Publications by authors named "Wajahatullah Khan"

31 Publications

Modifying inter-cistronic sequence significantly enhances IRES dependent second gene expression in bicistronic vector: Construction of optimised cassette for gene therapy of familial hypercholesterolemia.

Noncoding RNA Res 2019 Mar 22;4(1):1-14. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, P.O. Box 715, Makkah, 21955, Saudi Arabia.

Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequences have become a valuable tool in the construction of gene transfer and therapeutic vectors for multi-cistronic gene expression from a single mRNA transcript. The optimal conditions for effective use of this sequence to construct a functional expression vector are not precisely defined but it is generally assumed that the internal ribosome entry site dependent expression of the second gene in such as cassette is less efficient than the cap-dependent expression of the first gene. Mainly tailoring inter-cistronic sequence significantly enhances IRES dependent second gene expression in bicistronic vector further in construction of optimised cassette for gene therapy of familial hypercholesterolemia. We tailored the size of the inter-cistronic spacer sequence at the 5' region of the internal ribosome entry site sequence using sequential deletions and demonstrated that the expression of the 3' gene can be significantly increased to similar levels as the cap-dependent expression of the 5' gene. Maximum expression efficiency of the downstream gene was obtained when the spacer is composed of 18-141 base pairs. In this case a single mRNA transcriptional unit containing both the first and the second Cistron was detected. Whilst constructs with spacer sequences of 216 bp or longer generate a single transcriptional unit containing only the first Cistron. This suggests that long spacers may affect transcription termination. When the spacer is 188 bp, both transcripts were produced simultaneously in most transfected cells, while a fraction of them expressed only the first but not the second gene. Expression analyses of vectors containing optimised cassettes clearly confirm that efficiency of gene transfer and biological activity of the expressed transgenic proteins in the transduced cells can be achieved. Furthermore, Computational analysis was carried out by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to determine the most emerges as viable containing specific binding site and bridging of 5' and 3' ends involving direct RNA-RNA contacts and RNA-protein interactions. These results provide a mechanistic basis for translation stimulation and RNA resembling for the synergistic stimulation of cap-dependent translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncrna.2018.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404380PMC
March 2019

Novel Associations between BRCA1 Variants C.181 T>G (Rs28897672) and Ovarian Crisk in Saudi Females.

J Med Biochem 2019 Mar 1;38(1):13-21. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Central Laboratory, Center for Science and Medical Studies for Girls, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Mutations in BRCA1 gene have been implicated in ovarian cancers, and BRCA testing may be conducted in high-risk women. This study was designed to determine the frequency of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) variants in BRCA1 gene and BRCA1 expression in Saudi females with ovarian cancer.

Methods: Expression levels of mRNA of BRCA1 gene were studied in 10 ovarian cancer and 10 normal ovarian tissues, by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The study also included 28 females who had suffered from ovarian cancer and had been successfully operated upon and 90 healthy females with no history of cancer. Blood was drawn in EDTA tubes and used for extraction of DNA. The genotyping was carried out using Taqman® SNP Genotyping kit by RT-PCR. The variants investigated included c.871 T>C (rs799917), c.1040 G>A (rs4986852), c.181 T>G (rs28897672) in BRCA1 gene.

Results: The c.181 T>G (rs28897672) showed significantly different genotype and allele frequencies between the patients and the control subjects (p value = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively). The genotype TG was significantly protective (OR = 0.36, p value = 0.024). The mRNA expression of BRCA1 gene was found to be low in the ovarian cancer tissues.

Conclusions: This study showed that c.181 T>G in BRCA1 genes is associated with the development of ovarian cancer in Saudis. More studies are needed to unveil other SNPs that may be associated with ovarian cancer and to understand the mechanism(s) involved in reducing the expression of BRCA1 gene in ovarian cancer tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jomb-2018-0037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298454PMC
March 2019

Phytosterols as a natural anticancer agent: Current status and future perspective.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Apr 31;88:786-794. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Phytosterols are naturally occurring compounds in plants, structurally similar to cholesterol. The human diet is quite abundant in sitosterol and campesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties including reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption which alleviates blood LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. It is indicated that phytosterol rich diets may reduce cancer risk by 20%. Phytosterols may also affect host systems, enabling antitumor responses by improving immune response recognition of cancer, affecting the hormone dependent endocrine tumor growth, and by sterol biosynthesis modulation. Moreover, phytosterols have also exhibited properties that directly inhibit tumor growth, including reduced cell cycle progression, apoptosis induction, and tumor metastasis inhibition. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on occurrences, chemistry, pharmacokinetics and potential anticancer properties of phytosterols in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, anticancer effects of phytosterols have strongly been suggested and support their dietary inclusion to prevent and treat cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.068DOI Listing
April 2017

Functional alterations due to amino acid changes and evolutionary comparative analysis of ARPKD and ADPKD genes.

