Publications by authors named "Walter E Cook"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Protective antibody response following oral vaccination with microencapsulated Bacillus Anthracis Sterne strain 34F2 spores.

NPJ Vaccines 2020 Jul 10;5(1):59. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

An oral vaccine against anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is urgently needed to prevent annual anthrax outbreaks that are causing catastrophic losses in free-ranging livestock and wildlife worldwide. The Sterne vaccine, the current injectable livestock vaccine, is a suspension of live attenuated B. anthracis Sterne strain 34F2 spores (Sterne spores) in saponin. It is not effective when administered orally and individual subcutaneous injections are not a practical method of vaccination for wildlife. In this study, we report the development of a microencapsulated oral vaccine against anthrax. Evaluating Sterne spore stability at varying pH's in vitro revealed that spore exposure to pH 2 results in spore death, confirming that protection from the gastric environment is of main concern when producing an oral vaccine. Therefore, Sterne spores were encapsulated in alginate and coated with a protein shell containing poly-L-lysine (PLL) and vitelline protein B (VpB), a non-immunogenic, proteolysis resistant protein isolated from Fasciola hepatica. Capsule exposure to pH 2 demonstrated enhanced acid gel character suggesting that alginate microcapsules provided the necessary protection for spores to survive the gastric environment. Post vaccination IgG levels in BALBc/J mouse serum samples indicated that encapsulated spores induced anti-anthrax specific responses in both the subcutaneous and the oral vaccination groups. Furthermore, the antibody responses from both vaccination routes were protective against anthrax lethal toxin in vitro, suggesting that further optimization of this vaccine formulation may result in a reliable oral vaccine that will conveniently and effectively prevent anthrax in wildlife populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-0208-3DOI Listing
July 2020

Protective antibody response following oral vaccination with microencapsulated Sterne strain 34F2 spores.

NPJ Vaccines 2020 10;5:59. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College Station, TX 77843 USA.

An oral vaccine against anthrax () is urgently needed to prevent annual anthrax outbreaks that are causing catastrophic losses in free-ranging livestock and wildlife worldwide. The Sterne vaccine, the current injectable livestock vaccine, is a suspension of live attenuated Sterne strain 34F2 spores (Sterne spores) in saponin. It is not effective when administered orally and individual subcutaneous injections are not a practical method of vaccination for wildlife. In this study, we report the development of a microencapsulated oral vaccine against anthrax. Evaluating Sterne spore stability at varying pH's in vitro revealed that spore exposure to pH 2 results in spore death, confirming that protection from the gastric environment is of main concern when producing an oral vaccine. Therefore, Sterne spores were encapsulated in alginate and coated with a protein shell containing poly-L-lysine (PLL) and vitelline protein B (VpB), a non-immunogenic, proteolysis resistant protein isolated from . Capsule exposure to pH 2 demonstrated enhanced acid gel character suggesting that alginate microcapsules provided the necessary protection for spores to survive the gastric environment. Post vaccination IgG levels in BALBc/J mouse serum samples indicated that encapsulated spores induced anti-anthrax specific responses in both the subcutaneous and the oral vaccination groups. Furthermore, the antibody responses from both vaccination routes were protective against anthrax lethal toxin in vitro, suggesting that further optimization of this vaccine formulation may result in a reliable oral vaccine that will conveniently and effectively prevent anthrax in wildlife populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-0208-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351773PMC
July 2020

Chronic Wasting Disease Drives Population Decline of White-Tailed Deer.

PLoS One 2016 30;11(8):e0161127. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, United States of America.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859-0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161127PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004924PMC
August 2017

Comparison of the humoral response between sheep vaccinated with a killed-virus vaccine and those vaccinated with a modified-live virus vaccine against bluetongue virus serotype 17.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016 May;248(9):1043-9

