Publications by authors named "Wai L Lau"

4 Publications

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Using yeast surface display to engineer a soluble and crystallizable construct of hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1).

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2021 Jan 22;77(Pt 1):22-28. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Molecular Structure and Design, Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, PO Box 4000, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000, USA.

Hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) is an intracellular kinase that plays an important role in modulating tumor immune response and thus is an attractive target for drug discovery. Crystallization of the wild-type HPK1 kinase domain has been hampered by poor expression in recombinant systems and poor solubility. In this study, yeast surface display was applied to a library of HPK1 kinase-domain variants in order to select variants with an improved expression level and solubility. The HPK1 variant with the most improved properties contained two mutations, crystallized readily in complex with several small-molecule inhibitors and provided valuable insight to guide structure-based drug design. This work exemplifies the benefit of yeast surface display towards engineering crystallizable proteins and thus enabling structure-based drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2053230X20016015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805552PMC
January 2021

Optimal timing of hepatitis B virus DNA quantification and clinical predictors for higher viral load during pregnancy.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2019 10 4;98(10):1301-1306. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Introduction: Authorities publish recommendations on the hepatitis B virus (HBV) viral load threshold to initiate antiviral treatment but the timing of quantification during pregnancy is not well defined. HBV DNA levels in pregnancy women at 28-30 weeks predict the risk of immunoprophylaxis failure. This study compared and evaluated the correlation between HBV DNA levels before 22 and 28-30 weeks' gestation. Clinical predictive factors for HBV DNA >6, 7 and 8 log  IU/mL were studied.

Material And Methods: A retrospective analysis of HBV DNA levels of women <22 and 28-30 weeks of gestation was carried out in 352 pregnant HBV carriers. HBV DNA was examined using the COBAS TaqMan HBV Monitor Test coupled with the COBAS Ampliprep extraction system (Both Roche Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ, USA).

Results: A strong positive correlation was found between the viral loads of women <22 weeks (mean 16.7 weeks) and 28-30 weeks of gestation, which was independent of the viral load level and gestational age of quantification (r = 0.942, P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), maternal age <35 years old and body mass index ≤21 kg/m were associated with a higher mean viral load at 28-30 weeks of gestation (P < 0.05). These factors were also associated with a higher chance of viral load >6, 7 and 8 log  IU/mL at 28-30 weeks (P < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis, only the viral load of <22 weeks and positive HBeAg remained predictive of a higher mean viral load at 28-30 weeks of gestation (P < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the HBV DNA of <22 weeks was an excellent predictor for different viral load cut-offs at 28-30 weeks. The area under curve was 0.986, 0.998 and 0.994 for viral load 6, 7 and 8 log  IU/mL, respectively.

Conclusions: HBV DNA quantification should be performed before 22 weeks of gestation. Viral load cut-offs similar to those at 28 weeks can be used to determine immunoprophylaxis failure at earlier gestation. Maternal positive HBeAg status was associated with a higher chance of viral load >6, 7 or 8 log  IU/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13631DOI Listing
October 2019

Treatment of Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis in the Elderly.

Blood Purif 2018 26;45(1-3):208-212. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

As the population worldwide ages, the epidemic of kidney disease will also increase. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) positive rapidly progressive positive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is the most common etiology for biopsied patients among the very elderly. Its pathological features and clinical course are well described, though there is still debate about the mechanism of injury involved in individual patients. From very ancient times, the cornerstone of treatment historically has been high-dose cyclophosphamide and a lengthy course of high-dose corticosteroids. Although this regimen has diminished the immediate mortality rate of RPGN, its intermediate and long-term adverse effects are not insignificant. Attempts to minimize toxicity and improve efficacy have been made through the years to allow physicians some options for therapy. Lower cumulative cyclophosphamide regimens, shorter corticosteroid courses, and the introduction of rituximab have modified the armamentarium for treatment of ANCA positive RPGN. As progress is made in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of this disease, new targets will be found for potential therapeutic attack. The complement system is an area of active interest for all glomerular diseases at this time. Indeed, animal studies and preliminary human studies suggest that targeting the complement system can ameliorate the course of ANCA-positive RPGN. Hopefully, as the population ages, we will see more and safer therapeutic options to treat this once rapidly fatal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485367DOI Listing
February 2019

Isolating and engineering human antibodies using yeast surface display.

Nat Protoc 2006 ;1(2):755-68

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biological Engineering Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue E19-563, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

This protocol describes the process of isolating and engineering antibodies or proteins for increased affinity and stability using yeast surface display. Single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) are first isolated from an existing nonimmune human library displayed on the yeast surface using magnetic-activated cell sorting selection followed by selection using flow cytometry. This enriched population is then mutagenized, and successive rounds of random mutagenesis and flow cytometry selection are done to attain desired scFv properties through directed evolution. Labeling strategies for weakly binding scFvs are also described, as well as procedures for characterizing and 'titrating' scFv clones displayed on yeast. The ultimate result of following this protocol is a panel of scFvs with increased stability and affinity for an antigen of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2006.94DOI Listing
September 2007