Genom Data 2016 Dec 3;10:127-134. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

King Salman Armed Forces Hospital, P.O. box 100, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

A targeted customized sequencing of genes implicated in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) phenotype was performed to identify candidate variants using the Ion torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. The results identified four potential pathogenic variants in gene [c.4870C > T, p.(Arg1624Trp), c.5725C > T, p.(Arg1909Trp), c.1736C > T, p.(Thr579Met) and c.10628T > G, p.(Leu3543Trp)] among 12 out of 18 samples. However, one variant c.4870C > T, p.(Arg1624Trp) was common among eight patients. Some patient samples also showed few variants in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) disease causing genes and such as c.12433G > A, p.(Val4145Ile) and c.1445T > G, p.(Phe482Cys), respectively. All causative variants were validated by capillary sequencing and confirmed the presence of a novel homozygous variant c.10628T > G, p.(Leu3543Trp) in a male proband. We have recently published the results of these studies (Edrees et al., 2016). Here we report for the first time the effect of the common mutation p.(Arg1624Trp) found in eight samples on the protein structure and function due to the specific amino acid changes of PKHD1 protein using molecular dynamics simulations. The computational approaches provide tool predict the phenotypic effect of variant on the structure and function of the altered protein. The structural analysis with the common mutation p.(Arg1624Trp) in the native and mutant modeled protein were also studied for solvent accessibility, secondary structure and stabilizing residues to find out the stability of the protein between wild type and mutant forms. Furthermore, comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of variants observed in , , and genes were also performed in some mammalian species including human to understand the complexity of genomes among closely related mammalian species. Taken together, the results revealed that the evolutionary comparative analyses and characterization of , , and genes among various related and unrelated mammalian species will provide important insights into their evolutionary process and understanding for further disease characterization and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2016.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5099264PMC
December 2016

The hOGG1 Ser326Cys Gene Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk in Saudi Population.

Pathol Oncol Res 2017 Jul 7;23(3):525-535. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

Genome Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The purpose of this study was to test the association between human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to breast cancer in Saudi population. We have also aimed to screen the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism effect on structural and functional properties of the hOGG1 protein using in silico tools. We have analyzed four SNPs of hOGG1 gene among Saudi breast cancer patients along with healthy controls. Genotypes were screened using TaqMan SNP genotype analysis method. Experimental data was analyzed using Chi-square, t test and logistic regression analysis using SPSS software (v.16). In silco analysis was conducted using discovery studio and HOPE program. Genotypic analysis showed that hOGG1 rs1052133 (Ser326Cys) is significantly associated with breast cancer samples in Saudi population, however rs293795 (T >C), rs2072668 (C>G) and rs2075747 (G >A) did not show any association with breast cancer. The hOGG1 SNP rs1052133 (Ser326Cys) minor allele T showed a significant association with breast cancer samples (OR = 1.78, χ2 = 7.86, p = 0.02024). In silico structural analysis was carried out to compare the wild type (Ser326) and mutant (Cys326) protein structures. The structural prediction studies revealed that Ser326Cys variant may destabilize the protein structure and it may disturb the hOGG1 function. Taken together this is the first In silico study report to confirm Ser326Cys variant effect on structural and functional properties of hOGG1 gene and Ser326Cys role in breast cancer susceptibility in Saudi population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12253-016-0146-6DOI Listing
July 2017

Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

Gene 2016 Oct 9;591(1):214-226. Epub 2016 Jul 9.

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, P.O. Box 715, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia; Science and Technology Unit, Umm Al -Qura University, P.O. Box 715, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) a rare genetic disorder, described by formation of cysts in the kidney. A targeted customized sequencing of genes implicated in ARPKD phenotype was performed to identify candidate variants using the Ion torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. The results identified likely pathogenic disease causing variants during the validation process. Four potential pathogenic variants [c.4870C>T, p.(Arg1624Trp)], [c.5725C>T, p.(Arg1909Trp)], c.1736C>T, p.(Thr579Met)] and [(c.10628T>G), p.(Leu3543Trp)] were observed in PKHD1 gene among 12 out of 18 samples. The rest of the patient samples also showed few variants in ADPKD (Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease) disease causing genes PKD1 and PKD2 i.e. [c.12433G>A, p.(Val4145Ile)] and [c.1445T>G, p.(Phe482Cys)], respectively. All causative variants were validated by capillary sequencing, confirming the presence of a novel homozygous variants [c.10628T>G, p.(Leu3543Trp)] found in exon 61 of a male proband. All potentially deleterious variants identified in PKHD1, PKD1, and PKD2 gene, also exhibited pathologically or clinically significance based on the computational predictions involved in predicting the impact of non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) on protein function such as Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) and Polymorphism Phenotyping (PolyPhen2). SIFT classified 50% of our nsSNPs as "deleterious", while PolyPhen2 identified 45% of our nsSNPs as "Probably damaged" and the results from both programs were largely complementary. Taken together, these results suggest that the NGS strategies provide a fast, accurate and cost-effective molecular diagnostic tool for identifying mutations in targeted genes sequence analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2016.07.021DOI Listing
October 2016

Optimization of expression and purification of HSPA6 protein from Camelus dromedarius in E. coli.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2016 May 4;23(3):410-9. Epub 2015 May 4.

