel series of glucokinase activators (GKAs). Optimization led to the identification of 33 as a compound that displayed activity in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and diabetic mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm501204zDOI Listing
October 2014

Characterization of a novel glucokinase activator in rat and mouse models.

PLoS One 2014 12;9(2):e88431. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Glucokinase (GK) is a hexokinase isozyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Glucokinase activators are being investigated as potential diabetes therapies because of their effects on hepatic glucose output and/or insulin secretion. Here, we have examined the efficacy and mechanisms of action of a novel glucokinase activator, GKA23. In vitro, GKA23 increased the affinity of rat and mouse glucokinase for glucose, and increased glucose uptake in primary rat hepatocytes. In vivo, GKA23 treatment improved glucose homeostasis in rats by enhancing beta cell insulin secretion and suppressing hepatic glucose production. Sub-chronic GKA23 treatment of mice fed a high-fat diet resulted in improved glucose homeostasis and lipid profile.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0088431PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3922816PMC
January 2015

Identification of a new class of glucokinase activators through structure-based design.

J Med Chem 2013 Oct 25;56(19):7669-78. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Array BioPharma , 3200 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 80301, United States.

Glucose flux through glucokinase (GK) controls insulin release from the pancreas in response to high glucose concentrations. Glucose flux through GK also contributes to reducing hepatic glucose output. Because many individuals with type 2 diabetes appear to have an inadequacy or defect in one or both of these processes, compounds that can activate GK may serve as effective treatments for type 2 diabetes. Herein we report the identification and initial optimization of a novel series of allosteric glucokinase activators (GKAs). We discovered an initial thiazolylamino pyridine-based hit that was optimized using a structure-based design strategy and identified 26 as an early lead. Compound 26 demonstrated a good balance of in vitro potency and enzyme kinetic parameters and demonstrated blood glucose reductions in oral glucose tolerance tests in both C57BL/6J mice and high-fat fed Zucker diabetic fatty rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401116kDOI Listing
October 2013

The kinetic model of the shikimate pathway as a tool to optimize enzyme assays for high-throughput screening.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2006 Nov;95(4):560-73

Assay Methodology Development, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow, Essex, United Kingdom.

Four-enzyme section of the shikimate pathway (Aro B, D, E, and K) of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been studied. Kinetic properties of the individual enzymes and three- and four-enzyme linked reactions have been characterized in vitro. On the basis of the data measured in spectrophotometric and LC-MS experiments, kinetic mechanisms of the enzymes have been suggested and all kinetic parameters have been identified. Kinetic models for these three- and four-enzyme sections of the shikimate pathway have been constructed and validated. The model of the four-enzyme section of shikimate pathway has been employed to design an inhibition-sensitive reconstituted pathway for a high-throughput screening effort on the shikimate pathway. It was demonstrated that using the model it was possible to optimize this reconstituted pathway in such a way to provide equal sensitivity of the enzymes to inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.20772DOI Listing
November 2006

Indole naphthyridinones as inhibitors of bacterial enoyl-ACP reductases FabI and FabK.

J Med Chem 2003 Apr;46(9):1627-35

GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, 1250 South Collegeville Road, P.O. Box 5089, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

Bacterial enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) is responsible for catalyzing the final step of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and is an attractive target for the development of novel antibacterial agents. Previously we reported the development of FabI inhibitor 4 with narrow spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus via intraperitoneal (ip) administration. Through iterative medicinal chemistry aided by X-ray crystal structure analysis, a new series of inhibitors has been developed with greatly increased potency against FabI-containing organisms. Several of these new inhibitors have potent antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus, and compound 30 demonstrates exceptional oral (po) in vivo efficacy in a S. aureus infection model in rats. While optimizing FabI inhibitory activity, compounds 29 and 30 were identified as having low micromolar FabK inhibitory activity, thereby increasing the antimicrobial spectrum of these compounds to include the FabK-containing pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis. The results described herein support the hypothesis that bacterial enoyl-ACP reductases are valid targets for antibacterial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm0204035DOI Listing
April 2003

Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae enoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase (FabK).

Biochem J 2003 Mar;370(Pt 3):1055-62

Protein Science Division, Department of Infectious Disease, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

The enoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) (ACP) reductase catalyses the last step in each cycle of fatty acid elongation in the type II fatty acid synthase systems. An extensively characterized NADH-dependent reductase, FabI, is widely distributed in bacteria and plants, whereas the enoyl-ACP reductase, FabK, is a distinctly different member of this enzyme group discovered in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We were unable to delete the fabK gene from Strep. pneumoniae, suggesting that this is the only enoyl-ACP reductase in this organism. The FabK enzyme was purified and the biochemical properties of the reductase were examined. The visible absorption spectrum of the purified protein indicated the presence of a flavin cofactor that was identified as FMN by MS, and was present in a 1:1 molar ratio with protein. FabK specifically required NADH and the protein activity was stimulated by ammonium ions. FabK also exhibited NADH oxidase activity in the absence of substrate. Strep. pneumoniae belongs to the Bacillus / Lactobacillus / Streptococcus group that includes Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. These two organisms also contain FabK-related genes, suggesting that they may also express a FabK-like enoyl-ACP reductase. However, the genes did not complement a fabI (Ts) mutant and the purified flavoproteins were unable to reduce enoyl-ACP in vitro and did not exhibit NAD(P)H oxidase activity, indicating they were not enoyl-ACP reductases. The restricted occurrence of the FabK enoyl-ACP reductase may be related to the role of substrate-independent NADH oxidation in oxygen-dependent anaerobic energy metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20021699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1223239PMC
March 2003

