Publications by authors named "W Darlene Reid"

865 Publications

Current Effector and Gene-Drive Developments to Engineer Arbovirus-Resistant Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for a Sustainable Population Replacement Strategy in the Field.

J Med Entomol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses cause morbidity and mortality among human populations living in the tropical regions of the world. Conventional mosquito control efforts based on insecticide treatments and/or the use of bednets and window curtains are currently insufficient to reduce arbovirus prevalence in affected regions. Novel, genetic strategies that are being developed involve the genetic manipulation of mosquitoes for population reduction and population replacement purposes. Population replacement aims at replacing arbovirus-susceptible wild-type mosquitoes in a target region with those that carry a laboratory-engineered antiviral effector to interrupt arboviral transmission in the field. The strategy has been primarily developed for Aedes aegypti (L.), the most important urban arbovirus vector. Antiviral effectors based on long dsRNAs, miRNAs, or ribozymes destroy viral RNA genomes and need to be linked to a robust gene drive to ensure their fixation in the target population. Synthetic gene-drive concepts are based on toxin/antidote, genetic incompatibility, and selfish genetic element principles. The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system can be configurated as a homing endonuclease gene (HEG) and HEG-based drives became the preferred choice for mosquitoes. HEGs are highly allele and nucleotide sequence-specific and therefore sensitive to single-nucleotide polymorphisms/resistant allele formation. Current research efforts test new HEG-based gene-drive designs that promise to be less sensitive to resistant allele formation. Safety aspects in conjunction with gene drives are being addressed by developing procedures that would allow a recall or overwriting of gene-drive transgenes once they have been released.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjab030DOI Listing
March 2021

Mycotoxins causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Authors:
William K Reid

Med Hypotheses 2021 Apr 15;149:110541. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Hematology & Oncology, 613 Greenwood Rd., Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514, United States. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) remains a terminal disease without an established etiology for the majority of patients. The dominant theory of ALS before the 1970's was the presence of a poison. One of the primary means of treating patients with a toxic exposure has been plasma exchange, but plasma exchange of ALS patients failed to alter the clinical course. The failure of plasma exchange assumes the patient is no longer exposed to the poison. If the exposure to poison continued, then plasma exchange alone would fail. I found laboratory evidence of a poisoning in every patient with ALS examined. A search for specific poisons found evidence of mycotoxins. Treatment with antifungal agents corrected the laboratory findings. All of the ALS patients had evidence of immune suppression. There is mounting evidence that many mycotoxins cause both neurotoxicity and immune suppression. These mycotoxins may be able to explain the full spectrum of pathology in ALS without a secondaryevent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110541DOI Listing
April 2021

Muscle and cerebral oxygenation during cycling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A scoping review.

Chron Respir Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;18:1479973121993494

Department of Medicine, Division of Respirology, 7938University of Toronto, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

To synthesize evidence for prefrontal cortex (PFC), quadriceps, and respiratory muscle oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycling in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A scoping review was performed searching databases (inception-August 2020): Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Pedro. The search focused on COPD, cycling, and NIRS outcomes. 29 studies (541 COPD participants) were included. Compared to healthy individuals (8 studies), COPD patients at lower cycling workloads had more rapid increases in vastus lateralis (VL) deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb); lower increases in VL total hemoglobin (tHb) and blood flow; and lower muscle tissue saturation (StO). Heliox and bronchodilators were associated with smaller and slower increases in VL HHb. Heliox increased VL and intercostal blood flow compared to room air and supplemental oxygen in COPD patients (1 study). PFC oxygenated hemoglobin (OHb) increased in COPD individuals during cycling in 5 of 8 studies. Individuals with COPD and heart failure demonstrated worse VL and PFC NIRS outcomes compared to patients with only COPD-higher or more rapid increase in VL HHb and no change or decrease in PFC OHb. Individuals with COPD present with a mismatch between muscle oxygen delivery and utilization, characterized by more rapid increase in VL HHb, lower muscle OHb and lower muscle StO. PFC OHb increases or tends to increase in individuals with COPD during exercise, but this relationship warrants further investigation. NIRS can be used to identify key deoxygenation thresholds during exercise to inform PFC and muscle oxygenation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479973121993494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897842PMC
February 2021

Diaphragm echodensity in mechanically ventilated patients: a description of technique and outcomes.

Crit Care 2021 02 16;25(1):64. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Inter-Departmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Acute increases in muscle sonographic echodensity reflect muscle injury. Diaphragm echodensity has not been measured in mechanically ventilated patients. We undertook to develop a technique to characterize changes in diaphragm echodensity during mechanical ventilation and to assess whether these changes are correlated with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

Methods: Diaphragm ultrasound images were prospectively collected in mechanically ventilated patients and in 10 young healthy subjects. Echodensity was quantified based on the right-skewed distribution of grayscale values (50th percentile, ED50; 85 percentile, ED85). Intra- and inter-analyzer measurement reproducibility was determined. Outcomes recorded included duration of ventilation and ICU complications (including reintubation, tracheostomy, prolonged ventilation, or death).