Protein Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; Genome Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The HSPA6, one of the members of large family of HSP70, is significantly up-regulated and has been targeted as a biomarker of cellular stress in several studies. Herein, conditions were optimized to increase the yield of recombinant camel HSPA6 protein in its native state, primarily focusing on the optimization of upstream processing parameters that lead to an increase in the specific as well as volumetric yield of the protein. The results showed that the production of cHSPA6 was increased proportionally with increased incubation temperature up to 37 °C. Induction with 10 μM IPTG was sufficient to induce the expression of cHSPA6 which was 100 times less than normally used IPTG concentration. Furthermore, the results indicate that induction during early to late exponential phase produced relatively high levels of cHSPA6 in soluble form. In addition, 5 h of post-induction incubation was found to be optimal to produce folded cHSPA6 with higher specific and volumetric yield. Subsequently, highly pure and homogenous cHSPA6 preparation was obtained using metal affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Taken together, the results showed successful production of electrophoretically pure recombinant HSPA6 protein from Camelus dromedarius in Escherichia coli in milligram quantities from shake flask liquid culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818323PMC
May 2016

Polymorphisms in RAD51 and their relation with breast cancer in Saudi females.

Onco Targets Ther 2016 11;9:269-77. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Center of Scientific and Medical Colleges, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between rs1801320 (G>C), rs1801321 (G>T), and rs2619681 (C>T) RAD51 gene polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer development in Saudi females. The genotypes were analyzed using TaqMan genotyping assay and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype and allele frequencies were computed using chi-square or Fisher's exact test (two-tailed) by SPSS 21 software. The results showed that rs1801321G>T GG genotype and G allele frequency were strongly (P<0.0001) related to an elevated risk of breast cancer, while the mutant T allele appeared to provide protection against breast cancer development as observed from the significantly lower (P<0.0001) frequencies of the TT and GT genotypes in cancer patients compared to the healthy controls. The variant rs1801320G>C showed no significant differences in the frequencies of the genotypes and alleles in the patients and the control groups. The CC genotype and C allele frequency of rs2619681 (C>T) variant were significantly (P=0.012) higher in cancer patients, whereas the T allele showed a protective effect against cancer development. The frequencies of the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms did not differ in cancer patients with different tumor grades and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status (+ or -). However, the genotype frequency of rs1801320 (135G>C) differed in the patients with estrogen receptor (ER)+ and ER-, where CC genotype showed a significantly higher prevalence in the females with ER- who were suffering from breast cancer. In addition, the frequency of C allele of rs2619681 (C>T) was also significantly higher in the breast cancer patients who were ER+ and progesterone receptor (PR)+ compared to those with ER- and PR-. In the Saudi females, rs1801320 did not show an association with risk of breast cancer. Taken together, the results suggest that RAD51 rs1801321 polymorphism may be involved in the etiology of breast cancer in the Saudi females; however, further studies are necessary to confirm this relation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S93343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716748PMC
February 2016

Identification of a recurrent frameshift mutation at the LDLR exon 14 (c.2027delG, p.(G676Afs*33)) causing familial hypercholesterolemia in Saudi Arab homozygous children.

Genomics 2016 Jan 11;107(1):24-32. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; Science and Technology Unit, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease, predominantly caused by variants in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (LDLR). Herein, we describe genetic analysis of severely affected homozygous FH patients who were mostly resistant to statin therapy and were managed on an apheresis program. We identified a recurrent frameshift mutation p.(G676Afs*33) in exon 14 of the LDLR gene in 9 probands and their relatives in an apparently unrelated Saudi families. We also describe a three dimensional homology model of the LDL receptor protein (LDLR) structure and examine the consequence of the frameshift mutation p.(G676Afs*33), as this could affect the LDLR structure in a region involved in dimer formation, and protein stability. This finding of a recurrent mutation causing FH in the Saudi population could serve to develop a rapid genetic screening procedure for FH, and the 3D-structure analysis of the mutant LDLR, may provide tools to develop a mechanistic model of the LDLR function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2015.12.001DOI Listing
January 2016

Association of DNA Repair Gene APE1 Asp148Glu Polymorphism with Breast Cancer Risk.

Dis Markers 2015 16;2015:869512. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Genome Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism in breast cancer progression in Saudi population.

Methods: We examined the genetic variations (rs1130409) in the DNA base excision repair gene APE1 at codon 148 (Asp148Glu) and its association with breast cancer risk using genotypic assays and in silico structural as well as functional predictions. In silico structural analysis was performed with Asp148Glu allele and compared with the predicted native protein structure. The wild and mutant 3D structures of APE1 were compared and analyzed using solvent accessibility models for protein stability confirmation.

Results: Genotypic analysis of APE1 (rs1130409) showed statistically significant association of Asp148Glu with elevated susceptibility to breast cancer. The in silico analysis results indicated that the nsSNP Asp148Glu may cause changes in the protein structure and is associated with breast cancer risk.

Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first report that established that Asp148Glu variant has structural and functional effect on the APE1 and may play an important role in breast cancer progression in Saudi population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/869512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4519542PMC
April 2016

λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes.

Mar Drugs 2015 May 8;13(5):2875-89. Epub 2015 May 8.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 550, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada.

The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L-1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md13052875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4446610PMC
May 2015

Next generation sequencing to identify novel genetic variants causative of autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease.