Defining and combating the mechanisms of triclosan resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 Nov;46(11):3343-7

Microbial, Musculoskeletal and Proliferative Diseases CEDD. Computational and Structural Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

The MICs of triclosan for 31 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were 0.016 micro g/ml (24 strains), 1 to 2 micro g/ml (6 strains), and 0.25 micro g/ml (1 strain). All the strains for which triclosan MICs were elevated (>0.016 micro g/ml) showed three- to fivefold increases in their levels of enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (FabI) production. Furthermore, strains for which triclosan MICs were 1 to 2 micro g/ml overexpressed FabI with an F204C alteration. Binding studies with radiolabeled NAD(+) demonstrated that this change prevents the formation of the stable triclosan-NAD(+)-FabI complex, and both this alteration and its overexpression contributed to achieving MICs of 1 to 2 micro g/ml for these strains. Three novel, potent inhibitors of FabI (50% inhibitory concentrations, < or =64 nM) demonstrated up to 1,000-fold better activity than triclosan against the strains for which triclosan MICs were elevated. None of the compounds tested from this series formed a stable complex with NAD(+)-FabI. Consequently, although the overexpression of wild-type FabI gave rise to an increase in the MICs, as expected, overexpression of FabI with an F204C alteration did not cause an additional increase in resistance. Therefore, this work identifies the mechanisms of triclosan resistance in S. aureus, and we present three compounds from a novel chemical series of FabI inhibitors which have excellent activities against both triclosan-resistant and -sensitive clinical isolates of S. aureus.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC128739PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aac.46.11.3343-3347.2002DOI Listing
November 2002

Discovery of a novel and potent class of FabI-directed antibacterial agents.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 10;46(10):3118-24

Microbial, Musculoskeletal and Proliferative Diseases Center of Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

Bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (FabI) catalyzes the final step in each elongation cycle of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and is an attractive target for the development of new antibacterial agents. High-throughput screening of the Staphylococcus aureus FabI enzyme identified a novel, weak inhibitor with no detectable antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Iterative medicinal chemistry and X-ray crystal structure-based design led to the identification of compound 4 [(E)-N-methyl-N-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-3-(7-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)acrylamide], which is 350-fold more potent than the original lead compound obtained by high-throughput screening in the FabI inhibition assay. Compound 4 has exquisite antistaphylococci activity, achieving MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited more than 500 times lower than those of nine currently available antibiotics against a panel of multidrug-resistant strains of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Furthermore, compound 4 exhibits excellent in vivo efficacy in an S. aureus infection model in rats. Biochemical and genetic approaches have confirmed that the mode of antibacterial action of compound 4 and related compounds is via inhibition of FabI. Compound 4 also exhibits weak FabK inhibitory activity, which may explain its antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis, which depend on FabK and both FabK and FabI, respectively, for their enoyl-ACP reductase function. These results show that compound 4 is representative of a new, totally synthetic series of antibacterial agents that has the potential to provide novel alternatives for the treatment of S. aureus infections that are resistant to our present armory of antibiotics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC128775PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aac.46.10.3118-3124.2002DOI Listing
October 2002

Discovery of aminopyridine-based inhibitors of bacterial enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI).

J Med Chem 2002 Jul;45(15):3246-56

GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, 1250 South Collegeville Road, P.O. Box 5089, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Bacterial enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) catalyzes the final step in each cycle of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and is an attractive target for the development of new antibacterial agents. Our efforts to identify potent, selective FabI inhibitors began with screening of the GlaxoSmithKline proprietary compound collection, which identified several small-molecule inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus FabI. Through a combination of iterative medicinal chemistry and X-ray crystal structure based design, one of these leads was developed into the novel aminopyridine derivative 9, a low micromolar inhibitor of FabI from S. aureus (IC(50) = 2.4 microM) and Haemophilus influenzae (IC(50) = 4.2 microM). Compound 9 has good in vitro antibacterial activity against several organisms, including S. aureus (MIC = 0.5 microg/mL), and is effective in vivo in a S. aureus groin abscess infection model in rats. Through FabI overexpressor and macromolecular synthesis studies, the mode of action of 9 has been confirmed to be inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis via inhibition of FabI. Taken together, these results support FabI as a valid antibacterial target and demonstrate the potential of small-molecule FabI inhibitors for the treatment of bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm020050+DOI Listing
July 2002