Results: Echodensity measurements were obtained serially in 34 patients comprising a total of 104 images. Baseline (admission) diaphragm ED85 was increased in mechanically ventilated patients compared to younger healthy subjects (median 56, interquartile range (IQR) 42-84, vs. 39, IQR 36-52, p = 0.04). Patients with an initial increase in median echodensity over time (≥ + 10 in ED50 from baseline) had fewer ventilator-free days to day 60 (n = 13, median 46, IQR 0-52) compared to patients without this increase (n = 21, median 53 days, IQR 49-56, unadjusted p = 0.03). Both decreases and increases in diaphragm thickness during mechanical ventilation were associated with increases in ED50 over time (adjusted p = 0.03, conditional R = 0.80) and the association between increase in ED50 and outcomes persisted after adjusting for changes in diaphragm thickness.

Conclusions: Many patients exhibit increased diaphragm echodensity at the outset of mechanical ventilation. Increases in diaphragm echodensity during the early course of mechanical ventilation are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Both decreases and increases in diaphragm thickness during mechanical ventilation are associated with increased echodensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03494-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884870PMC
February 2021

The Antiviral Small-Interfering RNA Pathway Induces Zika Virus Resistance in Transgenic .

Viruses 2020 10 30;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

The resurgence of arbovirus outbreaks across the globe, including the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in 2015-2016, emphasizes the need for innovative vector control methods. In this study, we investigated ZIKV susceptibility to transgenic engineered to target the virus by means of the antiviral small-interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. The robustness of antiviral effector expression in transgenic mosquitoes is strongly influenced by the genomic insertion locus and transgene copy number; we therefore used CRISPR/Cas9 to re-target a previously characterized locus (Chr2:321382225) and engineered mosquitoes expressing an inverted repeat (IR) dsRNA against the NS3/4A region of the ZIKV genome. Small RNA analysis revealed that the IR effector triggered the mosquito's siRNA antiviral pathway in bloodfed females. Nearly complete (90%) inhibition of ZIKV replication was found in vivo in both midguts and carcasses at 7 or 14 days post-infection (dpi). Furthermore, significantly fewer transgenic mosquitoes contained ZIKV in their salivary glands ( = 0.001), which led to a reduction in the number of ZIKV-containing saliva samples as measured by transmission assay. Our work shows that innate immunity can be co-opted to engineer mosquitoes resistant to ZIKV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12111231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692394PMC
October 2020

Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MRI Evaluation on the Long-Term Effects of Pulsed Focused Ultrasound and Microbubbles Blood Brain Barrier Opening in the Rat.

Front Neurosci 2020 25;14:908. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Frank Laboratory, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, United States.

Blood-brain barrier opening (BBBO) with pulsed Focused Ultrasound (pFUS) and microbubbles (MB) has received increasing interest as a method for neurotherapeutics of the central nervous system. In general, conventional MRI [i.e., T2w, T2w, gadolinium (Gd) enhanced T1w] is used to monitor the effects of pFUS+MB on BBBO and/or assess whether sonication results in parenchymal damage. This study employed multimodal MRI techniques and F-Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) PET to evaluate the effects of single and multiple weekly pFUS+MB sessions on morphology and glucose utilization levels in the rat cortex and hippocampus. pFUS was performed with 0.548 MHz transducer with a slow infusion over 1 min of Optison (5-8 × 10 MB) in nine focal points in cortex and four in hippocampus. During pFUS+MB treatment, Gd-T1w was performed at 3 T to confirm BBBO, along with subsequent T2w, T2w, DTI and glucose CEST (glucoCEST)-weighted imaging by high field 9.4 T and compared with FDG-PET and immunohistochemistry. Animals receiving a single pFUS+MB exhibited minimal hypointense voxels on T2w. Brains receiving multiple pFUS+MB treatments demonstrated persistent T2w and T2 abnormalities associated with changes in DTI and glucoCEST when compared to contralateral parenchyma. Decreased glucoCEST contrast was substantiated by FDG-PET in cortex following multiple sonications. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly dilated vessels and decreased neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT3) expression in sonicated cortex and hippocampus without changes in neuronal counts. These results suggest the importance to standardize MRI protocols in concert with advanced imaging techniques when evaluating long term effects of pFUS+MB BBBO in clinical trials for neurological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478124PMC
August 2020

A comparison of fatty acid and sensory profiles of raw and roasted pecan cultivars.

