Publications by authors named "Wafa Abdullah Al-Megrin"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

An In-Silico Investigation to Design a Multi-Epitopes Vaccine against Multi-Drug Resistant .

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jul 15;10(7). Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia.

Antimicrobial resistance has become a significant health issue because of the misuse of antibiotics in our daily lives, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative and facultative anaerobic bacteria. The medical community has emphasized 's possible association with gastroenteritis. As of now, there is no licensed vaccine for , and as such, computer aided vaccine design approaches could be an ideal approach to highlight the potential vaccine epitopes against this bacteria. By using bacterial pan-genome analysis (BPGA), we were able to study the entire proteomes of with the aim of developing a vaccine. Based on the analysis, 20,370 proteins were identified as core proteins, which were further used in identifying potential vaccine targets based on several vaccine candidacy parameters. The prioritized vaccine targets against the bacteria are; type 1 fimbrial protein, flagellar hook length control protein (FliK), flagellar hook associated protein (FlgK), curli production assembly/transport protein (CsgF), fimbria/pilus outer membrane usher protein, fimbria/pilus outer membrane usher protein, molecular chaperone, flagellar filament capping protein (FliD), TonB-dependent hemoglobin /transferrin/lactoferrin family receptor, Porin (OmpA), flagellar basal body rod protein (FlgF) and flagellar hook-basal body complex protein (FliE). During the epitope prediction phase, different antigenic, immunogenic, non-Allergenic, and non-Toxic epitopes were predicted for the above-mentioned proteins. The selected epitopes were combined to generate a multi-epitope vaccine construct and a cholera toxin B subunit (adjuvant) was added to enhance the vaccine's antigenicity. Downward analyses of vaccines were performed using a vaccine three-dimensional model. Docking studies have confirmed that the vaccine strongly binds with MHC-I, MHC-II, and TLR-4 immune cell receptors. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations confirmed that the vaccine epitopes were exposed to nature and to the host immune system and interpreted strong intermolecular binding between the vaccine and receptors. Based on the results of the study, the model vaccine construct seems to have the capacity to produce protective immune responses in the host, making it an attractive candidate for further in vitro and in vivo studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9316606PMC
July 2022

Ginger Is a Potential Therapeutic for Chronic Toxoplasmosis.

Pathogens 2022 Jul 15;11(7). Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21131, Egypt.

() is an opportunistic parasite that causes serious diseases in humans, particularly immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. To date, there are limited numbers of therapeutics for chronic toxoplasmosis which necessitate the discovery of effective and safe therapeutics. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the antitoxoplasmosis potential of ginger extract in mice with experimentally induced chronic toxoplasmosis. Treatment with ginger extract significantly reduced cysts count in the brains of -infected mice with a marked alleviation of edema and inflammation, and a reversal of neuronal injury. Moreover, ginger extract treatment reduced inflammation in liver and lungs and protected hepatocytes from infection-induced degeneration. Consistently, apoptosis was significantly mitigated in the brains of ginger extract-treated mice compared to infected untreated animals or spiramycin-treated animals. Four groups of Swiss albino mice (10 mice each) were used. The first group was not infected, whereas 3 groups were infected with Me49 strains. One infected group remained untreated (infected untreated), whereas the other two infected groups were treated with either ginger extract (250 mg/kg) or spiramycin (positive control; 100 mg/kg), respectively. The therapeutic potential of ginger extract was evaluated by calculation of the parasite burden in infected animals, and examination of the infected tissues for reduced pathologic changes. Our results showed for the first time that ginger extract exhibited marked therapeutic effects in mice with chronic infection which indicates that it can be used as a safe and effective treatment for chronic toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11070798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9315699PMC
July 2022

Design of a Multi-Epitopes Based Chimeric Vaccine against Using Pan-Genome and Reverse Vaccinology Approaches.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 1;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia.

