Publications by authors named "W David Goodier"

16 Publications

An Update on the Intramedullary Implant in Limb Lengthening: A Quinquennial Review Part 2: Extending Surgical Indications and Further Innovation.

Injury 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, United Kingdom.

The use of the intramedullary lengthening nail has gained in popularity over the last decade. The reduction in complications associated with the use of external fixators and excellent patient outcomes has resulted in the largest change in management of limb length discrepancy since the concept of distraction osteogenesis was accepted by the Western world in the 1980s. Success following "simple" limb lengthening has led to surgeons extending the indications for the lengthening nail, including different bone segments, lengthening associated with potential joint instability and lengthening combined with acute deformity correction. There has been a drive for further implant modification to reduce complications, and enable full weight bearing during the lengthening process. This would offer the opportunity to consider simultaneous limb lengthening. The aim of this review is to evaluate the literature published over the last five years and highlight important learning points and technical tips for these expanding indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.06.024DOI Listing
June 2022

An update on the intramedullary implant in limb lengthening: A quinquennial review Part 1: The further influence of the intramedullary nail in limb lengthening.

Injury 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, UK.

The goal of limb lengthening is to restore length to bone, safely stretch soft tissues and improve quality of life with minimal complications. Traditionally this was achieved with the use of external fixators, associated with complications related to pin site tethering and infections, joint stiffness and regenerate deformity and fracture following frame removal. The duration of treatment also impacts on patient mental health and well-being. In order to reduce external fixator time, intramedullary nails have been introduced as an adjunct, either at the initial surgery or after completion of lengthening. Complications related to the external fixator still remained and innovation has led to the popularisation of the intramedullary lengthening nail. The lengthening mechanism of the nail can be divided into those with ratchet systems and those driven by motors. In the ratchet group, patients are required to manually rotate their limb, with movement at the osteotomy site, in order to create forward movement. This was often associated with pain, and in some cases led to the requirement of general anaesthesia to enable rotation and continuation of lengthening. Further issues were reported related to lengthening rate control. Once the nail had lengthened sufficiently for the osteotomy to disengage, rapid lengthening termed a 'runaway' nail could occur. The nails were limited to forward movement, and once length was gained it could not be retracted, leading to poor regenerate formation and soft tissue contractures. The introduction of the Fitbone implant utilised a transcutaneous electrical conduit, powered by a high frequency electrical signal, enabling more control over the lengthening. The Precice intramedullary lengthening system is controlled by the use of an external device with two rotating neodymium magnets, which produce rotation of a third magnet in the nail. By altering the direction of the magnet rotation, the lengthening can be controlled both forwards and backwards with sub-millimetre precision. Following initial excellent outcomes published, the use of the lengthening intramedullary nail has become accepted by many as the implant of choice in limb lengthening. The aim of this article comes in two parts. The first to highlight the latest research and clinical results in the last five years using an intramedullary implant during limb lengthening, and the second to report the outcome in extended surgical indications and further implant innovation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.06.028DOI Listing
June 2022

Analysis of retrieved STRYDE nails.

Bone Jt Open 2021 Aug;2(8):599-610

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, London, UK.

Aims: The aim of this study was to present the first retrieval analysis findings of PRECICE STRYDE intermedullary nails removed from patients, providing useful information in the post-market surveillance of these recently introduced devices.

Methods: We collected ten nails removed from six patients, together with patient clinical data and plain radiograph imaging. We performed macro- and microscopic analysis of all surfaces and graded the presence of corrosion using validated semiquantitative scoring methods. We determined the elemental composition of surface debris using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and used metrology analysis to characterize the surface adjacent to the extendable junctions.

Results: All nails were removed at the end of treatment, having achieved their intended lengthening (20 mm to 65 mm) and after regenerate consolidation. All nails had evidence of corrosion localized to the screw holes and the extendable junctions; corrosion was graded as moderate at the junction of one nail and severe at the junctions of five nails. EDS analysis showed surface deposits to be chromium rich. Plain radiographs showed cortical thickening and osteolysis around the junction of six nails, corresponding to the same nails with moderate - severe junction corrosion.

Conclusion: We found, in fully united bones, evidence of cortical thickening and osteolysis that appeared to be associated with corrosion at the extendable junction; when corrosion was present, cortical thickening was adjacent to this junction. Further work, with greater numbers of retrievals, is required to fully understand this association between corrosion and bony changes, and the influencing surgeon, implant, and patient factors involved. Cite this article:  2021;2(8):599-610.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2633-1462.28.BJO-2021-0126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384447PMC
August 2021

Early results from a single centre's experience with the STRYDE nail : a cause for concern?

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6):1168-1172

Limb Reconstruction Unit, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, UK.

Aims: The STRYDE nail is an evolution of the PRECICE Intramedullary Limb Lengthening System, with unique features regarding its composition. It is designed for load bearing throughout treatment in order to improve patient experience and outcomes and allow for simultaneous bilateral lower limb lengthening. The literature published to date is limited regarding outcomes and potential problems. We report on our early experience and raise awareness for the potential of adverse effects from this device.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of prospective data collected on all patients treated in our institution using this implant. We report the demographics, nail accuracy, reliability, consolidation index, and cases where concerning clinical and radiological findings were encountered. There were 14 STRYDE nails implanted in nine patients (three male and six female) between June 2019 and September 2020. Mean age at surgery was 33 years (14 to 65). Five patients underwent bilateral lengthening (two femoral and three tibial) and four patients unilateral femoral lengthening for multiple aetiologies.

Results: At the time of reporting, eight patients (13 implants) had completed lengthening. Osteolysis and periosteal reaction at the junction of the telescopic nail was evident in nine implants. Five patients experienced localized pain and swelling. Macroscopic appearances following retrieval were consistent with corrosion at the telescopic junction. Tissue histology was consistent with effects of focal metallic wear debris.

Conclusion: From our early experience with this implant we have found the process of lengthening to be accurate and reliable with good regenerate formation and consolidation. Proposed advantages of early load bearing and the ability for bilateral lengthening are promising. We have, however, encountered concerning clinical and radiological findings in several patients. We have elected to discontinue its use to allow further investigation into the retrieved implants and patient outcomes from users internationally. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6):1168-1172.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-2165.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

Regenerate Deformity with the Precice Tibial Nail.

Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2020 May-Aug;15(2):98-105

Limb Reconstruction Unit, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Middlesex, UK.

Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis is an accepted orthopaedic surgical technique. The Precice intramedullary lengthening system is the most recent innovation in limb lengthening. Early results have been favourable in femoral lengthening but there is little reported on the outcome in tibial lengthening. The aim of this study is to present our early results of Precice tibial lengthening, and the stepwise evolution of our surgical technique.

Materials And Methods: A case series of 17 consecutive tibial lengthenings were prospectively analysed. Healing index, length achieved, range of motion, and complications were recorded. The initial cases followed the recommended surgical technique. Progressive regenerate deformity during lengthening required changes to the surgical method.

Results: No cases were lost to follow-up. All the nails lengthened at the desired rate. There were no complications of infection or poor regenerate formation. Progressive valgus and procurvatum was prevented in later cases by the positioning of Poller blocking screws at the time of nail insertion.

Conclusion: The tibial Precice nail is successful in obtaining length and good regenerate formation. The recommended technique was insufficient to control the deforming forces from the lower limb muscle compartments during lengthening. We therefore recommend the addition of multiple blocking screws in an amended technique.

How To Cite This Article: Wright SE, Goodier WD, Calder P. Regenerate Deformity with the Precice Tibial Nail. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2020;15(2):98-105.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10080-1457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801900PMC
January 2021
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