Publications by authors named "W Ray Waters"

606 Publications

Use of blood matrices and alternative biological fluids for antibody detection in animal tuberculosis.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Jul 22;239:110303. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1920 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA, 50010, USA.

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control programs can be improved by implementation of advanced ante-mortem testing algorithms. Serodiagnostic methods using traditional blood or blood-derived specimens may benefit from the use of less invasive alternative biological fluids, provided those mirror systemic antibody responses. In the present study, we used Dual Path Platform (DPP) and Multiantigen Print Immunoassay (MAPIA) to compare antibody levels in ten sample types including whole blood (fresh and hemolyzed), plasma (fresh and leftover from Bovigam testing), serum, saliva, broncho-alveolar lavage, urine, diaphragm extract, and bile collected from cattle aerosol-infected with Mycobacterium bovis. High correlation (r = 0.97-0.99) in measurements of IgG antibodies to MPB70/MPB83 fusion antigen by DPP assay was found between all blood-derived specimens, supporting matrix equivalency. Broncho-alveolar lavage and diaphragm extract yielded positive results in all the infected animals tested, showing high correlation with matching serum data (r = 0.94 and r = 0.95, respectively) and suggesting their potential use in antibody assays. Characterized by MAPIA, the antigen reactivity patterns obtained with paired sera and alternative specimens were nearly identical, with slight differences in intensity. Antibodies were also found by DPP assay in saliva, urine, and bile from some of the infected animals, but the titers were relatively low, thus reducing the diagnostic value of such specimens. The proposed approach was evaluated in a pilot field study on warthogs diagnosed with M. bovis infection. Relative levels of antibody in tissue fluid obtained from lymph nodes or lungs were consistent with those detected in sera and detectable in all infected warthogs. The findings support the diagnostic utility of non-traditional biological fluids and tissue samples when used as alternative test specimens in serologic assays for bTB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110303DOI Listing
July 2021

Caliata: An Indigenous Community in Ecuador Offers Lessons on Food Sovereignty and Sustainable Diets.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 Jun 13;5(Suppl 4):61-73. Epub 2021 May 13.

Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: To achieve a healthy sustainable food system globally, it is imperative to understand how local food systems can provide healthy and sustainable conditions.

Objective: To explore, through the indigenous community of Caliata in the Ecuadorian highlands, the factors that support or hinder sustainable Andean food systems.

Methods: We designed a participatory mixed-methods study in Caliata (Chimborazo, Ecuador) and an inclusive and transdisciplinary research process with constant member checking. The study combined culturally validated qualitative methods ( = 49), agroecology-based site analysis, and household surveys ( = 57), including a modified 48-h recall. We used the NOVA food classification system to categorize the diet according to levels of processing and analyzed categorical and numeric data to understand the interplay of parcel size, agrodiversity, and diet diversity.

Results: First, the agroecological space is defined by the stewardship of Pachamama (Mother Nature), a central role in Andean cosmovision, leading to trophic interactions and cycles characterized by a diversity of heterarchical social organizations and agroecologically useful species. Second, consistency was found in dietary patterns; all respondents consume their produce, fruits being the most popular snack (in a 24-h period, 70% reported an average of 2.2 servings), and two-thirds of households' consumption represent unprocessed or minimally processed foods. Third, gendered agriculture and population aging represent demographic challenges, while chronic health problems remain relatively infrequent compared with the general population. Fourth, food sovereignty is an ecocentric concept based on production, exchanges of seeds and produce, consumption of produce, and knowledge of how agroecological space is treated. This system represents a nutrient loop tied to a system of knowledge about how to care for soil, land, and the ecological community.

Conclusions: Caliata provides important perspectives on linkages between diet, biodiversity, use of agroecological space, and rural-urban dynamics. This small indigenous community offers lessons for achieving both healthy ecosystems and food security.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzab009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242225PMC
June 2021

Comparative cellular immune responses in calves after infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, M. kansasii and M. bovis.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Jul 19;237:110268. Epub 2021 May 19.

USDA-ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, United States.