J Food Sci 2020 Sep 24;85(9):2665-2672. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Sensory Analysis Center, Department of Food Nutrition Dietetics and Health, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Dr., Manhattan, KS, 66502, U.S.A.

Five fatty acids comprise the bulk of the lipid content in pecans: palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid. Understanding the profiles of these fatty acids and how they relate to sensory characteristics may offer an explanation for flavor and flavor defects that may exist in certain cultivars of pecans. The objective of this study was to examine and compare fatty acid profiles of three cultivars of pecans (Major, Lakota, and Chetopa), over two crop years, under raw and roasted preparation methods, and understand the fatty acids association with sensory attributes. Percentages of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids to total fatty acid content were determined using gas chromatography, and sensory profiles were generated using descriptive sensory analysis. Similar trends were seen across samples, with oleic acid comprising the majority of the total fatty acids and linolenic acid comprising the smallest percentage. There were significant differences in fatty acid content among cultivars and between pecans in the first and second crop year. Few associations were found between the fatty acids and sensory attributes, which suggest that combinations of the fatty acids contribute to certain pleasant or undesirable flavor attributes in the pecans. Subtle differences in fatty acid composition may lead to variation in flavor and flavor intensity or draw attention to or from certain attributes during consumption. Differences in crop year indicated that fatty acid content and therefore flavor are variable year to year. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study will help understand how fatty acid content of pecans varies from year to year. This should be taken into account when manufacturing products with pecans as the nutritional content of the product may change as the result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15389DOI Listing
September 2020

Scalene and sternocleidomastoid activation during normoxic and hypoxic incremental inspiratory loading.

Physiol Rep 2020 07;8(14):e14522

Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The purpose of this study was to examine scalene (SA) and sternocleidomastoid (SM) activation during normoxic (norm-ITL; FIO  = 21%) and hypoxic (hyp-ITL; FIO  = 15%) incremental inspiratory threshold loading (ITL). Thirteen healthy participants (33 ± 4 years, 9 female) performed two ITL tests breathing randomly assigned gas mixtures through an inspiratory loading device where the load was increased every two minutes until task failure. SA and SM root mean square (RMS) electromyography (EMG) were calculated and expressed as a percentage of maximum (RMS ) to reflect muscle activation intensity. Myoelectric manifestations of fatigue were characterized as decreased SA or SM EMG median frequency during maximum inspiratory pressure maneuvers before and after ITL. Dyspnea was recorded at baseline and task failure. Ventilatory parameters and mouth pressure (Pm) were recorded throughout the ITL. SA,RMS and SM,RMS increased in association with ITL load (p ≤ .01 for both). SA,RMS was similar between norm-ITL and hyp-ITL (p = .17), whereas SM,RMS was greater during the latter (p = .001). Neither SA nor SM had a decrease in EMG median frequency after ITL (p = .75 and 0.69 respectively). Pm increased in association with ITL load (p < .001) and tended to be higher during hyp-ITL compared to norm-ITL (p = .05). Dyspnea was similar during both conditions (p > .05). There was a trend for higher tidal volumes during hyp-ITL compared to norm-ITL (p = .10). Minute ventilation was similar between both conditions (p = .23). RMS, of the SA and SM increased linearly with increasing ITL. The presence of hypoxia only increased SM activation. Neither SA nor SM presented myoelectric manifestations of fatigue during both conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7389984PMC
July 2020

The effects of hypoxia on muscle deoxygenation and recruitment in the flexor digitorum superficialis during submaximal intermittent handgrip exercise.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2020 15;12:16. Epub 2020 May 15.

1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, 160-500 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1V7 Canada.

Background: Decreased oxygenation of muscle may be accentuated during exercise at high altitude. Monitoring the oxygen saturation of muscle (SmO) during hand grip exercise using near infrared spectroscopy during acute exposure to hypoxia could provide a model for a test of muscle performance without the competing cardiovascular stresses that occur during a cycle ergometer or treadmill test. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia versus normoxia on deoxygenation and recruitment of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) during submaximal intermittent handgrip exercise (HGE) in healthy adults.

Methods: Twenty subjects (11 M/9 F) performed HGE at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction, with a duty cycle of 2 s:1 s until task failure on two occasions one week apart, randomly assigned to normobaric hypoxia (FiO = 12%) or normoxia (FiO = 21%). Near-infrared spectroscopy monitored SmO, oxygenated (OHb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total hemoglobin (tHb) over the FDS. Surface electromyography derived root mean square and mean power frequency of the FDS.