Gene 2015 Jul 1;565(1):76-84. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics, MBC 58, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). It is an autosomal dominant disease, caused by variants in Ldlr, ApoB or Pcsk9, which results in high levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) leading to early coronary heart disease. Sequencing whole genome for screening variants for FH are not suitable due to high cost. Hence, in this study we performed targeted customized sequencing of FH 12 genes (Ldlr, ApoB, Pcsk9, Abca1, Apoa2, Apoc3, Apon2, Arh, Ldlrap1, Apoc2, ApoE, and Lpl) that have been implicated in the homozygous phenotype of a proband pedigree to identify candidate variants by NGS Ion torrent PGM. Only three genes (Ldlr, ApoB, and Pcsk9) were found to be highly associated with FH based on the variant rate. The results showed that seven deleterious variants in Ldlr, ApoB, and Pcsk9 genes were pathological and were clinically significant based on predictions identified by SIFT and PolyPhen. Targeted customized sequencing is an efficient technique for screening variants among targeted FH genes. Final validation of seven deleterious variants conducted by capillary resulted to only one novel variant in Ldlr gene that was found in exon 14 (c.2026delG, p. Gly676fs). The variant found in Ldlr gene was a novel heterozygous variant derived from a male in the proband.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.03.064DOI Listing
July 2015

Spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of recombinant heat shock protein A6 from Camelus dromedarius.

Eur Biophys J 2015 Feb 14;44(1-2):17-26. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

Protein Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia,

Heat shock protein A6, also known as HSP70B', is a member of the Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones. Under stressed conditions, the level of HSPA6 increases substantially, and the protein has been targeted as a biomarker of cellular stress in several studies. We report the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of Arabian camel species cHSPA6, determined by measurement of intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence emission, and use of far-UV circular dichroism and dynamic multimode spectroscopy. Our results showed that cHSPA6 has similar binding affinity for both ATP and ADP (K D = ~50 nM). Binding of ATP and ADP reduced the surface hydrophobicity of the protein, and slightly altered its secondary structure, suggesting localized conformational rearrangement after ATP or ADP binding. Dynamic multimode spectroscopy revealed that cHSPA6 unfolds through three transitions with melting points (T m) of 42.3 ± 0.2, 61.3 ± 0.1, and 81.2 ± 0.2 °C. To the best of the author's knowledge, and literature search, this is the first report of the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of the Arabian camel heat shock protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00249-014-0997-2DOI Listing
February 2015

Evidence of trem2 variant associated with triple risk of Alzheimer's disease.

PLoS One 2014 24;9(3):e92648. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Department of Basic Sciences, College of Science and Health Professions, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Alzheimer's disease is one of the main causes of dementia among elderly individuals and leads to the neurodegeneration of different areas of the brain, resulting in memory impairments and loss of cognitive functions. Recently, a rare variant that is associated with 3-fold higher risk of Alzheimer's disease onset has been found. The rare variant discovered is a missense mutation in the loop region of exon 2 of Trem2 (rs75932628-T, Arg47His). The aim of this study was to investigate the evidence for potential structural and functional significance of Trem2 gene variant (Arg47His) through molecular dynamics simulations. Our results showed the alteration caused due to the variant in TREM2 protein has significant effect on the ligand binding affinity as well as structural configuration. Based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation under salvation, the results confirmed that native form of the variant (Arg47His) might be responsible for improved compactness, hence thereby improved protein folding. Protein simulation was carried out at different temperatures. At 300K, the deviation of the theoretical model of TREM2 protein increased from 2.0 Å at 10 ns. In contrast, the deviation of the Arg47His mutation was maintained at 1.2 Å until the end of the simulation (t = 10 ns), which indicated that Arg47His had reached its folded state. The mutant residue was a highly conserved region and was similar to "immunoglobulin V-set" and "immunoglobulin-like folds". Taken together, the result from this study provides a biophysical insight on how the studied variant could contribute to the genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092648PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963925PMC
January 2015

DNA mismatch repair MSH2 gene-based SNP associated with different populations.

Mol Genet Genomics 2014 Jun 22;289(3):469-87. Epub 2014 Feb 22.

Department of Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia,

We screened for the major essential single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant that might be associated with the MSH2 gene based on the data available from three types of human tissue samples [156 lymphoblastoid cell variations (LCL), 160 epidermis, 166 fat]. An association analysis confirmed that the KCNK12 SNP variant (rs748780) was highly associated (p value 9 × 10(-4)) with the MSH2 gene for all three samples. Using SNP identification, we further found that the recognized SNP was also relevant among Hapmap populations. Techniques that display specific SNPs associated with the gene of interest or nearby genes provide more reliable genetic associations than techniques that rely on data from individual SNPs. We investigated the MSH2 gene regional linkage association with the determined SNP (rs748780), KCNK12 variant (Allele T>C) in the intronic region, in HapMap3 full dataset populations, Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI), Utah residents with ancestry from northern Europe (CEU), Han Chinese in Beijing, China (CHB), and a population of Mexican ancestry in Los Angeles, California (MEX). A gene-based SNP association analysis analyzes the combined impact of every variant within the gene while creating referrals to linkage disequilibrium or connections between markers. Our results indicated that among the four populations studied, this association was highest in the MEX population based on the r(2) value; a similar pattern was also observed in the other three populations. The relevant SNP rs748780 in KCNK12 is related to a superfamily of potassium channel pore-forming P-domain proteins as well as to other non-pore-forming proteins and has been shown to be relevant to neurological disorder predisposition in MEX as well as in other populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-014-0826-4DOI Listing
June 2014

Interactions of atenolol with alprazolam/escitalopram on anxiety, depression and oxidative stress.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2014 Feb 18;117:79-84. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; Department of Pharmacology, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE.

Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid disorders possibly sharing a common neurobiological mechanism. The dysfunction of serotoninergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, abnormal regulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), disturbance of cellular plasticity including reduced neurogenesis, or chronic inflammation connected with high oxidative damage play a crucial role in the development of anxiety and depression. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of atenolol alone and in combination with alprazolam/escitalopram on anxiety, depression and oxidative stress. Wistar albino rats were subjected to 21 day treatment of drugs then exposed to elevated-plus maze (EPM) and modified forced swim test (MFST), and oxidative stress markers were estimated in isolated brain tissue of all groups. The results indicated that atenolol in combination with alprazolam/escitalopram exhibited antidepressant effects by significantly decreasing the immobility and increasing the swimming behavior in the MFST and anti-anxiety effects by increasing the percentage preference and number of open arm entries as well as time spent in open arm in EPM. Pretreatment with atenolol alone and combination with alprazolam/escitalopram also ameliorated tissue glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level significantly which explore antioxidant properties of drugs, and combination augments the therapeutic response of monotherapy in depression. In conclusion behavioral and biological findings indicate that the combination of atenolol with alprazolam/escitalopram has the potential of being highly efficacious in treating anxiety and depressive disorders as well as oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2013.12.015DOI Listing
February 2014

A fucose containing polymer-rich fraction from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum mediates lifespan increase and thermal-tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, by differential effects on gene and protein expression.

Food Funct 2014 Feb;5(2):275-84

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 550, Truro, NS B2B 5E3, Canada.

The extracts of the brown alga, Ascophyllum nodosum, which contains several bioactive compounds, have been shown to impart biotic and abiotic stress tolerance properties when consumed by animals. However, the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanism underlying such effects remain elusive. We investigated the effect of A. nodosum fucose-containing polymer (FCP) on tolerance to thermally induced stress using the invertebrate animal model, Caenorhabditis elegans. FCP at a concentration of 150 μg mL(-1) significantly improved the life span and tolerance against thermally induced stress in C. elegans. The treatment increased the C. elegans survival by approximately 24%, when the animals were under severe thermally induced stress (i.e. 35 °C) and 27% under mild stress (i.e. 30 °C) conditions. The FCP induced differential expression of genes and proteins is associated with stress response pathways. Under thermal stress, FCP treatment significantly altered the expression of 65 proteins (54 up-regulated & 11 down-regulated). Putative functional analysis of FCP-induced differential proteins signified an association of altered proteins in stress-related molecular and biochemical pathways of the model worm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3fo60050eDOI Listing
February 2014

DNA Repair Genes XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, and OGG1 Polymorphisms among the Central Region Population of Saudi Arabia.

Biol Res 2013 ;46(2):161-7

Genome Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

DNA repair is one of the central defense mechanisms against mutagenic exposures. Inherited SNPs of DNA repair genes may contribute to variations in DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to cancer. Due to the presence of these variants, inter-individual and ethnic differences in DNA repair capacity have been established in various populations. Saudi Arabia harbors enormous genetic and cultural diversity. In the present study we aimed to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487), XRCC3 Thr241Met (rs861539), XPD Lys751Gln (rs13181), and OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133) gene polymorphisms in 386 healthy individuals residing in the central region of Saudi Arabia and compare them with HapMap and other populations. The genotype and allele frequencies of the four DNA repair gene loci in central Saudi population showed a distinctive pattern. Furthermore, comparison of polymorphisms in these genes with other populations also showed a unique pattern for the central Saudi population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that deals with these DNA repair gene polymorphisms among the central Saudi population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602013000200007DOI Listing
October 2014

Evidence of colorectal cancer risk associated variant Lys25Ser in the proximity of human bone morphogenetic protein 2.

Gene 2013 Jun 26;522(1):75-83. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Genome Research Chair Unit, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11541, Saudi Arabia.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer and fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. It has been shown that the nsSNP variants play an important role in diseases, however it remained unclear how these variants are associated with the disease. Recently, several CRC risk associated SNPs have been discovered, however rs961253 (Lys25Arg at 20p12.3) located in the proximity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and fermitin family homolog 1 Fermt1 genes have been reported to be highly associated with the CRC risk. Here we provide evidence for the first time in silico biological functional and structural implications of non-synonymous (nsSNPs) CRC disease-associated variant Lys25Arg via molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Protein structural analysis was performed with a particular variant allele (A/C, Lys25Arg) and compared with the predicted native protein structure. Our results showed that this nsSNP will cause changes in the protein structure and as a result is associated with the disease. In addition to the native and mutant 3D structures of CRC associated risk allele protein domain (CRAPD), they were also analyzed using solvent accessibility models for further protein stability confirmation. Taken together, this study confirmed that this variant has functional effect and structural impact on the CRAPD and may play an important role in CRC disease progression; hence it could be a reasonable approach for studying the effect of other deleterious variants in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.03.037DOI Listing
June 2013

Proteome Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Mutants Reveals Differentially Induced Proteins during Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Infestation.