OBJECTIVE To compare the humoral response between sheep vaccinated with a killed-virus (KV) vaccine and those vaccinated with a modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine against bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial followed by a field trial. ANIMALS 30 yearling crossbred ewes (phase 1) and 344 sheep from 7 Wyoming farms (phase 2). PROCEDURES In phase 1, ewes seronegative for anti-BTV antibodies received sterile diluent (control group; n = 10) or an MLV (10) or KV (10) vaccine against BTV-17 on day 0. Ewes in the KV group received a second dose of the vaccine on day 21. Ewes were bred 5 months after vaccination and allowed to lamb. Anti-BTV antibodies were measured in ewes at predetermined times after vaccination and in their lambs once at 5 to 10 days after birth. In phase 2, 248 commercial sheep were screened for anti-BTV antibodies and vaccinated with a KV vaccine against BTV-17 on day 0. Sheep seronegative for anti-BTV antibodies on day 0 (n = 90) underwent follow-up serologic testing on day 365 along with 96 unvaccinated cohorts (controls). RESULTS In phase 1, all vaccinated ewes developed anti-BTV antibodies by 14 days after vaccination and remained seropositive for 1 year; all of their lambs were also seropositive. All control ewes and lambs were seronegative. In phase 2, the prevalence of vaccinated sheep with anti-BTV antibodies 1 year after vaccination was 93% and 76% as determined by a serum neutralization assay and competitive ELISA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both vaccines induced antibodies against BTV-17 that persisted for at least 1 year and provided passive immunity for lambs and may be a viable option to protect sheep against disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.248.9.1043DOI Listing
May 2016

Common ground for feral cats.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015 Jul;247(2):141-2

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2015

Paresis and death in elk (Cervus elaphus) due to lichen intoxication in Wyoming.

J Wildl Dis 2007 Jul;43(3):498-503

Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming 82070, USA.

During February-April 2004, an estimated 400-500 free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) developed paresis, became recumbent, and died or were euthanized in the Red Rim Wildlife Habitat Management Area (RRWHMA), Wyoming, USA. Elk were found in sternal recumbency, alert and responsive, but unable to rise. Their condition progressed to lateral recumbency followed by dehydration, obtundation, and death. Gross lesions were limited to degenerative myopathy, with pallor and streaking in skeletal muscles. Microscopically, affected muscles had degenerative lesions of varying duration, severity, and distribution, some with early mineralization and attempts at regeneration. Diagnostic testing ruled out common infectious, inflammatory, toxic, and traumatic causes. Tumbleweed shield lichen (Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa) was found in the area and in the rumen of several elk. This lichen was collected and fed to three captive elk. Two of these elk exhibited signs of ataxia, which rapidly progressed to weakness and recumbency after 7 and 10 days on this diet, respectively, and a degenerative myopathy, consistent with lesions observed in the elk affected at RRWHMA, was observed. All remaining elk migrated from the RRWHMA during the spring and no subsequent losses have been documented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-43.3.498DOI Listing
July 2007

Brucellosis in captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4.

J Wildl Dis 2004 Apr;40(2):311-5

Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Wheatland, Wyoming 82201, USA.

Nine (four female, five male) captive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fetus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. Brucella abortus biovar 4 was cultured in all bighorn sheep from a variety of tissues, including testes/epididymides, mammary gland, and lymph nodes. All bighorn sheep tested were positive on a variety of standard Brucella serologic tests. This is the first report of brucellosis caused by B. abortus in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. It also provides evidence that bighorn sheep develop many of the manifestations ascribed to this disease and that infection can occur from natural exposure to an aborted fetus from another species. Wildlife managers responsible for bighorn sheep populations sympatric with Brucella-infected elk or bison (Bison bison) should be cognizant of the possibility of this disease in bighorn sheep.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-40.2.311DOI Listing
April 2004

Validation of a Brucella abortus competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for use in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

J Wildl Dis 2003 Apr;39(2):316-22

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071, USA.

Brucellosis caused by infection with Brucella abortus is present in some elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) of the Greater Yellowstone Area (parts of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, USA). Since 1985, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department has vaccinated elk on elk feedgrounds in northwestern Wyoming during the winter months using B. abortus strain 19 (strain 19). Analysis of this vaccination program is hampered by the inability of standard serologic tests to differentiate between strain 19 vaccinated elk and those exposed to field strain B. abortus. In 1993, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was licensed to serologically differentiate between strain 19 vaccinated cattle and cattle exposed to field strain B. abortus. Seven groups of elk sera representing various B. abortus exposure histories were used to validate the cELISA test for elk. The cELISA test differentiated strain 19 vaccinated elk from elk that were challenged with B. abortus strain 2308, a pathogenic laboratory strain. The specificity of the cELISA was 96.8% for elk vaccinated with strain 19 only and sampled between 6 mo and 2 yr post vaccination, or with no B. abortus exposure. The sensitivity of the cELISA was 100%. The cELISA test will be useful in evaluating sera collected from elk in vaccinated, brucellosis endemic herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-39.2.316DOI Listing
April 2003

Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in non-target ungulates and coyotes.

J Wildl Dis 2002 Jul;38(3):552-7

Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 2362 Highway 34, Wheatland, Wyoming 82201, USA.

