Publications by authors named "W Ludo van der Pol"

198 Publications

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections with the delta (B.1.617.2) variant in vaccinated patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases using immunosuppressants: a substudy of two prospective cohort studies.

Lancet Rheumatol 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands.

Background: Concerns have been raised regarding the risks of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in vaccinated patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases treated with immunosuppressants, but clinical data on breakthrough infections are still scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections between patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases using immunosuppressants, and controls (patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases not taking immunosuppressants and healthy controls) who had received full COVID-19 vaccinations. The secondary objective was to explore determinants of breakthrough infections of the delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2, including humoral immune responses after vaccination.

Methods: In this substudy, we pooled data collected in two large ongoing prospective multicentre cohort studies conducted in the Netherlands (Target to-B! [T2B!] study and Amsterdam Rheumatology Center COVID [ARC-COVID] study). Both studies recruited adult patients (age ≥18 years) with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and healthy controls. We sourced clinical data from standardised electronic case record forms, digital questionnaires, and medical files. We only included individuals who were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. For T2B!, participants were recruited between Feb 2 and Aug 1, 2021, and for ARC-COVID, participants were recruited between April 26, 2020, and March 1, 2021. In this study we assessed data on breakthrough infections collected between July 1 and Dec 15, 2021, a period in which the delta SARS-CoV-2 variant was the dominant variant in the Netherlands. We defined a SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection as a PCR-confirmed or antigen test-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection that occurred at least 14 days after vaccination. All breakthrough infections during this period were assumed to be due to the delta variant due to its dominance during the study period. We analysed post-vaccination serum samples for anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies to assess the humoral vaccination response (T2B! study only) and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies to identify asymptomatic breakthrough infections (ARC-COVID study only). We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to explore potential clinical and humoral determinants associated with the odds of breakthrough infections. The T2B! study is registered with the Dutch Trial Register, Trial ID NL8900, and the ARC-COVID study is registered with Dutch Trial Register, trial ID NL8513.

Findings: We included 3207 patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases who receive immunosuppressants, and 1807 controls (985 patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease not on immunosuppressants and 822 healthy controls). Among patients receiving immunosuppressants, mean age was 53 years (SD 14), 2042 (64%) of 3207 were female and 1165 (36%) were male; among patients not receiving immunosuppressants, mean age was 54 years (SD 14), 598 (61%) of 985 were female and 387 (39%) were male; and among healthy controls, mean age was 57 years (SD 13), 549 (67%) of 822 were female and 273 (33%) were male. The cumulative incidence of PCR-test or antigen-test confirmed SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections was similar in patients on immunosuppressants (148 of 3207; 4·6% [95% CI 3·9-5·4]), patients not on immunosuppressants (52 of 985; 5·3% [95% CI 4·0-6·9]), and healthy controls (33 of 822; 4·0% [95% CI 2·8-5·6]). There was no difference in the odds of breakthrough infection for patients with immune-mediate inflammatory disease on immunosuppressants versus combined controls (ie, patients not on immunosuppressants and healthy controls; adjusted odds ratio 0·88 [95% CI 0·66-1·18]). Seroconversion after vaccination (odds ratio 0·58 [95% CI 0·34-0·98]; T2B! cohort only) and SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination (0·34 [0·18-0·56]) were associated with a lower odds of breakthrough infections.

Interpretation: The incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases on immunosuppressants was similar to that in controls. However, caution might still be warranted for those on anti-CD20 therapy and those with traditional risk factors.

Funding: ZonMw (the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development) and Reade foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(22)00102-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9054068PMC
April 2022

Motor Unit and Capillary Recruitment During Fatiguing Arm-Cycling Exercise in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Types 3 and 4.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2022 ;9(3):397-409

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Exercise intolerance is an important impairment in patients with SMA, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this symptom.

Objective: To investigate if reduced motor unit and capillary recruitment capacity in patients with SMA contribute to exercise intolerance.

Methods: Adolescent and adult patients with SMA types 3 and 4 (n = 15) and age- and gender matched controls (n = 15) performed a maximal upper body exercise test. We applied respiratory gas analyses, non-invasive surface electromyography (sEMG) and continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) to study oxygen consumption, arm muscle motor unit- and capillary recruitment, respectively.

Results: Maximal exercise duration was twofold lower (p < 0.001) and work of breathing and ventilation was 1.6- and 1.8-fold higher (p < 0.05) in patients compared to controls, respectively. Regarding motor unit recruitment, we found higher normalized RMS amplitude onset values of sEMG signals from all muscles and the increase in normalized RMS amplitudes was similar in the m. triceps brachii, m. brachioradialis and m. flexor digitorum in SMA compared to controls. Median frequency, onset values were similar in patients and controls. We found a similar decrease in median frequencies of sEMG recordings from the m. biceps brachii, a diminished decrease from the m. brachioradialis and m. flexor digitorum, but a larger decrease from the m. triceps brachii. With respect to capillary recruitment, CW-NIRS recordings in m. biceps brachii revealed dynamics that were both qualitatively and quantitatively similar in patients and controls.

Conclusion: We found no evidence for the contribution of motor unit and capillary recruitment capacity of the upper arm muscles in adolescent and adult patients with SMA types 3 and 4 as primary limiting factors to premature fatigue during execution of a maximal arm-cycling task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-210765DOI Listing
May 2022

'This battle, between your gut feeling and your mind. Try to find the right balance': Parental experiences of children with spinal muscular atrophy during COVID-19 pandemic.

Child Care Health Dev 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Center of Excellence for Rehabilitation Medicine, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, and De Hoogstraat Rehabilitation, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Aims: Parents of children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) often struggle with the all-consuming nature of the demands of caring for a child with substantial physical needs. Our aim was to explore experiences, challenges and needs of parents of a child with SMA in a COVID-19 pandemic situation.

