Publications by authors named "Wallace Chamon"

38 Publications

Comparability of corneal thickness and opacity depth assessed by OCT and UBM.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo-Paulista School of Medicine - UNIFESP-EPM, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To compare the measurement of central thickness and depth of involvement of opacity-bearing corneas at different intensities (mild, moderate, and dense) using different instruments: Visante and Optovue OCTs, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and ultrasound pachymetry (central thickness).

Methods: Sample of 102 eyes: 70 eyes (68.63 %) with corneal opacity; 32 eyes (31.37%) with normal corneas. Corneal opacity grading included mild (28 eyes, 40.00 %), moderate (27 eyes, 37.57 %), and dense (15 eyes, 21.43 %). Opacity intensity was graded and documented. Central corneal thickness was determined using Optovue and Visante OCTs, ultrasound pachymetry, and UBM VuMax (50 MHz), and depth of corneal opacity, using Optovue and Visante OCTs and UBM.

Results: Total corneal thickness of the control group showed differences with a small correction factor using Optovue OCT (534.03 ± 39.88 μm), Visante OCT (523.72±38.70 μm), and ultrasound pachymetry (529.84 ± 39.76 μm), and were higher when compared to UBM (492.06 ± 37.93 μm). In mild opacity, depth measurements were the same with OCT Optovue and Visante and higher than those by UBM. In moderate opacities, there were no differences in measurements by different instruments. In dense opacities, OCT Optovue and Visante measurements were the same and higher than those by UBM.

Conclusions: Central corneal thickness measurements were considered higher in corneas with opacity than in normal corneas. We observed that the greatest thicknesses were measured in corneas with dense opacities. There was a difference between the measurements taken by different instruments, both in central thickness and in opacity depth in cases of mild and dense opacity, and no difference in moderate opacity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05161-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Corneal suture for acute corneal hydrops secondary to post-LASIK ectasia: a case report.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2020 Nov-Dec;83(6):538-542

Department of Ophthalmology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Corneal ectasia is one of the main complications of keratorefractive procedures. In this report, we describe a case of corneal ectasia after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), which progressed with acute hydrops and aqueous leakage and required a suture for correction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20200098DOI Listing
February 2021

Use of virtual reality equipment to assess the manual dexterity of applicants for ophthalmology residency.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2020 08 29;83(4):294-298. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To assess the microsurgery dexterity outcomes of two sequential training evaluations using virtual reality technology.

Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study of all candidates who were accepted as first-year residents at one of six ophthalmology teaching institutions. Residents were subjected to two identical series of standardized, reproducible dexterity tests using virtual reality equipment (Eyesi®): "sequence 1" and "sequence 2." Each sequence consisted of five difficulty levels that were assessed using a proprietary scoring system. The data were tested for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The differences between tests in sequences 1 and 2 were evaluated using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results: The data did not follow a normal distribution. There were improvements from sequence 1 in all the tests (all p values<0.05). The sum of all scores (total score) improved from sequence 1 (median= 152.50) to sequence 2 (median 256.00; p<0.001). There was no correlation between the delta sequence values and the average scores.

Conclusion: Two sequential training evaluations using virtual reality technology showed relevant improvement in quantifications of microsurgery dexterity. This information should be considered if virtual reality approaches are used for testing purposes, as previous experience may lead to improved test results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20200050DOI Listing
August 2020

Nasal Polyposis: More than a Chronic Inflammatory Disorder-A Disease of Mechanical Dysfunction-The São Paulo Position.

Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Apr 1;23(2):241-249. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Unifesp, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

 The importance of our study lies in the fact that we have demonstrated the occurrence of mechanical dysfunction within polypoid tissues, which promotes the development of polyps in the nasal cavity.  To change the paradigm of nasal polyposis (NP). In this new conception, the chronic nasal inflammatory process that occurs in response to allergies, to pollution, to changes in the epithelial barrier, or to other factors is merely the trigger of the development of the disease in individuals with a genetic predisposition to an abnormal tissue remodeling process, which leads to a derangement of the mechanical properties of the nasal mucosa and, consequently, allows it to grow unchecked.  We propose a fundamentally new approach to intervening in the pathological process of NP, addressing biomechanical properties, fluid dynamics, and the concept of surface tension.  The incorporation of biomechanical knowledge into our understanding of NP provides a new perspective to help elucidate the physiology and the pathology of nasal polyps, and new avenues for the treatment and cure of NP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1676659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449132PMC
April 2019

Validation of the Percent Tissue Altered as a Risk Factor for Ectasia after LASIK.

Ophthalmology 2019 06 25;126(6):908-909. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.01.018DOI Listing
June 2019

On the shoulders of giants.

Authors:
Wallace Chamon

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2018 Nov-Dec;81(6):V-VII

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20180103DOI Listing
May 2019

Consultation Section: Refractive. June consultation #2.