Int J Mol Sci 2013 Feb 15;14(2):3921-45. Epub 2013 Feb 15.

Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biochemistry Division, International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines.

Although rice resistance plays an important role in controlling the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, not all varieties have the same level of protection against BPH infestation. Understanding the molecular interactions in rice defense response is an important tool to help to reveal unexplained processes that underlie rice resistance to BPH. A proteomics approach was used to explore how wild type IR64 and near-isogenic rice mutants with gain and loss of resistance to BPH respond during infestation. A total of 65 proteins were found markedly altered in wild type IR64 during BPH infestation. Fifty-two proteins associated with 11 functional categories were identified using mass spectrometry. Protein abundance was less altered at 2 and 14 days after infestation (DAI) (T1, T2, respectively), whereas higher protein levels were observed at 28 DAI (T3). This trend diminished at 34 DAI (T4). Comparative analysis of IR64 with mutants showed 22 proteins that may be potentially associated with rice resistance to the brown planthopper (BPH). Ten proteins were altered in susceptible mutant (D1131) whereas abundance of 12 proteins including S-like RNase, Glyoxalase I, EFTu1 and Salt stress root protein "RS1" was differentially changed in resistant mutant (D518). S-like RNase was found in greater quantities in D518 after BPH infestation but remained unchanged in IR64 and decreased in D1131. Taken together, this study shows a noticeable level of protein abundance in the resistant mutant D518 compared to the susceptible mutant D1131 that may be involved in rendering enhanced level of resistance against BPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms14023921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3588078PMC
February 2013

Tasco®: a product of Ascophyllum nodosum enhances immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

Mar Drugs 2012 Jan 11;10(1):84-105. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, P.O. Box 550, Truro, NS B2B 5E3, Canada.

The effects of Tasco®, a product made from the brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) were tested for the ability to protect Caenorhabditis elegans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. A water extract of Tasco® (TWE) reduced P. aeruginosa inflicted mortality in the nematode. The TWE, at a concentration of 300 µg/mL, offered the maximum protection and induced the expression of innate immune response genes viz.; zk6.7 (Lypases), lys-1 (Lysozyme), spp-1 (Saponin like protein), f28d1.3 (Thaumatin like protein), t20g5.7 (Matridin SK domain protein), abf-1 (Antibacterial protein) and f38a1.5 (Lectin family protein). Further, TWE treatment also affected a number of virulence components of the P. aeuroginosa and reduced its secreted virulence factors such as lipase, proteases and toxic metabolites; hydrogen cyanide and pyocyanin. Decreased virulence factors were associated with a significant reduction in expression of regulatory genes involved in quorum sensing, lasI, lasR, rhlI and rhlR. In conclusion, the TWE-treatment protected the C. elegans against P. aeruginosa infection by a combination of effects on the innate immunity of the worms and direct effects on the bacterial quorum sensing and virulence factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md10010084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3280538PMC
January 2012

Changes in soybean global gene expression after application of lipo-chitooligosaccharide from Bradyrhizobium japonicum under sub-optimal temperature.

PLoS One 2012 13;7(2):e31571. Epub 2012 Feb 13.

Department of Plant Science, McGill University, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.

Lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs), signal compounds produced by N(2)-fixing rhizobacteria after isoflavone induction, initiate nodule formation in host legumes. Given LCOs' structural similarity to pathogen-response-eliciting chitin oligomers, foliar application of LCOs was tested for ability to induce stress-related genes under optimal growth conditions. In order to study the effects of LCO foliar spray under stressed conditions, soybean (Glycine max) seedlings grown at optimal temperature were transferred to sub-optimal temperature. After a 5-day acclimation period, the first trifoliate leaves were sprayed with 10(-7) M LCO (NodBj-V (C(18:1), MeFuc)) purified from genistein-induced Bradyrhizobium japonicum culture, and harvested at 0 and 48 h following treatment. Microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip® Soybean Genome Arrays. Compared to the control at 48 h after LCO treatment, a total of 147 genes were differentially expressed as a result of LCO treatment, including a number of stress-related genes and transcription factors. In addition, during the 48 h time period following foliar spray application, over a thousand genes exhibited differential expression, including hundreds of those specific to the LCO-treated plants. Our results indicated that the dynamic soybean foliar transcriptome was highly responsive to LCO treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) validated the microarray data.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0031571PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278468PMC
July 2012

DNA repair gene polymorphisms at XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, and OGG1 Loci in the hyderabad population of India.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012 ;13(12):6469-74

Genome Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: DNA repair is one of the crucial defense mechanism against mutagenic exposure. Inherited SNPs of DNA repair genes may contribute to variation in DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to cancer. Due to the presence of these variants, inter-individual and ethnic differences in DNA repair capacity have been established in various populations. India harbors enormous genetic and cultural diversity.

Materials And Methods: In the present study we aimed to determine the genotypes and allele frequencies of XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487), XRCC3 Thr241Met (rs861539), XPD Lys751Gln (rs13181), and OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133) gene polymorphisms in 186 healthy individuals residing in the Hyderabad region of India and to compare them with HapMap and other populations.