Method: Nineteen parents of 21 children (15 months to 13 years of age) with SMA types 1-3 participated in semi-structured interviews in June to July 2020. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

Results: Parents mentioned the protection of the health and well-being of the child as the central perspective and driving force during the COVID-19 pandemic. Three subthemes were identified: (1) responsibility, (2) balancing vulnerability and resilience and (3) (in)security. Some parents focused on the positive aspects during the lockdown, such as continuation of nusinersen treatment and family life. Some parents described helpful and positive cognitions to cope with the situation. In general, parents described a need for information with regard to COVID-19 and their child with SMA and a need for discussing their dilemmas and insecurities with a healthcare professional.

Interpretation: Parents put the health and well-being of their children first during the pandemic. From this study, we learned that parents of children with SMA need information and value direct contact with a healthcare professional to share their dilemmas and insecurities. The dialogue can help to empower parents in the conflicts and decisions they have to make during a pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cch.13014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9111832PMC
April 2022

Genetic, biochemical, and clinical spectrum of patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency identified after the introduction of newborn screening in the Netherlands.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2022 Apr 5. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) is included in many newborn screening (NBS) programs. Acylcarnitine-based NBS for LCHADD not only identifies LCHADD, but also the other deficiencies of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP), a multi-enzyme complex involved in long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Besides LCHAD, MTP harbors two additional enzyme activities: long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (LCEH) and long-chain ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (LCKAT). Deficiency of one or more MTP activities causes generalized MTP deficiency (MTPD), LCHADD, LCEH deficiency (not yet reported), or LCKAT deficiency (LCKATD). To gain insight in the outcomes of MTP-deficient patients diagnosed after the introduction of NBS for LCHADD in the Netherlands, a retrospective evaluation of genetic, biochemical, and clinical characteristics of MTP-deficient patients, identified since 2007, was carried out. Thirteen patients were identified: seven with LCHADD, five with MTPD, and one with LCKATD. All LCHADD patients (one missed by NBS, clinical diagnosis) and one MTPD patient (clinical diagnosis) were alive. Four MTPD patients and one LCKATD patient developed cardiomyopathy and died within 1 month and 13 months of life, respectively. Surviving patients did not develop symptomatic hypoglycemia, but experienced reversible cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Five LCHADD patients developed subclinical neuropathy and/or retinopathy. In conclusion, patient outcomes were highly variable, stressing the need for accurate classification of and discrimination between the MTP deficiencies to improve insight in the yield of NBS for LCHADD. NBS allowed the prevention of symptomatic hypoglycemia, but current treatment options failed to treat cardiomyopathy and prevent long-term complications. Moreover, milder patients, who might benefit from NBS, were missed due to normal acylcarnitine profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12502DOI Listing
April 2022

Humoral responses after second and third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders on immunosuppressants: a cohort study.

Lancet Rheumatol 2022 May 17;4(5):e338-e350. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Groningen, University Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: Disease-specific studies have reported impaired humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders treated with specific immunosuppressants. Disease-overarching studies, and data on recall responses and third vaccinations are scarce. Our primary objective was to investigate the effects of immunosuppressive monotherapies on the humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with prevalent immune-mediated inflammatory disorders.

Methods: We did a cohort study in participants treated in outpatient clinics in seven university hospitals and one rheumatology treatment centre in the Netherlands as well as participants included in two national cohort studies on COVID-19-related disease severity. We included patients aged older than 18 years, diagnosed with any of the prespecified immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, who were able to understand and complete questionnaires in Dutch. Participants with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders who were not on systemic immunosuppressants and healthy participants were included as controls. Anti-receptor binding domain IgG responses and neutralisation capacity were monitored following standard vaccination regimens and a three-vaccination regimen in subgroups. Hybrid immune responses-ie, vaccination after previous SARS-CoV-2 infection-were studied as a proxy for recall responses.

Findings: Between Feb 2 and Aug 1, 2021, we included 3222 participants in our cohort. Sera from 2339 participants, 1869 without and 470 participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were analysed (mean age 49·9 years [SD 13·7]; 1470 [62·8%] females and 869 [37·2%] males). Humoral responses did not differ between disorders. Anti-CD20 therapy, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators, and mycophenolate mofetil combined with corticosteroids were associated with lower relative risks for reaching seroconversion following standard vaccination (0·32 [95% CI 0·19-0·49] for anti-CD20 therapy, 0·35 [0·21-0·55] for S1P modulators, and 0·61 [0·40-0·90] for mycophenolate mofetil combined with corticosteroids). A third vaccination increased seroconversion for mycophenolate mofetil combination treatments (from 52·6% after the second vaccination to 89·5% after the third) but not significantly for anti-CD20 therapies (from 36·8% to 45·6%) and S1P modulators (from 35·5% to 48·4%). Most other immunosuppressant groups showed moderately reduced antibody titres after standard vaccination that did not increase after a third vaccination, although seroconversion rates and neutralisation capacity were unaffected. In participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were boosted after vaccination, regardless of immunosuppressive treatment.

Interpretation: Humoral responses following vaccination are impaired by specific immunosuppressants. After standard vaccination regimens, patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders taking most immunosuppressants show similar seroconversion to controls, although antibody titres might be moderately reduced. As neutralisation capacity and recall responses are also preserved in these patients, this is not likely to translate to loss of (short-term) protection. In patients on immunosuppressants showing poor humoral responses after standard vaccination regimens, a third vaccination resulted in additional seroconversion in patients taking mycophenolate mofetil combination treatments, whereas the effect of a third vaccination in patients on anti-CD20 therapy and S1P modulators was limited.

Funding: ZonMw (The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(22)00034-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8930018PMC
May 2022
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