Authors:
Wallace Chamon

J Cataract Refract Surg 2017 06;43(6):854

São Paulo, Brazil.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2017.06.011DOI Listing
June 2017

Complete depigmentation of a small aperture corneal inlay implanted for compensation of presbyopia.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Jan-Feb;80(1):52-56

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

We describe a case of late-onset remarkable depigmentation of a small aperture corneal inlay implanted for presbyopia compensation. The patient was a participant in a clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the AcuFocusTM ACU-10R160, which is a 10 µm-thick polyimide film tinted with an organic dye. Inlay implantation occurred under mechanical microkeratome Lasik flaps set for a depth of 120 µm. The patient returned to the clinic 11 years after surgery and reported loss of near-vision acuity. Clinical examination showed the complete absence of pigments in the device and the total loss of the initial effect on near vision, despite normal distance vision. Manifest refraction remained stable during the follow-up period. Scheimpflug images characterized the loss of the small aperture effect on incoming light. Confocal analysis revealed small hyper-reflective round images on the endothelium and no signs of inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20170014DOI Listing
October 2017

Lens: Management of Cataract Surgery, Cataract Prevention, and Floppy Iris Syndrome.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2017;242:163-178

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

According to the World Health Organization, cataract is the major cause of reversible visual impairment in the world. It is present as the cause of decreased visual acuity in 33% of the visual impaired citizens. With the increase of life expectancy in the last decades, the number of patients with cataract is expected to grow for the next 20 years. Nowadays, the only effective treatment for cataracts is surgery and its surgical outcomes have been increasingly satisfactory with the technological advancement.Pharmaceutical development has been also responsible for surgical outcomes enhancement. This includes the development of new ophthalmic viscoelastic devices (OVDs), intraocular dyes, mydriatics, miotics, anesthetics, irrigating solutions, and antibiotics. However, the increased costs and demand for cataract surgery may be hard to meet in the future unless clinical preventive and curative options are evaluated.In this chapter, we review the studies that addressed pharmacological applications in cataract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2016_90DOI Listing
April 2019

Crosslinking enters public health armamentarium in Brazil.

Authors:
Wallace Chamon

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2016 Sep-Oct;79(5):V-VI

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20160082DOI Listing
July 2017

What is plagiarism after all?

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2016 Apr;79(2):V-VI

Hospital de Olhos de Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20160021DOI Listing
April 2016

Cyclotorsional and non-cyclotorsional components of eye rotation observed from sitting to supine position.

Br J Ophthalmol 2015 Jan 12;99(1):49-53. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago-UIC, USA Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo-UNIFESP, Brazil.

Purpose: Evaluate average cyclotorsional and non-cyclotorsional components (NCY) of eye rotation from sitting to supine, and associate average cyclotorsion to different variables.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent bilateral sequential laser refractive surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Recorded variables included the patient's age, refraction, automated keratometry, pupil displacement and eye rotation from sitting to supine position. Measured iris rotation (total rotation, TR) was decomposed into two components: NCY, defined as the common rotation component of each eye of the same patient, and cyclotorsional component (CY), defined as the assumed independent eye rotation for each eye in relation to the face, so that TR=NCY+CY. Cyclotorsion ratio (CR) was calculated as CR=|CY|/|TR|, and used to correlate CY with TR for each eye.

Results: Data from 310 eyes of 155 patients were evaluated. TR was +1.43° ±3.41° (-8.30° to +9.20°). Average CYs and NCYs per patient were +1.43°±2.04° (-3.15± to +7.40°) and -0.28°±2.72° (-6.85° to +7.15°), respectively. TR demonstrated that 40.6% and 8.4% of patients presented bilateral excyclotorsion and incyclotorsion, respectively. When excluding NCYs, average CYs demonstrated that 74.2% of patients presented excyclotorsion and 23.9% presented incyclotorsion. CR demonstrated that TR represented from 75% to 125% of average CY in 19.68% of the eyes. TR overestimated and underestimated average CYs above these limits in 52.26% and 28.06% of the eyes, respectively. There was no statistical association between average CYs and the different variables.

Discussion: This study demonstrates that most of the rotations previously attributed to torsional components were probably due to NCYs, such as postural misalignments. Apparently, the amplitude of cyclotorsional movements is smaller than observed in previous reports, and could not be associated with any studied variable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-304975DOI Listing
January 2015

The challenge for "multilingual" scientists in Brazil.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2014 ;69(5):306-7

Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012241PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2014(05)01DOI Listing
December 2014

Plagiarism and misconduct in research: where we are and what we can do.

