Publications by authors named "W Gordon-Evans"

27 Publications

Coronary arterial compression testing by simultaneous balloon valvuloplasty and coronary angiography in an English bulldog with pulmonary valve stenosis.

J Vet Cardiol 2021 Jun 2;35:124-129. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

University of Chicago, Pediatric Cardiology, Chicago, IL, USA.

A 4-year-old male neutered English bulldog presented for heart murmur evaluation. Echocardiography identified severe pulmonic stenosis (an echocardiography-derived transpulmonary pressure gradient of 100 mmHg), and computed tomography confirmed the presence of an anomalous coronary artery with a prepulmonic course of the left coronary artery arising from the right coronary ostium. Before artificial pulmonic valve implantation, a coronary compression test was performed. A simultaneous aortic root angiogram and pulmonic balloon valvuloplasty revealed complete occlusion of the circumflex branch. Artificial valve implantation was aborted with concern for fatal coronary compression after implantation. Coronary compression testing is a critical component of the evaluation before catheter-based implantation of conduits across the pulmonic valve.
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June 2021

Comparison of diameter and length of subclavian arteries to external jugular veins in variably sized dogs: A cadaveric study.

Vet Surg 2021 Feb 19;50(2):418-424. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, Veterinary Medical Center, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Objective: To evaluate the length and diameter of a left external jugular vein graft as a substitute for the left subclavian artery in the modified Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt (mBTTS) in differently sized dogs.

Study Design: Cadaveric study.

Animals: Dog cadavers of three weight categories (10/group): <9.5 kg, 9.5 to 27 kg, and > 27 kg.

Methods: The length and infused external diameters of harvested vessels were measured with vernier calipers and recorded. A matched-pairs t test was used to test the difference in vessel lengths. The agreement in vessel diameters was assessed by using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Pearson's correlation coefficients (CC) were determined for vessel diameter to weight category and vessel length to weight category.

Results: The external jugular vein measured longer than the subclavian artery in all dogs (52.0 ± 20.8 mm and 23.0 ± 8.9 mm, respectively), with a mean difference of 28 ± 14.3 mm (P < .001). The mean external infused subclavian and external jugular diameters measured 7.8 ± 2.2 mm and 8.0 ± 2.5 mm, respectively (P = .32). Lin's CCC was 0.87. Pearson's CC were 0.74 in both vessel diameters (P < .001); they were 0.36 and 0.43, respectively, for subclavian artery and external juglar vein length (P < .001).

Conclusion: Autologous external jugular vein grafts had an external diameter similar to subclavian artery and a significantly longer length in variably sized dogs.

Clinical Significance: External jugular vein grafts may be an acceptable graft choice for mBTTS.
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February 2021

Systematic review of the treatment options for pericardial effusions in dogs.

Vet Surg 2021 Jan 17;50(1):20-28. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Veterinary Medical Library, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota.

Objective: To evaluate the evidence for the conservative and surgical management of pericardial effusions for neoplastic and idiopathic etiologies in dogs.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Sample Population: Peer-reviewed English-language articles describing the treatment and outcome of naturally occurring pericardial effusion in domestic dogs.

Methods: A literature search was performed with PubMed, Cab Abstracts, Scopus, and Agricola in August 2019 for articles describing pericardial effusion treatment in dogs. Inclusion criteria were applied, and articles were evaluated for reported outcome and level of evidence by using The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence, a previously described hierarchical system, and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation).

Results: One hundred eight of the 641 unique articles that were identified and evaluated met inclusion criteria. Most articles included were case studies (68.2%) or retrospective case series (25.2%), with all articles providing a low level of evidence. The articles had inconsistent inclusion criteria, outcome measures, and follow-up, making comparison of outcomes difficult.

Conclusion: Because of the low quality of evidence of the studies included in this systematic review and the variability of the outcomes, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend one treatment option rather than another.

Clinical Significance: There is a requirement for higher quality evidence such as randomized controlled trials and prospective comparative cohort studies. Standardization of outcome measures reported for each treatment option and disease process studied will allow for better comparison of outcomes between studies.
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January 2021

Pilot study investigating the feasibility of mitral valve repair without aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegia.

Can J Vet Res 2020 Apr;84(2):159-162

Veterinary Medical Center North, University of Minnesota, 1365 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA (Gordon-Evans); University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, Mayo Mail Code 195, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA (Carney, Lahti, Bianco).

There is evidence that perfusing the heart with a heart and lung machine is less injurious than cross-clamping the aorta and administering cardioplegia during cardiac surgery. Although mitral valve replacement has been carried out without aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegia, it has been stated that cross-clamping is necessary in order to maintain visualization and a motionless surgical field for mitral valve repair. The purpose of this study was to determine the surgical feasibility of mitral valve repair without cross-clamping the aorta and using cardioplegia. Our hypothesis was that a completely bloodless and motion-free field would not be necessary to carry out mitral valve repair with annuloplasty and synthetic chordae tendineae sutures. Papillary muscles, chordae tendineae, annulus, and mitral valve leaflets were all readily visualized. Chordae tendineae sutures were used and annuloplasty was conducted without visual obstruction or motion interference. Our results show that mitral valve repair is feasible without cross-clamping the aorta and using cardioplegia.
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April 2020

Incidence of Normal versus Support Trot in the Healthy Adult German Shepherd Dog.

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2020 Mar 8;33(2):116-120. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States.

Introduction:  Current sports medicine textbooks suggest German Shepherd dogs leave a forelimb on the ground longer than other breeds for support because of angulated joints eliminating a true suspension phase (support trot). The objective of this study was to characterize the trot of healthy, adult German Shepherd dogs and describe morphometric relationships. The hypothesis was that all German Shepherd dogs have a standard trot that does not correlate with morphometric measurements.

Materials And Methods:  Forty healthy, adult German Shepherd dogs with no history of musculoskeletal disease or visible lameness were enrolled in this study. Height, weight, body length, standing limb distance and standing joint angles were measured. Dogs were trotted over a pressure walkway collecting five valid trials. Each trial was categorized by the presence or absence of the suspension phase and the percent of standard trot trials was calculated. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all data. A Spearman's rank sum test was performed for each of the morphometric measurements to assess correlation with the percent of standard trot trials.

Results:  Of the dogs analysed, 37.5% demonstrated a standard trot in all five trials, 60% of dogs utilized a support trot intermittently, and one dog (2.5%) solely utilized a support trot in all trials. There was no correlation between combinations of morphometric measurements and percentage of standard trot statistically or visually.

Discussion/conclusion:  This prospective clinical study showed that the use of the support trot was not correlated with morphometric measurements.
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March 2020