In the present study, calves were infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. avium), Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii), or Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) to determine differences in cellular immunity. Comparative cellular responses were assessed upon stimulation of cells with mycobacterial whole cell sonicates respective of each infection group. Antigen-specific whole blood interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were observed in all infection groups compared to noninfected control calves, however, responses were more robust for M. bovis calves. Upon antigen stimulation of PBMCs, secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10 was higher for M. bovis calves compared to other infection groups. In contrast, IL-12 secretion was lower for M. bovis calves compared to MAP infected calves. Within the total PBMC population, higher numbers of CD4+, CD8+, and γδ TCR + T cells were observed for MAP and M. avium calves compared to M. bovis calves. This aligned with higher expression of CD26 on these subpopulations for MAP and M. avium calves, as well. In contrast, greater expression of CD25 was observed on CD4+ and γδ TCR + T cells and natural killer cells for M. bovis calves. Overall, similarities in cellular immune responses were observed between the closely related MAP and M. avium during infection of calves. In contrast, significant differences were noted between calves infected with MAP and M. bovis. This suggests that host immune responses to different mycobacteria may impact interpretation of diagnostic tools based upon their cellular immunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110268DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessing Upstream Determinants of Antibiotic Use in Small-Scale Food Animal Production through a Simulated Client Method.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Dec 23;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA.

Small-scale food animal production has been celebrated as a means of economic mobility and improved food security but the use of veterinary antibiotics among these producers may be contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance in animals and humans. In order to improve antibiotic stewardship in this sector, it is critical to identify the drivers of producers' antibiotic use. This study assessed the determinants of antibiotic use in small-scale food animal production through simulated client visits to veterinary supply stores and surveys with households that owned food animals ( = 117) in Ecuador. Eighty percent of households with food animals owned chickens and 78% of those with chickens owned fewer than 10 birds. Among the households with small-scale food animals, 21% reported giving antibiotics to their food animals within the last six months. Simulated client visits indicated that veterinary sales agents frequently recommended inappropriate antibiotic use, as 66% of sales agents recommended growth promoting antibiotics, and 48% of sales agents recommended an antibiotic that was an inappropriate class for disease treatment. In contrast, few sales agents (3%) were willing to sell colistin, an antibiotic banned for veterinary use in Ecuador as of January 2020, which supports the effectiveness of government regulation in antibiotic stewardship. The cumulative evidence provided by this study indicates that veterinary sales agents play an active role in promoting indiscriminate and inappropriate use of antibiotics in small-scale food animal production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10010002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822171PMC
December 2020

Fetal brain ultrasound measures and maternal nutrition: A feasibility study in Ecuador.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 03 16;33(2):e23467. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Brown School, Institute for Public Health, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: Nutrition during pregnancy is an important modifiable determinant of fetal growth and development. This pilot study aimed to characterize the association between fetal anthropometry, fetal brain development, and maternal diet among women in Ecuador using portable ultrasound in resource-limited clinics, including measurements of brain structures not typically imaged in this setting.

Methods: Pregnant women (n = 47) from four resource-limited health centers were surveyed on demographic, socioeconomic, morbidity, and dietary information. Maternal height, weight, and blood pressure were taken. A sonographer took 15 images per participant, including those standardly assessed during the fetal survey and additional brain structures identified as potentially responsive to maternal nutrition, but not part of the standard fetal survey.

Results: Mean percentiles for all standard fetal survey measurements generated from WHO Fetal Growth Curves fell below 50%, and negative mean Z scores were found for biparietal diameter (-0.95 ± 1.11) and femur length (-0.22 ± 1.10). Generalized linear modeling adjusting for gestational age and other covariates showed frequency of seafood consumption was positively associated with fetal biparietal diameter Z score (P = 0.005), beans and legumes positively associated with femur length (P = 0.006), and a negative association was found for soda consumption and fetal head circumference (P = 0.013).

Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of capturing images of nutrition-relevant fetal brain structures not part of the standard fetal survey in resource-limited settings using portable ultrasound. Our study revealed associations between anthropometry, brain structure size, and maternal diet demonstrating potential for prenatal nutrition research using ultrasound in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23467DOI Listing
March 2021
-->