Results And Conclusions: The genotype and allele frequency distribution at the four DNA repair gene loci among Hyderabad population of India revealed a characteristic pattern. Comparison of these gene polymorphisms with other populations revealed a distinctiveness of Hyderabad population from the Deccan region of India. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such DNA repair gene polymorphisms in the Deccan Indian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.12.6469DOI Listing
October 2014

Tasco(®), a product of Ascophyllum nodosum, imparts thermal stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Mar Drugs 2011 8;9(11):2256-82. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Canada.

Tasco(®), a commercial product manufactured from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, has been shown to impart thermal stress tolerance in animals. We investigated the physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of this induced thermal stress tolerance using the invertebrate animal model, Caenorhabiditis elegans. Tasco(®) water extract (TWE) at 300 μg/mL significantly enhanced thermal stress tolerance as well as extended the life span of C. elegans. The mean survival rate of the model animals under thermal stress (35 °C) treated with 300 μg/mL and 600 μg/mL TWE, respectively, was 68% and 71% higher than the control animals. However, the TWE treatments did not affect the nematode body length, fertility or the cellular localization of daf-16. On the contrary, TWE under thermal stress significantly increased the pharyngeal pumping rate in treated animals compared to the control. Treatment with TWE also showed differential protein expression profiles over control following 2D gel-electrophoresis analysis. Furthermore, TWE significantly altered the expression of at least 40 proteins under thermal stress; among these proteins 34 were up-regulated while six were down-regulated. Mass spectroscopy analysis of the proteins altered by TWE treatment revealed that these proteins were related to heat stress tolerance, energy metabolism and a muscle structure related protein. Among them heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, saposin-like proteins 20, myosin regulatory light chain 1, cytochrome c oxidase RAS-like, GTP-binding protein RHO A, OS were significantly up-regulated, while eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 OS, 60S ribosomal protein L18 OS, peroxiredoxin protein 2 were down regulated by TWE treatment. These results were further validated by gene expression and reporter gene expression analyses. Overall results indicate that the water soluble components of Tasco(®) imparted thermal stress tolerance in the C. elegans by altering stress related biochemical pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md9112256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3229234PMC
April 2012

Carrageenans, sulphated polysaccharides of red seaweeds, differentially affect Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper).

PLoS One 2011 28;6(10):e26834. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Carrageenans are a collective family of linear, sulphated galactans found in a number of commercially important species of marine red alga. These polysaccharides are known to elicit defense responses in plant and animals and possess anti-viral properties. We investigated the effect of foliar application of ι-, κ- and λ-carrageenans (representing various levels of sulphation) on Arabidopsis thaliana in resistance to the generalist insect Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) which is known to cause serious economic losses in crop plants. Plants treated with ι- and κ-carrageenan showed reduced leaf damage, whereas those treated with λ- carrageenan were similar to that of the control. In a no-choice test, larval weight was reduced by more than 20% in ι- and κ- carrageenan treatments, but unaffected by λ-carrageenan. In multiple choice tests, carrageenan treated plants attracted fewer T. ni larvae by the fourth day following infestation as compared to the control. The application of carrageenans did not affect oviposition behaviour of T. ni. Growth of T. ni feeding on an artificial diet amended with carrageenans was not different from that fed with untreated control diet. ι-carrageenan induced the expression of defense genes; PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, but κ- and λ-carrageenans did not. Besides PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis genes CYP79B2, CYP83B1 and glucosinolate hydrolysing QTL, ESM1 were up-regulated by ι-carrageenan treatment at 48 h post infestation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of carrageenan treated leaves showed increased concentrations of both isothiocyanates and nitriles. Taken together, these results show that carrageenans have differential effects on Arabidopsis resistance to T. ni and that the degree of sulphation of the polysaccharide chain may well mediate this effect.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0026834PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203909PMC
March 2012

In silico analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in human β-globin gene.

PLoS One 2011 20;6(10):e25876. Epub 2011 Oct 20.

Genome Research Chair Unit, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Single amino acid substitutions in the globin chain are the most common forms of genetic variations that produce hemoglobinopathies--the most widespread inherited disorders worldwide. Several hemoglobinopathies result from homozygosity or compound heterozygosity to beta-globin (HBB) gene mutations, such as that producing sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS), HbC, HbD and HbE. Several of these mutations are deleterious and result in moderate to severe hemolytic anemia, with associated complications, requiring lifelong care and management. Even though many hemoglobinopathies result from single amino acid changes producing similar structural abnormalities, there are functional differences in the generated variants. Using in silico methods, we examined the genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the HBB gene. Using a sequence homology-based Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) server we have searched for the SNPs, which showed that 200 (80%) non-synonymous polymorphism were found to be deleterious. The structure-based method via PolyPhen server indicated that 135 (40%) non-synonymous polymorphism may modify protein function and structure. The Pupa Suite software showed that the SNPs will have a phenotypic consequence on the structure and function of the altered protein. Structure analysis was performed on the key mutations that occur in the native protein coded by the HBB gene that causes hemoglobinopathies such as: HbC (E→K), HbD (E→Q), HbE (E→K) and HbS (E→V). Atomic Non-Local Environment Assessment (ANOLEA), Yet Another Scientific Artificial Reality Application (YASARA), CHARMM-GUI webserver for macromolecular dynamics and mechanics, and Normal Mode Analysis, Deformation and Refinement (NOMAD-Ref) of Gromacs server were used to perform molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization calculations on β-Chain residue of the HBB gene before and after mutation. Furthermore, in the native and altered protein models, amino acid residues were determined and secondary structures were observed for solvent accessibility to confirm the protein stability. The functional study in this investigation may be a good model for additional future studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0025876PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197589PMC
February 2012

Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding a putative stress-induced heat-shock protein from Camelus dromedarius.