Authors:
Wallace Chamon

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2013 Nov-Dec;76(6):V-VIII

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492013000600001DOI Listing
September 2014

Assessment of pupillary influence in LASIK patients using a digital pupillometer and VQF 25 questionnaire.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2013 Oct;76(5):296-300

Purpose: Identify ideal profiles in patients undergoing to photorefractive laser surgery with the aid of an automated pupillometry and psychometric analysis of patients with visual function questionnaire (VQF 25).

Methods: Seventy-seven patients undergoing photorefractive laser surgery laser (LASIK) were analyzed with the aid of an automated digital pupillometer based on an infrared camera coupled to the optical head of a videokeratography system. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation and documentation of the pupillary behavior under different intensities of illumination, simulating situations of everyday life. Visual quality function questionnaire, translated to Portuguese was assessed.

Results: All patients, regardless of pupillary change under varying conditions of illumination (scotopic, mesopic and photopic) showed improvement in all sub-groups of the VQF 25. Pupil diameter was not the primary determinant of patients' visual satisfaction.

Conclusion: Despite digital pupillometer has proven to be a useful tool in documenting and understanding of pupil behavior, a set of factors such as psycho-social profile, preoperative ametropy and final residual ametropy, contributed decisively to determine the degree of satisfaction of patients undergoing LASIK.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492013000500009DOI Listing
October 2013

CD11b+GR1+ myeloid cells secrete NGF and promote trigeminal ganglion neurite growth: implications for corneal nerve regeneration.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 Sep 3;54(9):5920-36. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Corneal Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose: We characterized fluorescent bone marrow cells (YFP(+) BMCs) in the thy1-YFP mouse and determine if they promote trigeminal ganglion (TG) cell neurite growth.

Methods: Excimer laser annular keratectomy was performed in thy1-YFP mice, and corneas were imaged. BMCs were harvested from femur and tibia, and the expression of surface markers on YFP(+) BMCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. The immunosuppressive action of BMCs (YFP(+) and YFP(-)) was evaluated in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Neurotrophic action of BMCs (YFP(+) and YFP(-)) was determined in compartmental and transwell cultures of dissociated TG cells.

Results: Following annular keratectomy, YFP(+) BMCs infiltrated the cornea. YFP(+) BMCs shared surface markers (CD11b+Gr1+Ly6C+Ly6G-F4/80(low)) with monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), had similar morphology, and suppressed T-cell proliferation in allogenic MLR in a dose-dependent manner. YFP(+) BMCs, but not YFP(-) BMCs, significantly increased growth of TG neurites in vitro. When cultured in a transwell with TG neurites, YFP(+) BMCs expressed neurotrophins and secreted nerve growth factor (NGF) in conditioned medium. YFP(+) BMCs that infiltrated the cornea maintained their phenotype and actions (neuronal and immune).

Conclusions: YFP(+) BMCs in thy1-YFP mice have immunophenotypic features of MDSCs. They secrete NGF and promote neuroregeneration. Their immunosuppressive and neurotrophic actions are preserved after corneal infiltration. These findings increase our understanding of the beneficial roles played by leukocyte trafficking in the cornea and may lead to therapeutic strategies that use NGF-secreting myeloid cells to repair diseased or injured neurons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-12237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762328PMC
September 2013

Fine prints at the bottom of the page.

Authors:
Wallace Chamon

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2013 May-Jun;76(3):v-vi

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492013000300001DOI Listing
March 2014

The language issue in Brazilian ophthalmological journals.

Authors:
Wallace Chamon

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2013 Jan-Feb;76(1):V-VIII

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492013000100001DOI Listing
December 2013

Corneal absorption of a new riboflavin-nanostructured system for transepithelial collagen cross-linking.

PLoS One 2013 13;8(6):e66408. Epub 2013 Jun 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo - UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) has been described as a promising therapy for keratoconus. According to standard CXL protocol, epithelium should be debrided before treatment to allow penetration of riboflavin into the corneal stroma. However, removal of the epithelium can increase procedure risks. In this study we aim to evaluate stromal penetration of a biocompatible riboflavin-based nanoemulsion system (riboflavin-5-phosphate and riboflavin-base) in rabbit corneas with intact epithelium. Two riboflavin nanoemulsions were developed. Transmittance and absorption coefficient were measured on corneas with intact epithelia after 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes following exposure to either the nanoemulsions or standard 0.1% or 1% riboflavin-dextran solutions. For the nanoemulsions, the epithelium was removed after measurements to assure that the riboflavin had passed through the hydrophobic epithelium and retained within the stroma. Results were compared to de-epithelialized corneas exposed to 0.1% riboflavin solution and to the same riboflavin nanoemulsions for 30 minutes (standard protocol). Mean transmittance and absorption measured in epithelialized corneas receiving the standard 0.1% riboflavin solution did not reach the levels found on the debrided corneas using the standard technique. Neither increasing the time of exposure nor the concentration of the riboflavin solution from 0.1% to 1% improved riboflavin penetration through the epithelium. When using riboflavin-5-phosphate nanoemulsion for 240 minutes, we found no difference between the mean absorption coefficients to the standard cross-linking protocol (p = 0.54). Riboflavin nanoemulsion was able to penetrate the corneal epithelium, achieving, after 240 minutes, greater stromal concentration when compared to debrided corneas with the standard protocol (p = 0.002). The riboflavin-5-phosphate nanoemulsion diffused better into the stroma than the riboflavin-base nanoemulsion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066408PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3681906PMC
January 2014

ABO entered ScholarOne system.

