Publications by authors named "Waleed Mahallawi"

17 Publications

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cell culture model of human nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) to evaluate the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Aug 24;28(8):4516-4521. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Otorhinolaryngology, Head& Neck Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

To date, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to be considered a pandemic worldwide, with a mild to severe disease presentation that is sometimes associated with serious complications that are concerning to global health authorities. Scientists are working hard to understand the pathogenicity of this novel virus, and a great deal of attention and effort has been focused on identifying therapeutics and vaccines to control this pandemic.

Methods: This study used tonsils removed from twelve patients who underwent an elective tonsillectomy in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) department at Saudi Germany Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Tonsillar mononuclear cells (MNCs) were separated and co-cultured in RPMI complete medium in the presence and absence of viral spike (S) proteins (the full-length S, S1 subunit, and S2 subunit proteins). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure secreted antibody concentrations following stimulation.

Results: The human nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) cell culture model was successfully used to evaluate the humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2- S protein. Significant (p < 0.0001, n = 12) levels of specific, anti-S IgG, IgM, and IgA antibody responses were detected in cells culture supernatanat folloeing stimulation with the full-length S protein compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, S1 and S2 subunit proteins alone failed to induce a mucosal humoral immune response following tonsillar MNC stimulation.

Conclusion: We demonstrated a successful human NALT cell culture model that was used to study the mucosal humoral immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. This model could be advantageous for the in-depth study of cellular immune responses to the S protein and other viral antigens, such as nucleocapsid and matrix antigen. The S protein appears to be the important viral protein that may be able to mimic the natural infection process intranasally and should be studied as a component of a candidate vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064899PMC
August 2021

Humoral immune responses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jul 20;28(7):4055-4061. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Medical Laboratory Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi ArabiaMedical Laboratory Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah 41541, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The emerging coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a worldwide public health crisis. Antibody analysis is an important procedure for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. We investigated the IgG, IgM, and IgA responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Materials And Methods: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 178) in the Al Madinah region, Saudi Arabia, participated in this study. Of the 178 patients, 72 (40%) were categorized as severe, including 50 (69%) males and 22 (31%) females. The remaining106 (60%) patients were categorized as non-severe, including 85 (80%) males and 21 (20%) females. Qualitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was used to confirm the diagnosis of each patient. The specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies in patients' sera were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared between case presentations.

Results: The current study showed that all severe hospitalized patients presented significantly (p < 0.0001) increased anti-S IgG and IgM antibody accumulation compared with non-severe patients. Additionally, the results also showed that 50% of severe males were positive to anti-S IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies, whereas only 40% positivity for all three-antibody isotypes was observed in severe females. The study also showed that 86% of males and 81% of females categorized as severe were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies but negative for the IgA antibody against the S protein.

Conclusion: The humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 proteins commonly results in the production of antibodies against viral proteins. Specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein IgG class antibodies were detected at significantly higher levels than IgM class antibodies, and both IgG and IgM antibodies were detected at significantly higher levels than the IgA antibody among all patients. The variations of the humoral immune responses among hospitalized patients reflect the association between disease presentations and immunity against the virus. Collectively, these findings afford new insights into the different antibody isotypes in responses to COVID-19 hospitalized patients with dissimilar disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072517PMC
July 2021

Prolonged humoral and cellular immunity in COVID-19-recovered patients.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jul 12;28(7):4010-4015. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Medical Laboratory Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

By the beginning of 2021, the battle against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains ongoing. Investigating the adaptive immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, in patients who have recovered from this disease could contribute to our understanding of the natural host immune response. We enrolled 38 participants in this study. 7 healthy participants and 31 COVID-19 patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and categorized them into 3 groups according to their previous clinical presentations: 10 moderate, 9 mild, and 12 asymptomatic. Flow cytometry analysis of peripheral lymphocyte counts in recovered patients showed significantly increased levels of CD4 T cells in patients with a history of mild and moderate COVID-19 symptoms compared with those healthy individuals (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001 respectively). whereas no significant difference was observed in the CD8 T cell percentage in COVID-19-recovered patients compared with healthy individuals. Our study demonstrated that antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S) IgG antibody production could be observed in all recovered COVID-19 patients, regardless of whether they were asymptomatic (p < 0.05)or presented with mild (p < 0.0001) or moderate symptoms (p < 0.01). Anti-S IgG antibodies could be detected in participants up to 90 days post-infection. In conclusion, the lymphocyte levels in recovered patients were associated with the clinical presentation of the disease, and further analysis is required to investigate relationships between different clinical presentations and lymphocyte activation and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040318PMC
July 2021

Durability of the humoral immune response in recovered COVID-19 patients.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 May 16;28(5):2802-2806. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Ziab Alahmadey, Ministry of Health, Ohud Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The immunological factors involved in protection against the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 are insufficiently defined and understood. However, previous knowledge pertaining to the related SARS virus and other human coronaviruses may prove useful. Population-based serosurveys measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may provide a pattern for estimating infection degrees and observing the development of the epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the persistence of antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 in recovered patients in Al Madinah region of Saudi Arabia.

