Publications by authors named "W Ted Brown"

4,910 Publications

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Biogeography and adaptation in the Kuril Islands, Northeast Asia.

World Archaeol 2019 5;51(3):429-453. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The Circumpolar North is generally recognized as a challenging environment to inhabit and yet, we know relatively little about how people managed their welfare in these places. Here, we add to the understanding of maritime hunter-gatherers in the subarctic North Pacific through a comparative approach that synthesizes biogeographic and archaeological data from the Kuril Islands. We conclude that our faunal, ceramic and lithic evidence support expectations from biogeography as assemblages from low biodiversity and insular regions show limited diet breadth, more locally produced pottery and a conservation of lithic resources. However, we highlight that these ecological factors did not strictly determine the occupation history of the archipelago as radiocarbon data suggests all regions experienced similar demographic fluctuations regard-less of their biogeography. These results imply additional pressures influenced the strategic use and settlement of the Kuril Islands and the need for increased chronological resolution to disentangle these complex historical factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2019.1715248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112735PMC
February 2020

Alexithymia and Somatization in Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Fuller Graduate School of Psychology, Travis Research Institute, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Deficient communication between the cerebral hemispheres is one of several prevailing neurobiological explanations for alexithymia and has been strongly supported by research on patients with commissurotomy. We examined self-reported symptoms of alexithymia in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), a condition characterized by more subtle reductions in interhemispheric transfer than in commissurotomy. 16 adults with AgCC and FSIQ > 80 were compared with 15 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls. The AgCC group endorsed greater difficulty identifying and describing feelings and more vague physical symptoms than controls, but similar levels of emotional experience and emotional coping. This finding of impaired emotional interpretation with intact emotional experience is consistent with findings in callosotomy patients, implicating the critical role of the corpus callosum in cognitive dimensions of emotion processing. Further study of alexithymia in AgCC using task-based measures may help clarify the nature of this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsab056DOI Listing
May 2021

Associations between Device-measured Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health in the Transition to Early Adulthood.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil Department of Sport Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway Department of Chronic Diseases and Ageing, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Purposes: The aims of this study were to investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between accelerometer-measured physical activity and cardiometabolic health in the transition to adulthood.

Methods: Data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort were analysed (N=2,280). Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA, measured using a triaxial accelerometer) and cardiometabolic health (total fat mass, blood glucose, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and mean resting blood pressure) were examined at age 18 and 22 yr.

Results: Overall, inverse dose-response associations between MVPA and cardiometabolic health at age 18 and 22 yr were observed in cross-sectional analyses of data from males and females. Prospective analyses showed that, in general, MVPA declined, and cardiometabolic health worsened in this 4-yr period in both males and females. Cardiometabolic health at age 22 reflected both MVPA at age 18 [β: -0.007 (95% CI: -0.014; 0.000)] and changes in MVPA from 18 to 22 yr [β: -0.030 (95% CI: -0.043; -0.016)] in males, but only changes in MVPA in females [β: -0.035 (95% CI: -0.058; -0.011)]. In analyses of change over time, males who improved MVPA by 20-30 min per day showed significant improvements in cardiometabolic health over 4 yr. The magnitude of association was slightly stronger for MVPA in 10-min bouts than for MVPA accumulated in bouts of 1-min, especially in females.

Conclusion: MVPA is an important predictor of cardiometabolic health in early adulthood. Strategies to prevent declines in MVPA at this life stage are required to prevent deteriorating cardiometabolic health profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002696DOI Listing
May 2021

Induction of APOBEC3 exacerbates DNA replication stress and chromosomal instability in early breast and lung cancer evolution.

Cancer Discov 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Francis Crick Institute.

APOBEC3 enzymes are cytosine deaminases implicated in cancer. Precisely when APOBEC3 expression is induced during cancer development remains to be defined. Here we show that specific APOBEC3 genes are upregulated in breast DCIS, and in pre-invasive lung cancer lesions coincident with cellular proliferation. We observe evidence of APOBEC3-mediated subclonal mutagenesis propagated from TRACERx pre-invasive to invasive NSCLC lesions. We find that APOBEC3B exacerbates DNA replication stress and chromosomal instability through incomplete replication of genomic DNA, manifested by accumulation of mitotic ultrafine bridges and 53BP1 nuclear bodies in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Analysis of TRACERx NSCLC clinical samples and mouse lung cancer models, revealed APOBEC3B expression driving replication stress and chromosome missegregation. We propose that APOBEC3 is functionally implicated in the onset of chromosomal instability and somatic mutational heterogeneity in pre-invasive disease, providing fuel for selection early in cancer evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0725DOI Listing
May 2021

Trajectories and determinants of weight gain in two cohorts of young adult women born 16 years apart.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Research on Exercise, Physical Activity and Health, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: The aims were to compare: (1) baseline weights and weight gain trajectories; (2) sociodemographic, behavioural and health characteristics driving weight gain; and (3) estimated average weight in 20 years' time, in two cohorts of young women.

Methods: Data were from 16066 participants in two population-based cohorts of young adult women, born in 1973-78 ("GenX") and 1989-95 ("millennials"). Weight was reported at baseline (age 18-23 in both cohorts) and 4 years later. High weight gain was defined as >2.5% per year. Data were analysed in 2020.

Results: Women born in 1989-95 were almost 4 kg heavier at age 18-23 and gained weight over 4 years 1.7 times faster than those born in 1973-78. Prevalence of high weight gain was 34.2% in the 1989-95 cohort and 24% in the 1973-78 cohort. In both cohorts, older age, higher education and high physical activity were associated with lower odds of high weight gain, and more hours in paid work, poorer self-rated health and higher baseline BMI were associated with higher odds of high weight gain. Five factors (outer regional areas, one child, ex or current smoker, high stress and depression) were determinants of high weight gain in the 1989-95 cohort, but not in the 1973-78 cohort. Based on average weight at age 21 and annual percentage weight gain, we estimate that women born in 1989-95 will, on average, be 16.7 kg heavier at age 41 (93.2 kg), than women in the 1973-78 cohort (76.5 kg).

Conclusion: High weight gain was evident in every sociodemographic group in both cohorts but most evident in millennial women with high levels of stress and depression. Without effective weight gain prevention strategies we estimate that more than 50% of the millennial women will be in the obese BMI category in 20 years. This will have serious economic, health and societal consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-021-00819-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8090508PMC
May 2021