Authors:
Wallace Chamon

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2012 Jul-Aug;75(4):231-4

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492012000400001DOI Listing
September 2013

Teaching ophthalmology to the medical student: a novel approach.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2012 Jan-Feb;75(1):5-7

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2012

Effect of corneal epithelium on ultraviolet-A and riboflavin absorption.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2011 Sep-Oct;74(5):348-51

Department of Ophthalmology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: To determine if the corneal epithelium prevents the collagen cross-linking effect. Using immunofluorescence microscopy after CXL, we indirectly analyzed the role of the epithelium as ultraviolet-A (UVA) shield as well as a barrier to riboflavin penetration.

Methods: Fifteen freshly enucleated porcine eyes were divided into 3 groups. The corneal epithelium was kept intact in all groups. Five eyes served as control (Group 1). On group 2, eyes received tetracaine anesthetic drops and topical 0.1% riboflavin solution (10 mg riboflavin-5-phosphate in 10 mL 20% dextran-T-500). On Group 3, riboflavin was injected into the anterior chamber to allow penetration of the drug through the endothelium. Groups 2 and 3 were exposed to UVA (365 nm, 3 mW/cm(2)) for 30 minutes. Ultra-thin sections (8 µm) of the corneas were stained with anti-collagen type I and DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-fenilindole dihydrocloride) and analyzed with fluorescence microscopy.

Results: Corneas treated with UVA irradiation and intracameral injection of riboflavin (Group 3) showed greater pattern of collagen organization compared to groups 1 (Control) and 2 (riboflavin and tetracaine eye drops). A yellow stromal staining, which represents the riboflavin diffusion into the stroma, was only observed in eyes injected with riboflavin into the anterior chamber.

Conclusion: Using immunofluorescence microscopy in porcine corneas, we demonstrated that the corneal epithelium reduces the effectiveness of CXL by preventing the penetration of the drug and not by limiting the UVA transmittance. An inadequate intrastromal concentration of riboflavin may impair CXL effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492011000500008DOI Listing
September 2012

Impact factor and insertion of the ABO in the world scientific literature.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2011 Jul-Aug;74(4):241-2

Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492011000400001DOI Listing
June 2012

[Vision measurement in candelas: description of a psychophysical technique to quantify luminous intensity].

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2011 Mar-Apr;74(2):91-6

Departamento de Oftalmologia, Universidade Federal do Estado de São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Purpose: To develop a method and a device for vision measurement in candela (cd). Vision measurement studies are important to all visual sciences.

Methods: It is a theoretical and experimental study. The details of psychophysical method and device calibration were described. Preliminary tests were performed on volunteers.

Results: It is a simple psychophysical test and results are expressed in International System of Units. With this technical description it will be possible to reproduce the experiment in others research centers.

Conclusion: The results measured in luminous intensity (cd) are an option for visual studies. These results allow to extrapolate measurements for mathematical models and to simulate data for individual aberrometry effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492011000200004DOI Listing
January 2012

Keratoconus prediction using a finite element model of the cornea with local biomechanical properties.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2009 Mar-Apr;72(2):139-45

Departamento de Oftalmologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Purpose: The ability to predict and understand which biomechanical properties of the cornea are responsible for the stability or progression of keratoconus may be an important clinical and surgical tool for the eye-care professional. We have developed a finite element model of the cornea, that tries to predict keratoconus-like behavior and its evolution based on material properties of the corneal tissue.

Methods: Corneal material properties were modeled using bibliographic data and corneal topography was based on literature values from a schematic eye model. Commercial software was used to simulate mechanical and surface properties when the cornea was subject to different local parameters, such as elasticity.

Results: The simulation has shown that, depending on the corneal initial surface shape, changes in local material properties and also different intraocular pressures values induce a localized protuberance and increase in curvature when compared to the remaining portion of the cornea.

Conclusions: This technique provides a quantitative and accurate approach to the problem of understanding the biomechanical nature of keratoconus. The implemented model has shown that changes in local material properties of the cornea and intraocular pressure are intrinsically related to keratoconus pathology and its shape/curvature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-27492009000200002DOI Listing
November 2009