Materials And Methods: A total of 150 recovered COVID-19 patients participated in this study. All the patients tested positive for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using qualitative RT-PCR. An ELISA was used to measure anti-Spike (S) IgG antibodies in serum samples and screen for their persistence at various time points post-infection.

Results: The patients were categorized as asymptomatic (27.3%), mild (28%) and moderate (44.7%) according to the disease severity. Amongst them, 35.3% were females (n = 53) and 64.7% were males (n = 97). Significant anti-S IgG antibody levels were observed among the different groups, with the patients in moderate group exhibiting the highest levels followed by the mild group; while the lowest levels were detected among the asymptomatic. There was a significant positive correlation between the patients' age and anti-S IgG antibody concentrations (Pearson r = 0.45; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Our findings provide a solid evidence to support the use of an anti-S IgG ELISA as a diagnostic tool to indicate SARS-CoV-2 infection. IgG seropositivity was sustained in recovered patients up to a hundred days' post-infection, the latest time point for antibody measurement in our study. Ours is the first report in Saudi Arabia to investigate the durability of humoral immune response in recovered COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884256PMC
May 2021

Association of Viral Load in SARS-CoV-2 Patients With Age and Gender.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 27;8:608215. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health emergency. Age and sex are two important factors associated with risks and outcomes of various diseases. COVID-19 morbidity also seems to be affected by patient age and sex. It has been found that older age groups have more severe COVID-19 symptoms and higher fatality rates while children tend to have lower prevalence and milder symptoms than adults. The study reviewed electronic medical records of COVID-19 patients from Madinah city, Saudi Arabia. The study included all cases who tested positive ( = 3,006) between March 20 and May 22, 2020. Data were obtained from the Health Electronic Surveillance Network (HESN) database. Approximately 80% of the study sample were males and half were in the 30-40-year-old age group. The Ct value of the whole sample ranged from 15.08 to 35, with a mean of 27.44 (SD: 5.23; 95% C.I. = 27.25-27.66). The means of Ct values varied between age groups from 27.05 to 27.82. Analysis of the mean differences between age groups using one-way ANOVA indicated no statistically significant difference among the groups (F = 1.63; -value = 0.135). A comparison of mean Ct values of males ( = 2,422) and females ( = 584) revealed that males had a statistically significant higher mean Ct value (27.61 ± 5.20) than females (26.72 ± 5.31). The difference between the means of the two groups was -0.89 (95% C.I. = -1.36 to -0.42; -test -3.71; df = 3,004; -value < 0.001). The study found no statistically significant difference in viral loads between age groups. It showed that females had a higher SARS-CoV-2 viral load compared to males. The findings have implications for preventive strategies. Further studies are needed to correlate viral load with clinical symptoms and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.608215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873591PMC
January 2021

Seroprevalence against the measles virus after vaccination or natural infection in an adult population in Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Feb 11:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

: Over the past few years, measles cases have increased worldwide, despite the availability of a safe and highly effective vaccine. Numerous countries have eliminated measles or have made substantial advancements toward elimination.: This study investigated the seroprevalence of anti-measles antibodies and vaccination status among 362 men and 81 women in Madinah. All participants were vaccinated or acquired immunity naturally due to infection. We aimed to examine the persistence of anti-measles IgG antibodies, which were qualitatively and quantitatively determined using ELISA.: We showed that measles seropositivity (92%, n = 408) was significantly more frequent than negative (5.4%, n = 14) and equivocal results (2.5%, n = 11). Among men, 92.8% were seropositive for the anti-measles IgG antibody, whereas 88.9% of women were seropositive. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between age and measles seropositivity, with a significant positive correlation between age and anti-measles antibody concentration as assessed by Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.405, < .001).: Based on these results, observing the serological status of the population 20-38 y after vaccination may be necessary to minimize the proportion of individuals who may be vulnerable to contracting measles. Despite the efficacy of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and the positive global impact associated with the use of this vaccine, including a general decline in measles cases, attention must still be paid to the issue of measles risk, and seronegative individuals should be identified and advised to receive a booster dose of the vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1876486DOI Listing
February 2021

The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies among asymptomatic blood donors in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 11;28(3):1697-1701. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: In late 2019, cases of severe pneumonia with unidentified etiology began to emerge in Wuhan, China, before progressively spreading first nationally and then globally.The current study sought to investigate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among blood donors in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Saudi Arabia to screen blood donors who were not known to be previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study to assess individuals who donated blood to the central blood bank in Al-Madinah between mid-May and mid-July 2020. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed and established to detect antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in serum samples. A total of 1,212 healthy blood donors participated in this study. The donors were males and met the requirements for blood donation during the COVID-19 pandemic period in Saudi Arabia.