(EC) is a significant emerging pathogen that is occasionally associated with lung infection, surgical site infection, urinary infection, sepsis, and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units. In light of the fact that there is currently no approved vaccine or therapeutic option for the treatment of EC, the current study was developed to concentrate on applications based on modern computational approaches to design a multi-epitope-based peptide vaccine (MEBEPV) expressing the antigenic determinants prioritized from the EC genome. Integrated computational analyses identified two potential protein targets (phosphoporin protein-PhoE and putative outer-membrane porin protein) for further exploration on the basis of pangenome subtractive proteomics and immunoinformatic in-depth examination of the core proteomes. Then, a multi-epitope peptide vaccine was designed, which comprised shortlisted epitopes that were capable of eliciting both innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the cholera toxin's B-subunit, which was used as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation. To ensure maximum expression, the vaccine's 3D structure was developed and the loop was refined, improving the stability by disulfide engineering, and the physicochemical characteristics of the recombinant vaccine sequence were found to be ideal for both in vitro and in vivo experimentation. Blind docking was then used for the prediction of the MEBEPV predominant blinding mode with MHCI, MHCII, and TLR3 innate immune receptors, with lowest global energy of -18.64 kJ/mol, -48.25 kJ/mol, and -5.20 kJ/mol for MHC-I, MHC-II, and TLR-4, respectively, with docked complexes considered for simulation. In MD and MMGBSA investigations, the docked models of MEBEPV-TLR3, MEBEPV-MHCI, and MEBEPV-MHCII were found to be stable during the course of the simulation. MM-GBSA analysis calculated -122.17 total net binding free energies for the TLR3-vaccine complex, -125.4 for the MHC I-vaccine complex, and -187.94 for the MHC II-vaccine complex. Next, MM-PBSA analysis calculated -115.63 binding free energy for the TLR3-vaccine complex, -118.19 for the MHC I-vaccine complex, and -184.61 for the MHC II-vaccine complex. When the vaccine was tested in silico, researchers discovered that it was capable of inducing both types of immune responses (cell mediated and humoral) at the same time. Even though the suggested MEBEPV has the potential to be a powerful contender against -associated illnesses, further testing in the laboratory will be required before it can be declared safe and immunogenic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9227637PMC
June 2022

Circulation of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 in Humans and Mosquitoes During an Outbreak in El Quseir City, Egypt.

Infect Drug Resist 2022 30;15:2713-2721. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

Introduction: In recent decades, the rate of infection with dengue virus (DENV) has risen significantly, now affecting nearly 400 million individuals annually. Dengue fever among humans is caused via specific mosquito vectors bites. Sporadic cases have been reported in Egypt. The goal of this study was to identify the serotype of the DENV outbreak in both human and mosquito vector along the coast of the Red Sea, Upper Egypt, in 2017. Identification of the serotype of the virus may help identify its source and assist in applying epidemiological and control measures.

Materials And Methods: The current study was carried out in El Quseir City, Red Sea Governorate, Upper Egypt, on 144 patients complaining of symptoms indicative of dengue fever at the time of the 2017 Egypt outbreak. Human blood samples and the mosquito reservoirs were identified as having dengue virus infection serologically and molecularly.

Results: Overall, 97 (67.4%) patients were positive for dengue virus IgM antibodies. Molecular examination of the human samples and pools of mosquitoes revealed that DENV-2 virus was the serotype responsible for the outbreak. Only one pool of female mosquitoes containing was infected with dengue fever virus (DENV-2).

Conclusion: This was the first serotyping of the DENV responsible for dengue virus outbreak in Egypt in 2017. Determining the serotype of dengue virus can help to avoid and monitor outbreaks. The serotype identified in this study was DENV-2, while DENV-1 was the serotype found in the previous outbreak in 2015 in the province of Assiut. This study thus raises concerns that a new dengue serotype could have been introduced into Egypt. It is necessary for a comprehensive risk assessment to be carried out in the country, including an entomological survey, to assess the presence and potential geographical expansion of mosquito vectors there.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S360675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9165652PMC
May 2022

Discovery of Rift Valley fever virus natural pan-inhibitors by targeting its multiple key proteins through computational approaches.

Sci Rep 2022 06 3;12(1):9260. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, 51452, Saudi Arabia.

The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus and pathogenic to both humans and animals. Currently, no proven effective RVFV drugs or licensed vaccine are available for human or animal use. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop effective treatment options to control this viral infection. RVFV glycoprotein N (GN), glycoprotein C (GC), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins are attractive antiviral drug targets due to their critical roles in RVFV replication. In present study, an integrated docking-based virtual screening of more than 6000 phytochemicals with known antiviral activities against these conserved RVFV proteins was conducted. The top five hit compounds, calyxin C, calyxin D, calyxin J, gericudranins A, and blepharocalyxin C displayed optimal binding against all three target proteins. Moreover, multiple parameters from the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and MM/GBSA analysis confirmed the stability of protein-ligand complexes and revealed that these compounds may act as potential pan-inhibitors of RVFV replication. Our computational analyses may contribute toward the development of promising effective drugs against RVFV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13267-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9163866PMC
June 2022

Cytoprotective Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antifibrotic Impact of Celery Seed Oil and Manuka Honey Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rabbits.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 17;2022:2863023. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Mutah, Jordan.

Patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CP) usually suffer from severe hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). Our previous study exhibited that mesna + celery cotherapy partially ameliorated HC. Therefore, there is a substantial need to seek alternative regimens to get complete protection against CP-induced HC. The current study investigated the effects of mesna + celery seed oil (MCSO) or mesna + manuka honey (MMH) cotherapy against CP-induced HC in adult male rabbits. The forty rabbits were divided into four equal groups and treated for three weeks. The control group (G1) received distilled water and the second group (G2) received CP (50 mg/kg/week). The third group (G3) received CP + MCSO (CPMCSO regimen), and the fourth group (G4) received CP + MMH (CPMMH regimen). The urinary bladder (UB) specimens were processed to evaluate UB changes through histopathological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and biochemical investigations. In G2, CP provoked HC features (urothelial necrosis, ulceration, and sloughing), UB fibrosis, and TNF- immunoexpression. Besides, CP reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx1, SOD3, and CAT) and elevated the serum levels of NF-B, TNF-, IL-1B, and IL-6 cytokines in G2 rabbits. In contrast, the CPMMH regimen caused significant increments of UB protection against HC in G4 rabbits compared to the partial protection by the CPMCSO regimen in G3. Therefore, our study indicated for the first time that the novel CPMMH regimen resulted in complete UB protection against CP-induced HC via combined antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2863023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8947928PMC
March 2022

Prevalence and Significance of Pyuria in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in Saudi Arabia.

J Pers Med 2021 Aug 25;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Sam Houston State University, Conroe, TX 77304, USA.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a major health problem, which poses a burden for health care systems worldwide. It has been estimated that 10% of the population worldwide have CKD; however, most of the cases are undiagnosed. If left untreated, CKD could lead to kidney failure, which highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Pyuria has been reported in CKD patients, and could be the result of several comorbidities, such as diabetes, or urinary tract infections (UTIs). A few studies have shown that pyuria is associated with the late stages of CKD. However, there are limited data on the prevalence of non-UTI (sterile) and UTI-pyuria in different CKD patient populations, and its association with the decline in kidney function and progression of CKD. In this retrospective study, we report the prevalence of pyuria (sterile and UTI) in 754 CKD patients of King Fahd Specialist Hospital, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. Our data showed that 164/754 CKD patients (21.8%) had pyuria, whereas 590 patients (78.2%) presented with no pyuria. There was a significantly higher percentage of late-stage (stage 4) CKD patients in the pyuric group compared to the non-pyuric group (36.6% vs. 11.9%). In line with the previous data, proteinuria was detected in a significantly higher percentage of pyuric patients, in addition to significantly higher levels of serum creatinine and urea, compared to non-pyuric patients. Furthermore, 13.4% of the pyuric CKD patients had UTI, whereas 86.6% presented with sterile pyuria. was indicated as the causative agent in 45.5% of UTI patients. Our patient data analysis showed that a significantly higher percentage of UTI-pyuric CKD patients, than sterile pyuric patients (63.6% vs. 19.7%), had higher numbers of urinary white blood cells (>50/HPF, WBCs). The data also showed that a higher percentage of UTI-pyuric patients were late-stage CKD patients, compared to sterile pyuric patients (50% vs. 34.5%). Our findings indicate that a high level of pyuria could be considered as a marker for late-stage CKD, and that UTI is an important risk factor for the decline in kidney function and the progression to late-stage CKD. We believe that further studies are needed to correlate pyuria to kidney function, which could be helpful in monitoring the progression of CKD. Moreover, the management of comorbidities, such as diabetes and UTIs, which are risk factors for CKD and associated pyuria, could help to control the progression of CKD to the late stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470286PMC
August 2021

Biological Potential of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by and Extracts.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 18;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Biology, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 84428, Saudi Arabia.

Awareness about environmental concerns is increasing, specially the pollution resulting from nanoparticles (NPs) production, which has led to great interest in the usage of biogenic agents for their fabrication. The current investigation used eco-friendly organic phytomolecules from and leaves extract for the first time in the fabrication of silver NPs from silver ions and further an assessment of their biological activities was performed. The leaves extract from both plant sources were used as capping and reducing agents and added to AgNO. The mixtures were observed for colour changes, and after a stable dark brown colour was obtained, the NPs were separated and further investigated using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was employed to determine the active organic ingredients in the plant extracts. The prepared NPs were tested against three cell lines (two cancer ones and one normal control) and the effects observed using TEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM). Antibacterial activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative species was examined and the synergistic effect of the ampicillin-NPs conjugate was studied. Findings showed successful conversion of Ag ions into L-AgNPs and R-AgNPs achieved using extracts, respectively. A mean size of 112.9 nm for L-AgNPs and 151.7 nm for R-AgNPs and negative zeta potentials were noted. TEM analysis showed spherical NPs and EDS indicated Ag at 3 keV. Reduction in cancer cell viability with low half-maximal inhibitory concentrations was noted for both tested NPs. Structural changes and apoptotic features in the treated cancer cell lines were noted by TEM and cell death was confirmed by LSM. Furthermore, higher antibacterial activity was noticed against Gram positive compared with Gram negative bacteria as well as high synergistic effect was noted for the Amp-NPs conjugate, specially against Gram positive bacteria. The current investigation has thus developed an eco-friendly NPs synthesis route by applying plant extracts to efficiently produce NPs endowed with potential cytotoxic and antibacterial capacity, which therefore could be recommended as new approaches to overcome human diseases with minimal environmental impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11082098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401648PMC
August 2021

