Publications by authors named "Waldemar de Carli"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and APOE Polymorphism with Mortality in the Oldest Old: A 21-Year Cohort Study.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2020 11;115(5):873-881

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Medicina Interna, Porto Alegre, RS- Brasil.

Background: Knowledge of environmental and genetic factors for healthy aging in elderly people is controversial. In addition to this evidence, few studies have been designed for this population.

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the most frequent apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and mortality in very elderly individuals living in a community and to evaluate survival according to cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: A sample of 74 elderly individuals aged ≥ 80 years, from the Veranópolis Project cohort, was selected for APOE genotyping. At baseline, anthropometric variables, glucose and lipid levels, blood pressure, and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity) were collected. The Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale was applied to their caregivers. Total study follow-up was 21 years. Two-sided p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There was no association between APOE genotypes and mortality. However, the risk of death in elderly smokers was 2.30 times higher (hazard ratio [HR], 95% CI 1.01 to 5.24); in individuals with diabetes, it was 3.95 times higher (HR, 95% CI 1.27 to 12.30) than in individuals without diabetes. Subjects who practiced vigorous physical activity had a 51% reduction in risk of death (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.88). For an increase of 1 mmHg in systolic blood pressure, there was a 2% reduction (HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99) in risk of death.

Conclusion: In this sample population, APOE genotypes were not associated with mortality. However, classic cardiovascular risk factors may be important for overall mortality in the very elderly.
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November 2020

Implementation of a Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program for improvement on quality of diet and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events: A randomized, multicenter trial.

Am Heart J 2019 09 21;215:187-197. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

Background: Appropriate dietary recommendations represent a key part of secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the effectiveness of the implementation of a nutritional program on quality of diet, cardiovascular events, and death in patients with established CVD.

Methods: In this open-label, multicenter trial conducted in 35 sites in Brazil, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 45 years or older to receive either the BALANCE Program (experimental group) or conventional nutrition advice (control group). The BALANCE Program included a unique nutritional education strategy to implement recommendations from guidelines, adapted to the use of affordable and regional foods. Adherence to diet was evaluated by the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Secondary end points included biochemical and anthropometric data, and blood pressure levels.

Results: From March 5, 2013, to Abril 7, 2015, a total of 2534 eligible patients were randomly assigned to either the BALANCE Program group (n = 1,266) or the control group (n = 1,268) and were followed up for a median of 3.5 years. In total, 235 (9.3%) participants had been lost to follow-up. After 3 years of follow-up, mean modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (scale 0-70) was only slightly higher in the BALANCE group versus the control group (26.2 ± 8.4 vs 24.7 ± 8.6, P < .01), mainly due to a 0.5-serving/d greater intake of fruits and of vegetables in the BALANCE group. Primary end point events occurred in 236 participants (18.8%) in the BALANCE group and in 207 participants (16.4%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI 0.95-1.38; P = .15). Secondary end points did not differ between groups after follow-up.

Conclusions: The BALANCE Program only slightly improved adherence to a healthy diet in patients with established CVD and had no significant effect on the incidence of cardiovascular events or death.
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September 2019

The Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program to reduce events and risk factors in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease: study protocol (The BALANCE Program Trial).

Am Heart J 2016 Jan 15;171(1):73-81.e1-2. Epub 2015 Aug 15.

Research Institute, Hospital do Coração (IP-HCor), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This article reports the rationale for the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE Program) Trial. This pragmatic, multicenter, nationwide, randomized, concealed, controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of the BALANCE Program in reducing cardiovascular events. The BALANCE Program consists of a prescribed diet guided by nutritional content recommendations from Brazilian national guidelines using a unique nutritional education strategy, which includes suggestions of affordable foods. In addition, the Program focuses on intensive follow-up through one-on-one visits, group sessions, and phone calls. In this trial, participants 45 years or older with any evidence of established cardiovascular disease will be randomized to the BALANCE or control groups. Those in the BALANCE group will receive the afore mentioned program interventions, while controls will be given generic advice on how to follow a low-fat, low-energy, low-sodium, and low-cholesterol diet, with a view to achieving Brazilian nutritional guideline recommendations. The primary outcome is a composite of death (any cause), cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation for peripheral arterial disease, or hospitalization for unstable angina. A total of 2468 patients will be enrolled in 34 sites and followed up for up to 48 months. If the BALANCE Program is found to decrease cardiovascular events and reduce risk factors, this may represent an advance in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease.
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January 2016

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the very elderly: results of a cohort study in a city in southern Brazil.

Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2011 Jun 9;18(3):369-77. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

Post-graduate Program in Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality have barely been investigated in very elderly persons and there may be differences compared with younger individuals.

Methods: This is a cohort study of all inhabitants over 80 years of age in the city of Veranópolis, Brazil. The association of demographic, anthropometric, physical, and medical characteristics with mortality by any cause and by cardiovascular disease (CVD) was investigated by means of Cox regression models.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 83.6 ± 3.3 years. Vital status and cause of death was ascertained in 96.9% of the participants after a mean follow-up of 8.7 ± 3.8 years. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed a U-shape relationship with cardiovascular and total mortality. Blood pressure lower than 140/90 mmHg was associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR 4.76, 95% CI 1.56-14.28, p = 0.006). Duration of sleep was inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular death (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95, p = 0.007), while apoA-I was inversely associated only with the risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.00, p = 0.041). Anthropometric indexes, smoking, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and other traditional risk factors were not associated with cardiovascular mortality.

Conclusion: Many traditional risk factors are not associated with cardiovascular mortality in the very elderly. Longer sleep duration is associated with lower cardiovascular mortality of very elderly individuals, while low blood pressure identifies very elderly individuals at higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes.
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June 2011