Results: The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among blood donors in Al-Madinah was 19.31% (n = 234/1212; 95% confidence interval: 17.12%-21.64%). No statistically significant difference was identified in seropositivity according to age. However, significant differences (p < 0.001) were identified according to ABO blood groups, with those with type A blood presenting the highest rate of seropositivity (29.18%) compared with the other blood groups (12.65% for type B, 16.36% for type AB, and 15.11% for type O).

Conclusion: A high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was detected among blood donors in Al-Madinah, which indicated a high level of exposure to the virus within the population. This further suggested that as high as one-fifth of the population may have acquired innate immunity against the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834401PMC
March 2021

A serological assay to detect human SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2021 Feb 31;16(1):57-62. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Medical Laboratory Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, KSA.

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can lead to severe respiratory illness. Patients with underlying comorbidities have a high risk of contracting COVID-19. Therefore, serological assays are urgently needed to diagnose asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV-2, to estimate the prevalence of infection, and for disease prevention and control. This study aimed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in humans.

Methods: An ELISA test was designed and established to detect antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in serum samples from 41 quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) - positive hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Forty-two convalescent patients' sera served as positive controls, while 117 pre-pandemic serum samples were used as negative controls.

Results: A comparison between different SARS-CoV-2 proteins was performed, which included the full-length spike (S) protein and the S1 and S2 subunits. The full-length S protein showed the strongest reactivity for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in patients' serum samples. Additionally, since antibodies could be detected at very low concentrations, the assay was found to be sensitive.

Conclusion: The current assay was specific, since cross-reactions with other SARS coronaviruses and respiratory viruses such as influenza were not found. Additionally, it was highly sensitive, since the test was able to identify antibodies even at very low concentrations. Therefore, this assay has promise as a screening method at the population level and may be used for in future seroepidemiological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2020.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775033PMC
February 2021

Natural immunity to influenza A and B among Saudi blood donors in Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Med J 2020 Dec;41(12):1301-1307

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.

Objectives:  To investigate the seroprevalence of influenza viruses (A and B) among blood donors in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The present investigation was conducted between April 2019 and July 2019. Participants were healthy adults recruited from the central blood bank Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against influenza A and B were measured in serum samples using ELISA.

Results: The results showed that 29.2% of the sample had significant concentrations of influenza A IgG antibody, whereas 38.6% had significant concentrations of influenza B IgG antibody. A strong correlation was found between the levels of influenza A and influenza B antibodies (r=0.708, p less than 0.001). The number of individuals identified as negative for influenza A IgG antibody increased with age (p less than 0.01). In addition, no correlations were identified between influenza A IgG and influenza B IgG and body mass index (BMI), (p greater than 0.05). Finally, linear regression analysis showed that the level of influenza A antibody can be predicted by age (p less than 0.05) and body mass index (BMI) (p less than 0.05).

Conclusion:  Approximately one-third of Saudi Arabian adults presented significant levels of influenza A and B antibodies in our study. Demographic factors, including age and BMI, might contribute to influenza A antibody levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2020.12.05582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841591PMC
December 2020

Case Report: A Recovered SARS CoV-2 Patient Protected From Reinfection.

Authors:
Waleed Mahallawi

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 25;7:564264. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Medical Laboratory Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS CoV-2 is a worldwide emergency, and is taking a substantial toll on human health, lives, and the global economy. Due to the novelty of this virus, no SARS CoV-2-specific treatments or licensed vaccines are available though few vaccines are undergoing clinical trials. Therefore, continued research into an effective vaccine is an urgent necessity. The reinfection of recovered patients is one of the major concerns of healthcare providers worldwide. Health authorities are currently seeking evidence of protection from reinfection in recovered individuals. This is the first case report in Saudi Arabia on a patient who was diagnosed as COVID-19-positive; recovered; and after successful recovery was protected against reinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.564264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544991PMC
September 2020

Persistence of hepatitis B surface antibody and immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine among medical college students in Madinah.