Int J Mol Sci 2011 27;12(7):4214-36. Epub 2011 Jun 27.

Genomic Research Chair Unit, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; E-Mails: (M.S.A.); (W.K.); (Z.A.); (A.A.-A.) (M.D.B.).

Heat shock proteins are ubiquitous, induced under a number of environmental and metabolic stresses, with highly conserved DNA sequences among mammalian species. Camelus dromedaries (the Arabian camel) domesticated under semi-desert environments, is well adapted to tolerate and survive against severe drought and high temperatures for extended periods. This is the first report of molecular cloning and characterization of full length cDNA of encoding a putative stress-induced heat shock HSPA6 protein (also called HSP70B') from Arabian camel. A full-length cDNA (2417 bp) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and cloned in pET-b expression vector. The sequence analysis of HSPA6 gene showed 1932 bp-long open reading frame encoding 643 amino acids. The complete cDNA sequence of the Arabian camel HSPA6 gene was submitted to NCBI GeneBank (accession number HQ214118.1). The BLAST analysis indicated that C. dromedaries HSPA6 gene nucleotides shared high similarity (77-91%) with heat shock gene nucleotide of other mammals. The deduced 643 amino acid sequences (accession number ADO12067.1) showed that the predicted protein has an estimated molecular weight of 70.5 kDa with a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.0. The comparative analyses of camel HSPA6 protein sequences with other mammalian heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed high identity (80-94%). Predicted camel HSPA6 protein structure using Protein 3D structural analysis high similarities with human and mouse HSPs. Taken together, this study indicates that the cDNA sequences of HSPA6 gene and its amino acid and protein structure from the Arabian camel are highly conserved and have similarities with other mammalian species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155347PMC
January 2015

Nod factor [Nod Bj V (C(18:1), MeFuc)] and lumichrome enhance photosynthesis and growth of corn and soybean.

J Plant Physiol 2008 Sep 10;165(13):1342-51. Epub 2008 Jan 10.

Department of Plant and Animal Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada.

The foliar application of Nod factor [Nod Bj V (C(18:1), MeFuc)] enhanced (P<0.05) the photosynthetic rate of corn; the increases were 36%, 23% and 12% for 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10)M treated plants, respectively. Similarly, lumichrome at 10(-5) and 10(-6)M stimulated the photosynthetic rate of corn plants 1 and 2 days after application. Lumichrome (10(-5) and 10(-6)M) also increased the photosynthetic rates of soybean plants 3 days after treatment. Foliar applications of LCO (10(-6)M) to corn and soybean and of lumichrome (10(-5)M) to soybean increased leaf area, shoot dry mass and total dry mass relative to control plants. However, lumichrome treatments did not affect any growth variable of corn. Results of this study indicate that this signal compound can enhance the photosynthetic rate and growth of plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2007.11.001DOI Listing
September 2008

Chitosan and chitin oligomers increase phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities in soybean leaves.

J Plant Physiol 2003 Aug;160(8):859-63

Department of Plant Science, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9, Canada.

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL, 4.3.1.), the key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, are inducible in response to biotic (such as chitin from fungal cell walls) and abiotic cues. Application of chitin and chitosan to soybean leaf tissues caused increased activity of PAL and TAL enzymes. The elevation of enzyme activity was dependent on the chain length of the oligomers and time after treatment. The hexamer of chitin and pentamer of chitosan produced the maximum activities at 36 h after treatment as compared to controls. Total phenolic content of soybean leaves increased following chitosan and chitin oligomer treatments, showing a positive correlation between enzyme activity and total phenolic content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0176-1617-00905DOI Listing
August 2003

Photosynthetic responses of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates.

J Plant Physiol 2003 May;160(5):485-92

Plant Science Department, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21, 111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-De-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3V9.

Salicylic acid (SA) and related phenolic compounds can exert control over stomatal opening and previous work in our laboratory has shown that chronic injection of SA increases the photosynthetic rate of corn. The work reported in this paper investigated the effects of foliar applied SA, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and gentisic acid (GTA) on photosynthetic rates and growth of soybean (a C3 plant) and corn (a C4 plant) under greenhouse conditions. In general, the tested compounds enhanced photosynthetic rates in both soybean and corn. Stomatal conductance and transpiration were also increased. These compounds do not alter chlorophyll content. In some cases treatment with these compounds resulted in increased leaf areas and plant dry mass, however, plant height and root length were not affected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0176-1617-00865DOI Listing
May 2003