Brucellosis is endemic in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA; USA). It is possible that an oral brucellosis vaccine could be developed and disseminated in the GYA to reduce disease transmission. Should this occur, non-target species other than elk and bison may come in contact with the vaccine resulting in morbidity or mortality. To assess biosafety, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; n = 10), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana; n = 9), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus; n = 11), moose (Alces alces shirasi; n = 10), and coyotes (Canis latrans; n = 24) were given a single oral dose of at least 1.0 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine (RB51). Animals were randomly divided into vaccinated and control groups. Ungulates were captured, blood sampled, and swabs taken from the nares, rectum, and vagina for bacterial culture on day 0, 42, and 84 post-inoculation (PI). On day 42, the vaccinated group became a control group and vice versa in a crossover design. Blood and swab samples were taken from coyotes on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 PI. There was no crossover for the coyote study. Two coyotes from each group were also euthanized and cultured for RB51 on days 42, 84, 168, and 336 PI. Blood samples were analyzed for hematologic changes and antibodies to RB51 using a modified dot-blot assay. No morbidity or mortality as a result of vaccination was observed in any animal. There were no differences in hematologic parameters at any time for ungulate species; vaccinated coyotes had higher hematocrit, hemoglobin, and eosinophil counts (P < or = 0.006). All individuals, except some moose, seroconverted to RB51. Strain RB51 was cultured from oropharyngeal lymph nodes from one coyote 42 days PI and from a moose 117 days PI. This study suggested that a single oral dose of RB51 was safe in these species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-38.3.552DOI Listing
July 2002

Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination in elk. II. Failure of high dosage to prevent abortion.

J Wildl Dis 2002 Jan;38(1):27-31

Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 2362 Highway 34, Wheatland, Wyoming 82201, USA.

Brucella abortus strain RB51 is used as a vaccine because it induces antibodies that do not react on standard serologic tests for brucellosis allowing differentiation between vaccination and infection. Strain RB51 was evaluated in captive elk (Cervus elaphus) to determine if vaccination protected against abortion following experimental challenge. Thirty elk were vaccinated intramuscularly with 1.0 x 10(10) colony-forming units (CFU) of strain RB51 in March 1998. Fourteen of these were given a booster dose of 1.13 x 10(10) CFU exactly 1 yr later. All vaccinated elk seroconverted via a modified dot blot assay to strain RB51 with the booster group having higher titers (P < or = 0.001). Seventeen other elk served as unvaccinated controls. All elk were bred and determined pregnant using pregnancy-specific protein B analysis. Elk were challenged in March 2000 with 1.1 x 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 administered intraconjunctivally and all elk seroconverted to strain 2308. Fifteen of 17 control elk aborted; 16 of 16 elk given a single vaccination aborted (P = 0.44); and 13 of 14 elk given a booster aborted (P = 0.86). There were two viable calves in the control group and one in the booster group. Strain 2308 was recovered from fetuses and nonviable calves in all groups. Based on the results of this and other studies, the use of strain RB51 to prevent abortion in elk cannot be recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-38.1.27DOI Listing
January 2002

Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination in elk. I. Efficacy of reduced dosage.

J Wildl Dis 2002 Jan;38(1):18-26

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming 82070, USA.

Bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. The fear that elk and/or bison may spread Brucella abortus to livestock has prompted efforts to reduce or eliminate the disease in wildlife. Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine has recently been approved for use in cattle. Unlike strain 19 vaccine, RB51 does not cause false positive reactions on standard brucellosis serologic tests. If effective, it may become the vaccine of choice for wildlife. In February 1995, 45 serologically negative female elk calves were trapped and taken to the Sybille Wildlife Research and Conservation Education Unit near Wheatland, Wyoming, USA. In May 1995, 16 of these elk calves were hand-vaccinated with 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) of RB51, 16 were vaccinated with 1 x 10(8) CFU RB51 by biobullet, and 13 were given a saline placebo. The elk were bred in fall of 1996 and they were challenged with 1 x 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 by intraconjunctival inoculation in March 1997. Thirteen (100%) control elk aborted, 14 (88%) hand-vaccinated elk aborted, and 12 (75%) biobullet vaccinated elk aborted or produced nonviable calves. These results suggest that a single dose of 1 x 10(8) to 1 x 10(9) CFU RB51 does not provide significant protection against B. abortus induced abortion in elk. However, the vaccine appears to be safe at this dose and additional study may reveal a more effective RB51 vaccine regimen for elk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-38.1.18DOI Listing
January 2002