Authors:
Waleed Mahallawi

Ann Saudi Med 2018 Nov-Dec;38(6):413-419

Dr. Waleed Mahallawi, Clinical Laboratory Sciences,, Taibah University,, Prince Naif St. Madinah 42362,, Saudi Arabia, T: +966-14-8618888 ext: 3666, ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001.6977-9006.

Background: Globally, about 300 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among the effective approaches to fight HBV infection is immunization. In 1989, an obligatory hepatitis B vaccine program was launched in Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Assess hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels among the medical students before and after receiving booster doses of HBV vaccine.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Taibah University.

Subjects And Methods: Students born between 1993 and 1995 were recruited in this study from the Occupational Health Clinic. Students were screened for anti-HBs levels using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) before and after booster HBV vaccine doses.

Main Outcome Measures: Anti-HBs levels before and after booster doses.

Sample Size: 335.

Results: About half of participants (n=164, 49%) had protective anti-HBs levels ( greater than or equal 10 mIU/mL) to the original primary series of HBV vaccine and received no booster doses. The reimaining 171 (51%) participants were at risk of HBV infection since their anti-HBs levels were less than 10 mIU/mL, despite having received the original primary HBV vaccine. The levels of anti-HBs were higher in female than in male students (P less than .001). In addition, female students showed a stronger humoral immune response to the booster vaccine than male students (P less than .001). When participants were given the three boosters, most participants (98.3%) showed anti-HBs levels of greater than or equal 10 mIU/mL. The results also showed a strong correlation between pre-booster and post-booster anti-HBs levels in the greater than or equal 10 mIU/mL group (r2= 0.52, P less than .001) but not in less than 10 mIU/mL group (r2= 0.003, P=.53).

Conclusion: A considerable portion of the participants (about 51%) were at risk of HBV infection since their anti-HBs levels were less than 10 mIU/mL. Booster doses significantly trigger memory immune response and this ensured their protection against the virus. Pre-booster anti-HBs level are a good predictive of post-booster anti-HBs levels in greater than or equal 10 mIU/mL group.

Limitations: The sample size was small. Shortage of collaborators.

Conflict Of Interest: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.2018.413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302994PMC
March 2019

Occupational infection and needle stick injury among clinical laboratory workers in Al-Madinah city, Saudi Arabia.

J Occup Med Toxicol 2018 21;13:15. Epub 2018 May 21.

1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Taibah University, Al-Madinah, 41477 Saudi Arabia.

Background: Clinical laboratory workers face biohazard such as needlestick injury and occupational infection on a daily basis. In this study, we examined self-reported frequency of occupational infection and needlestick injury among the clinical laboratory workers in Al- Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A total of 234 clinical laboratory workers were recruited from private and government health sectors to answer a self-administered questionnaire that was prepared to achieve the aims of the study.

Results: The results showed that approximately 33% of the sample had an experienced occupational infection while 24% had experienced a needlestick injury. Approximately, 49% reported that they always recap needle after use, whereas 15% reported doing that most of the times. Occupational infection, needlestick injury and recapping needles after use were associated with lack of training on biosafety ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The frequency of occupational infection and needlestick injury among clinical laboratory workers in Al-Madinah is high. Interventions related to biosafety and infection control and the use of needlestick prevention devices might be useful in lowering such frequency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12995-018-0198-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963129PMC
May 2018

MERS-CoV infection in humans is associated with a pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cytokine profile.

Cytokine 2018 04 2;104:8-13. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia; Molecular Biomedicine Program, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been recognized as a highly pathogenic virus to humans that infects the respiratory tract and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Studies in animal models suggest that MERS-CoV infection induces a strong inflammatory response, which may be related to the severity of disease. Data showing the cytokine profiles in humans during the acute phase of MERS-CoV infection are limited. In this study, we have analyzed the profile of cytokine responses in plasma samples from patients with confirmed MERS-CoV infections (n = 7) compared to healthy controls (n = 13). The cytokine profiles, including T helper (Th) 1, Th2 and Th17 responses, were analyzed using cytometric bead array (CBA). A prominent pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 response was clearly seen in patients with MERS-CoV infection, with markedly increased concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-15 and IL-17 compared to controls. IL-12 expression levels showed no difference between patients with MERS-CoV infection and the healthy controls despite the significantly increased levels of IFN-α2 and IFN-γ (P < .01). No changes were observed in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and TGF-α (P > .05). Our results demonstrate a marked pro-inflammatory cytokine response during the acute phase of MERS-CoV infection in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2018.01.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7129230PMC
April 2018

Case report: Detection of the Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) in nasal secretions of a dead human.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2018 Jun 16;13(3):302-304. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, KSA.