Integrative bioinformatics approaches to map key biological markers and therapeutic drugs in Extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254678. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an intra-epidermal adenocarcinoma. Till now, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of scrotal EMPD is poorly known. This present study aims to explore the knowledge of molecular mechanism of scrotal EMPD by identifying the hub genes and candidate drugs using integrated bioinformatics approaches. Firstly, the microarray datasets (GSE117285) were downloaded from the GEO database and then analyzed using GEO2R in order to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Moreover, hub genes were identified on the basis of their degree of connectivity using Cytohubba plugin of cytoscape tool. Finally, GEPIA and DGIdb were used for the survival analysis and selection of therapeutic candidates, respectively. A total of 786 DEGs were identified, of which 10 genes were considered as hub genes on the basis of the highest degree of connectivity. After the survival analysis of ten hub genes, a total of 5 genes were found to be altered in EMPD patients. Furthermore, 14 drugs of CHEK1, CCNA2, and CDK1 were found to have therapeutic potential against EMPD. This study updates the information and yields a new perspective in the context of understanding the pathogenesis of EMPD. In future, hub genes and candidate drugs might be capable of improving the personalized detection and therapies for EMPD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254678PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297842PMC
November 2021

Mulberry extract as an ecofriendly anticoccidial agent: in vitro and in vivo application.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 21;29(4):e009820. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Natural products are ecofriendly agents that can be used against parasitic diseases. Eimeria species cause eimeriosis in many birds and mammals and resistance to available medications used in the treatment of eimeriosis is emerging. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activity of Morus nigra leaf extracts (MNLE) against sporulation of oocysts and infection of mice with Eimeria papillata. Phytochemical analysis of MNLE showed the presence of seven compounds and the in vitro effects of MNLE, amprolium, DettolTM, formalin, ethanol, and phenol were studied after incubation with oocysts before sporulation. Furthermore, infection of mice with E. papillata induced an oocyst output of approximately 12 × 105 oocysts/g of feces. MNLE significantly decreased oocyst output to approximately 86% and the total number of parasitic stages in the jejunum by approximately 87%. In addition, the reduction in the number of goblet cells in the jejuna of mice was increased after treatment. These findings suggest that mulberry exhibited powerful anticoccidial activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612020072DOI Listing
January 2021

Citrox Improves the Quality and Shelf Life of Chicken Fillets Packed under Vacuum and Protects against Some Foodborne Pathogens.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Dec 2;9(12). Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agriculture Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Natural antibacterial agents such as citrox are effective against many foodborne pathogens and foods contaminated with bacteria. We studied the antimicrobial effects of citrox solutions (1% and 2%) on the total viable counts of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) in chicken meat fillets. The total coliform group counts found in the chicken samples were also determined. The samples were treated with at a concentration of 10 colony-forming units (cfu)/g of meat and vacuum-packed (VP) at 4 °C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 days. We also studied the effect of citrox on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content and pH changes during the storage period of the meat samples. The results revealed that citrox inhibited the growth of MRSA in the chicken fillets. The total viable counts of MRSA decreased after treatment with 2% citrox in all treated samples that were stored at 4 °C by approximately 2 log units compared with the samples inoculated with (Chicken-Staph groups) after 3, 6, 9, and 12 days of storage, and by approximately 1 log unit compared with the control samples treated with salt (Chicken-Salt groups) after 3, 6, and 9 days of storage. TVBN was reduced in the Chicken-Citrox-treated samples stored at 4 °C compared with the Chicken-Staph- and Chicken-Salt-treated samples. The results indicated that citrox is effective in reducing the total counts of MRSA and in improving the quality of chicken during the first three days of storage by reducing the number of bacteria by 1 log unit and extending the shelf life of chicken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9121062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941069PMC
December 2019
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