Publications by authors named "W G Breed"

209 Publications

Patient Perception of Providers: Do Patients Understand Who Their Doctor Is?

J Patient Exp 2020 Oct 4;7(5):788-795. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: When being treated at a university-based hospital, a patient may encounter multiple levels of physicians, including trainees during a single emergency visit. Patients want to know the roles of their providers, but their understanding of the medical education hierarchy is poor.

Objectives: Our study explored patient understanding of commonly used physician and trainee titles as well as the factors that contribute to patient understanding in our emergency department patient population. Additionally, we evaluated a new badge buddy system that identifies medical personnel impacts patient's perceptions of providers. We examined how the increasing prevalence of medicine in media may change patient perceptions of the medical hierarchy.

Methods: Patients pending discharge from the emergency room was assessed through a knowledge-based and opinion-based questionnaire. Questions quantified the percentage of patients who understood titles of their team.

Results: Of 423 patients who completed the study, 88% (N = 365) felt it was very important to know the level of training of their doctor when being treated in the emergency department. Seventy-four percent (N = 303) believed they knew the role of their care providers but the mean knowledge score was 4.7 of 8, suggesting a poor understanding of the medical training hierarchy. Younger patients and those who felt that knowing the level of training of their doctor was very important noticed the badge buddies more frequently (80.9%, = .020 and 81%, < .001).

Conclusions: Our study found that patients had a poor understanding of the medical training hierarchy, but felt that it is important to know the level of training of their staff. The implementation of a badge buddy served this purpose for most patients, but was less effective for older patients. Further research may be needed to evaluate if a different intervention, such as a detailed video or teach-back techniques explaining the levels of medical training, would be more effective for a larger population of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2374373519892780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705819PMC
October 2020

Ovary of the southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons): its divergent structural organisation.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2019 Aug;31(9):1457-1462

Adelaide Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

The organisation of the ovarian interstitial tissue in the southern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus latifrons was investigated. Unlike in most other marsupials, the outer cortical region of the ovary contains abundant luteinised interstitial tissue that largely occurs in discrete lobules, many of which contain a localised area of non-cellular, highly eosinophilic and periodic acid-Schiff-positive material. The findings suggest that the latter arises from the zona pellucida that surrounded the oocyte in growing follicles and that the luteinised interstitial tissue thus developed from transformed theca interna of degenerated atretic follicles. It is hypothesised that this tissue synthesises and secretes progestogens, which may result in the long, and variable, oestrous cycle length that has been found to occur in this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD19034DOI Listing
August 2019

Interspecific diversity of testes mass and sperm morphology in the Philippine chrotomyine rodents: implications for differences in breeding systems across the species.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2019 Apr;31(4):705-711

Field Museum of Natural History, Division of Mammals, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA.

The high diversity of native Philippine murid rodents includes an old endemic group, the chrotomyines, which are the sister group of the Australasian hydromyines. Herein we detail their interspecific diversity of relative testes mass (RTM) and sperm morphology. We find that in chrotomyines, as in the Australasian hydromyines, testes mass relative to body mass differs by an order of magnitude across the species and ranges from a large RTM in Soricomys and Chrotomys species to a small RTM in Apomys. Sperm morphology is associated with these findings, with individuals in species of Soricomys and Chrotomys producing relatively larger spermatozoa with a prominent apical hook and long tail, whereas, by contrast, the Apomys species have a sperm head that either has a very short or no apical hook and a shorter tail. These findings indicate coevolution of RTM with sperm morphological traits across the species, with the marked interspecific differences in RTM suggesting differences in the intensity of intermale sperm competition and hence breeding system. Thus, we hypothesise that species of Soricomys and Chrotomys that produce more streamlined spermatozoa with longer tails have a polyandrous or promiscuous mating system, whereas the Apomys species, which produce smaller and less streamlined spermatozoa, may exhibit monogamy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD18278DOI Listing
April 2019

Sperm morphology of the Rattini - are the interspecific differences due to variation in intensity of intermale sperm competition?

Reprod Fertil Dev 2018 Oct;30(11):1434-1442

Adelaide Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences & The Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

It is widely accepted that in mammals a causal relationship exists between postcopulatory sexual selection and relative testes mass of the species concerned, but how much it determines sperm size and shape is debatable. Here we detailed for the largest murine rodent tribe, the Rattini, the interspecific differences in relative testes mass and sperm form. We found that residual testes mass correlates with sperm head apical hook length as well as its angle, together with tail length, and that within several lineages a few species have evolved highly divergent sperm morphology with a reduced or absent apical hook and shorter tail. Although most species have a relative testes mass of 1-4%, these derived sperm traits invariably co-occur in species with much smaller relative testes mass. We therefore suggest that high levels of intermale sperm competition maintain a sperm head with a long apical hook and long tail, whereas low levels of intermale sperm competition generally result in divergent sperm heads with a short or non-existent apical hook and shorter tail. We thus conclude that sexual selection is a major selective force in driving sperm head form and tail length in this large tribe of murine rodents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD17431DOI Listing
October 2018

Necropsy findings of koalas from the Mount Lofty Ranges population in South Australia.

Aust Vet J 2018 May;96(5):188-192

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Adelaide, Roseworthy campus, Roseworthy, South, Australia 5371, Australia.

Objective: This study reports necropsy findings of koalas from the Mount Lofty Ranges region in order to identify health threats to this mainland South Australian population.

Methods: Koalas from the Mount Lofty Ranges region (nā€‰=ā€‰85) that had died or been euthanased on welfare grounds were examined at necropsy during 2012-13 at the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide. Disease findings, approximate age, sex and body condition of koalas were recorded. Histopathological examination was undertaken on gross lesions and in suspect cases, skin scrapings taken for microscopy and PCR performed for Chlamydia pecorum detection.

Results: Traumatic injury was the most common necropsy finding (48/85; 57%), caused by motor vehicle accidents (35/48; 73%), canine attacks (11/48; 23%) or bushfire burns (2/48; 4%). Oxalate nephrosis (27/85; 32%) was also more common than other conditions. Infectious diseases included chlamydiosis (10/85; 12%) and sarcoptic mange (7/85; 8%). Marked testis asymmetry was evident in 11% (6/56) of males, with histopathology suggestive of atrophic change in four animals. Other pathological conditions included gastrointestinal disease (7/85; 8%) and respiratory disease (3/85; 4%). Almost half of the koalas (38/85; 45%) were found to have two or more abnormalities at necropsy.

Conclusion: This study found trauma, mainly from motor vehicle accidents, and oxalate nephrosis to be the predominant causes of death and/or disease in koalas from the Mount Lofty Ranges region. Recent emergence of both clinical chlamydiosis and sarcoptic mange has also occurred, providing insight into the health status and causes of disease or injury in this South Australian mainland koala population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avj.12690DOI Listing
May 2018
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