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been recognized as a highly pathogenic virus that infects the human respiratory tract and has high morbidity and mortality. The MERS-CoV is a huge burden on Saudi Arabian health-care facilities, causing approximately 40% mortality. The transmission mechanism of the virus is still not well understood. Therefore, the prevention of any route of transmission is the best measure to arrest the spread of this disease. Using the real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), MERS-CoV was detected in the nasal secretions of a human cadaver. Full precautions should be applied and carefully followed to prevent the transmission of the virus, especially among health care workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695009PMC
June 2018

Assessment of the influenza vaccine (VAXIGRIP) in triggering a humoural immune response.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2017 Dec 20;12(6):523-527. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, KSA.

Objectives: The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced a pandemic alert following successive waves of H1N1 epidemics that have swept the world. KSA became vulnerable to influenza virus due to Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. Antibodies have been tested to inhibit the attachment and spread of influenza viruses to epithelial cells. This study aimed to assess the immunological indices of the influenza vaccine, VAXIGRIP, in triggering humoural immunity in volunteers.

Methods: Sera from pre- and 14 days post-vaccinated subjects were analysed for haemagglutinin (HA)-specific anti-H1 and anti-H3 antibodies using ELISA. Expansion of CD19 B cells was quantified using FACSCalibur.

Results: The VAXIGRIP vaccine induced specific anti-H1 and anti-H3 HA IgG antibodies against H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses, respectively. There was a significant increase in B cell numbers post-vaccination that directly matched the anti-H1 antibody titre. The results suggest that B cells are likely to be primed by the same antigenic strain derived from both H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, which were likely to be included in the vaccine.

Conclusion: Influenza vaccine triggered a humoural immune response to surface HA proteins in vaccinated subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first report corroborating the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine in KSA volunteers. These results may be beneficial to the ministry of health and the Saudi FDA in terms of weighing the role of this vaccine in inducing protective immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6694918PMC
December 2017

Cross-reactive immunity against influenza viruses in children and adults following 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection.

Antiviral Res 2015 Feb 13;114:106-12. Epub 2014 Dec 13.

Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09) virus infected large numbers of people worldwide. Recent studies suggest infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus elicited cross-reactive anti-hemagglutinin (HA) memory B cell response to conserved regions of HA. However, the breadth and magnitude of cross-reactive immunity in children and adults following A(H1N1)pdm09 infection are unknown.

Methods: We investigated serum anti-HA immunity to a number of group-1 and -2 viruses in children and adults using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay.

Results: Applying hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers ⩾40 against A(H1N1)pdm09 as threshold of sero-positivity, we observed significantly higher levels of anti-HA antibodies to a number of virus subtypes, including those neutralizing H5N1, in subjects with HAI titer ⩾40 than those with HAI <40. Adults demonstrated broader and stronger cross-reactive anti-HA antibodies than children, including cross-reactive anti-HA1 and -HA2 antibodies. By comparison, individuals with serologic evidence of recent exposure to seasonal H1N1 or H3N2 did not show such broad cross-reactive immunity.

Conclusion: Our results suggest individuals exposed to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus developed a broad and age-associated cross-reactive anti-HA immunity which may have important implications for future vaccination strategies to enable protection against a broader range of influenza viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.12.008DOI Listing
February 2015

Infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus primes for immunological memory in human nose-associated lymphoid tissue, offering cross-reactive immunity to H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses.

J Virol 2013 May 6;87(10):5331-9. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Influenza is a highly contagious mucosal infection in the respiratory tract. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus infection resulted in substantial morbidity and mortality in humans. Little is known on whether immunological memory develops following pH1N1 infection and whether it provides protection against other virus subtypes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay was used to analyze hemagglutinin (HA)-specific memory B cell responses after virus antigen stimulation in nose-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) from children and adults. Individuals with serological evidence of previous exposure to pH1N1 showed significant cross-reactive HA-specific memory B cell responses to pH1N1, seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1), and avian H5N1 (aH5N1) viruses upon pH1N1 virus stimulation. pH1N1 virus antigen elicited stronger cross-reactive memory B cell responses than sH1N1 virus. Intriguingly, aH5N1 virus also activated cross-reactive memory responses to sH1N1 and pH1N1 HAs in those who had previous pH1N1 exposure, and that correlated well with the memory response stimulated by pH1N1 virus antigen. These memory B cell responses resulted in cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against sH1N1, 1918 H1N1, and aH5N1 viruses. The 2009 pH1N1 infection appeared to have primed human host with B cell memory in NALT that offers cross-protective mucosal immunity to not only H1N1 but also aH5N1 viruses. These findings may have important implications for future vaccination strategies against influenza. It will be important to induce and/or enhance such cross-protective mucosal memory B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03547-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3648155PMC
May 2013
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