Publications by authors named "W Darrin Clouse"

109 Publications

The Effect of Retrograde External Iliac Artery Runoff on Aortofemoral Bypass Limb Patency.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114.

Background: Superficial femoral artery (SFA) and profunda patency has been shown to affect aortofemoral bypass (AFB) limb patency. However, the effect of retrograde flow through the external iliac artery (EIA) is unknown and is the subject of this analysis.

Methods: Institutional AFB data from 2000-2017 were gathered, excluding those where SFA/EIA patency could not be determined. The cohort was divided into limbs with and without EIA occlusion; primary outcome was limb-based primary patency. Kaplan-Meier estimated patency; cox proportional-hazards model evaluated EIA patency while controlling for other factors.

Results: Over the study period, there were AFB 557 limbs in 281 patients. Of the 435 AFB limbs in 220 patients that met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis, 162 had EIA occlusion and 273 had a patent EIA. Mean age was 69.6±9.0. EIA occlusions were more common in male patients (59.9% vs 44.6%; p=0.001), patients with CAD (43.8% vs 34.1%; p=0.042), COPD (34.6% vs 20.5%; p=0.001), and CHF (14.8% vs 5.9%; p=0.002). Limbs with EIA occlusions more often underwent end-to-side proximal anastomosis (40.7% vs 24.2%; p<0.001) and simultaneous infrainguinal bypass (7.4% vs 0.7%; p<0.001). Median clinical follow-up was 4.4 years (IQR: 1.6-8.4). Five-year primary patency was 83.1% (95% CI: 74.5%-90.0%) for EIA occlusion limbs and 85.9% (95% CI: 80.2%-90.0%) with patent EIA limbs (p=0.96). While controlling for other factors, EIA stenosis or occlusion did not affect primary patency. For patients with a proximal occlusion (occluded aorta, occluded common iliac, or end-to-end proximal anastomosis) and occluded SFA (N=73), EIA occlusion had a HR of 1.92 for loss of patency, but this was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: EIA patency did not influence primary patency in the overall cohort Further investigation on the topic in specific patient subgroups is warranted to determine the effect of EIA patency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.09.055DOI Listing
November 2021

Management of Acute, Uncomplicated Type B Aortic Dissection.

Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2021 Jun 24;24(2):100749. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA.

For decades, the mainstay of management for acute, uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (TBAD) has been anti-impulse medical therapy, focusing on close control of blood pressure, and heart rate. However, the natural history of this entity has remained one of aortic degeneration over time and significant morbidity and mortality. More recently, the advent of endovascular therapy has driven a revolution in the management of TBAD. While thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was rapidly adopted for the treatment of complicated type B aortic dissection due to significantly improved morbidity and mortality when compared with tradition open surgical techniques, its role in the management of uncomplicated dissection remained controversial. However, the accumulation of favorable data on aortic remodeling and survival following early TEVAR for uncomplicated dissection is driving a shift in paradigm and practice. This is particularly true of patients exhibiting certain features at the time of presentation that are associated with increased risk of failure of optimal medical therapy. This article reviews the current evidence in the literature addressing TEVAR for acute, uncomplicated TBAD. In addition, it presents the state of the art in FDA-approved thoracic endograft platforms, guidance regarding case planning, and step-by-step procedural description, including the management of common challenges, and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvir.2021.100749DOI Listing
June 2021

The impact of carotid lesion calcification on outcomes of carotid artery stenting.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, Calif. Electronic address:

Objective: The impact of carotid artery lesion calcification on adverse events following carotid artery stenting is not well-studied. Few reports associated heavily calcified lesions with high risk of perioperative stroke following transfemoral carotid artery stenting (TFCAS). With the advent of transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR), we aimed to compare the outcomes of these two procedures stratified by the degree of lesion calcification.

Methods: Our cohort was derived from the Vascular Quality Initiative database for carotid artery stenting. Patients with missing information on the degree of carotid artery calcification were excluded. Patients were stratified into two groups: >50% (heavy) calcification and ≤50% (no/mild) calcification. The Student t test and the χ test were used to compare patients' baseline characteristics and crude outcomes, as appropriate. Clinically relevant and statistically significantly variables on univariable analysis were added to a logistic regression model clustered by center identifier.

Results: A total of 11,342 patients were included. Patients with >50% calcification were older, had more comorbidities, and more contralateral occlusion. There were more patients with prior ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy in the ≤50% calcification group. In patients who underwent TCAR, there were no significant differences between those who had >50% vs ≤50% carotid calcification in the odds of in-hospital adverse outcomes. However, in patients with heavy calcification who underwent TFCAS, there was a 50% to 60% increase in the odds of stroke (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.5; P = .03), stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3; P = .013), and stroke/death (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.02-2.08; P = .039). Compared with TFCAS in patients with heavy calcification, TCAR was associated with a 40% to 90% reduction in the odds of contralateral stroke (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.4; P = .001), contralateral stroke/TIA (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.87; P = .024), any stroke/TIA (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.38-0.91; P = .02), death (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.13-0.72; P = .006), stroke/death (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.32-0.8; P = .004), and stroke/death/myocardial infarction (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87; P = .008). There were no significant differences in the odds of stroke and myocardial infarction.

Conclusions: In this retrospective analysis of patients undergoing TFCAS vs TCAR in the Vascular Quality Initiative database, TCAR demonstrated favorable outcomes compared with TFCAS among patients with calcification greater than 50% of the carotid circumference. Advance burden of carotid artery calcification was associated with worse outcomes in patients undergoing TFCAS but not TCAR. These results are consistent with previously demonstrated superiority of flow reversal compared with distal embolic protection devices. Further research is needed to assess long-term outcomes and confirm the durability of TCAR in heavily calcified lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.08.095DOI Listing
September 2021

Recurrent infection is more common after endovascular versus open repair of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va; Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Objective: Controversy has continued regarding the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) vs open aneurysm repair (OAR) for infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). In the present study, we investigated the comparative outcomes of EVAR and OAR for the treatment of infected AAAs.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through May 2021. We included studies that had described both EVAR and OAR for the treatment of infected AAAs. The primary endpoints were the rates of recurrent infection and related rupture and/or death. Perioperative and 1-year mortality and readmissions and reinterventions were also analyzed.

Results: Fourteen observational studies describing a total of 1203 patients (EVAR, 359 [29.8%]; OAR, 844 [70.2%]) were eligible for qualitative analysis. The baseline characteristics included diabetes mellitus (33.2%), fever at presentation (71.6%), rupture at diagnosis (26.1%), and positive blood cultures (52.5%). The mean follow-up period ranged from 12 to 40 months. The use of EVAR became more prevalent in recent years (2016-2020, 32.4%) compared with the former period (2010-2015, 13.8%; P < .0001). Fenestrated, branched, or concomitant visceral debranching EVAR was performed in 6.1% of cases. In OAR, surgical debridement was consistently performed, and in situ reconstruction was applied in 82.2% and an omental flap in 51.5%. In nine studies considered for quantitative analysis, the patients' background (EVAR, n = 264; OAR, n = 274) were statistically balanced. The crude rates of recurrent infection and related rupture or death were 13.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8%-18.5%) and 4.9% (95% CI 1.8%-8.0%), respectively. The pooled analyses depicted significantly higher rates of recurrent infection after EVAR than after OAR (relative risk [RR], 2.42; 95% CI, 1.80-3.27; P < .0001; I = 0%). Recurrent infection-related rupture or death (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.70-3.23; P = .29; I = 0%), perioperative death (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.39-1.65; P = .55; I = 35%), 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.97-1.28; P =.13; I = 0%), and readmission or reintervention (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.74-1.82; P =.52; I = 0%) were not significantly different statistically between the two groups. Funnel plots showed no evidence of publication bias. Sensitivity analyses of leave-one-out meta-analysis confirmed higher rates of recurrent infection after EVAR.

Conclusions: EVAR has become more prevalent as the initial treatment of infected AAAs. Although operative and 1-year survival were similar between OAR and EVAR groups, recurrent infection was more frequent after EVAR. This limitation should be weighed in selecting patients for EVAR in infected AAAs. Postoperative graft and infection surveillance are critical, especially after EVAR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.07.240DOI Listing
September 2021

The long-term fate of renal and visceral vessel reconstruction after open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Dec 22;74(6):1825-1832. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. Electronic address:

Objectives: In the ever-advancing era of endovascular thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAAA) repair, understanding long-term patency of renovisceral reconstructions after open TAAA repair provides important benchmarks.

Methods: Institutional open TAAA repair patient data were queried. Patients dying during index admission or with incomplete operative detail were excluded. Visceral and renal reconstructions were categorized as bypass, incorporation into a proximal or distal beveled aortic anastomosis, inclusion button, Carrel patch, or hybrid stent along with endarterectomy/stent adjuncts. Axial imaging or angiography determined long-term patency. Vessel event was defined as new occlusion or reintervention after repair. Overall time-to-event analysis was performed as well as separate analyses for each vessel (celiac, superior mesenteric artery [SMA], right renal, left renal) by reconstruction type utilizing Kaplan-Meier methods. Log-rank testing was employed to compare reconstructive strategies.

Results: Over 28 years, 604 repairs (type I, 106 [18%]; type II, 73 [12%]; type III, 195 [32%]; and type IV, 230 [38%]) were identified. Follow-up (median, 500 days) was available in 410/570 (72%) celiac, 406/573 (71%) SMA, 379/532 (71.2%) right renal, and 370/515 (72%) left renal reconstructions. There were five celiac, one SMA, eight right renal, and 10 left renal events. No type of reconstruction or adjunct was significantly associated with event. Overall 5-year patency of all renal/visceral reconstructions was 94% (95% confidence interval, 90%-96%). Estimated 5-year patency of the celiac, SMA, left renal, and right renal were similar, and were 99%, 100%, 97%, and 96%, respectively (P = .09).

Conclusions: Visceral and renal long-term patency after open TAAA repair is excellent regardless of reconstructive technique. No differences are appreciated even when target vessel disease is addressed at the time of reconstruction. These findings continue to substantiate the effective long-term durability of open TAAA repair and are particularly germane to the ongoing evolution of endovascular strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.05.043DOI Listing
December 2021
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