Results: Hypoxic compared to normoxic HGE induced a lower FDS SmO (63.8 ± 2.2 vs. 69.0 ± 1.5,  = 0.001) and both protocols decreased FDS SmO from baseline to task failure. FDS mean power frequency was lower during hypoxic compared to normoxic HGE (64.0 ± 1.4 vs. 68.2 ± 2.0 Hz,  = 0.04) and both decreased mean power frequency from the first contractions to task failure ( = 0.000). Under both hypoxia and normoxia, HHb, tHb and root mean square increased from baseline to task failure whereas OHb decreased and then increased during HGE. Arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry (SpO) was lower during hypoxia compared to normoxia conditions ( = 0.000) and heart rate and diastolic blood pressure only demonstrated small increases. Task durations and the tension-time index of HGE did not differ between normoxic and hypoxic trials.

Conclusion: Hypoxic compared to normoxic HGE decreased SmO and induced lower mean power frequency in the FDS, during repetitive hand grip exercise however did not result in differences in task durations or tension-time indices. The fiber type composition of FDS, and high duty cycle and intensity may have contributed greater dependence on anaerobiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-020-00163-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226965PMC
May 2020

Changes in Oxyhemoglobin Concentration in the Prefrontal Cortex during Cognitive-Motor Dual Tasks in People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

COPD 2020 06 22;17(3):289-296. Epub 2020 May 22.

Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Cognitive and motor impairment are well documented in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but their relationship has not been studied. This study evaluated and compared cognitive and motor performance during dual tasks and related dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔOHb), a proxy measure of neural activity, in patients with COPD and age-matched healthy individuals. Participants performed three single tasks: (1) backwards spelling cognitive task; (2) 30 m preferred paced walk; (3) 30 m fast walk, and two dual tasks: (4) preferred paced walk + backwards spelling; (5) fast paced walk + backwards spelling. The ΔOHb from left and right dorsolateral PFC were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Gait velocity was measured using a Zeno walkway. Compared to healthy adults ( = 20), patients with COPD ( = 15) had higher ΔOHb during single preferred (-0.344 ± 0.185 vs. 0.325 ± 0.208 µM;  = 0.011) and fast paced walk (-0.249 ± 0.120 vs. 0.486 ± 0.182 µM;  = 0.001) in right PFC. Among healthy adults, ΔOHb were higher bilaterally during preferred paced walking dual versus single task (right: 0.096 ± 0.159 vs. -0.344 ± 0.185 µM,  = 0.013; left: 0.114 ± 0.150 vs. -0.257 ± 0.175 µM,  = 0.049) and in right PFC during fast walking dual versus single task (0.102 ± 0.228 vs. -0.249 ± 0.120,  = 0.021). Patients with COPD did not increase OHb during dual versus single tasks. Patients with COPD exhibited slower velocity than older adults during all walking tasks. The lack of further increase in OHb from single to dual tasks in patients with COPD, may indicate reduced cognitive-motor capacity and contribute to poorer motor performance limiting safe ambulation. Dual tasking rehabilitation may improve neural efficiency to offset these risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2020.1767561DOI Listing
June 2020

Synthesis of Unsaturated Silyl Heterocycles an Intramolecular Silyl-Heck Reaction.

Organometallics 2019 Oct 26;38(19):3796-3803. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, United States.

We report the synthesis of unsaturated silacycles an intramolecular silyl-Heck reaction. Using palladium catalysis, silicon electrophiles tethered to alkenes cyclize to form 5- and 6-membered silicon heterocycles. The effects of alkene substitution and tether length on the efficiency and regioselectivity of the cyclizations are described. Finally, through the use of an intramolecular tether, the first examples of disubstituted alkenes in silyl-Heck reactions are reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.organomet.9b00498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236810PMC
October 2019

Development and Validation of a Clinical Grading Scale to Assess the Vulvar Region: The Vulvar Architecture Severity Scale.

Aesthet Surg J 2020 11;40(12):1319-1326

Department of Plastic Surgery, NHS Foundation Trust Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

Background: The vulva is composed of aesthetic units that can be affected differently by vulvar conditions. A reliable, comprehensive, and quick-to-use clinical scoring system is required to assess the disease extent in the vulvar area.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a grading scale based on the aesthetic unit principle to evaluate the extent of vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS).

Methods: After reviewing photographs of 100 patients affected by VLS, the authors targeted the aesthetic units most frequently affected. The disease signs were recorded and graded in 4 levels of severity (none, mild, moderate, severe) taking into account the vulvar architecture and skin involvement. To validate the scale, 14 observers were asked to apply it to photographs of 25 VLS patients on 2 different occasions. Intra- and inter-observer reliabilities were determined employing Pearson's and intraclass correlation coefficients.

Results: A 6-region, 4-point grading system was designed and identified as the Vulvar Architecture Severity Scale (VASS). In all 6 areas, the Pearson's r was greater than 0.9 (mean, 0.994; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.992), indicating that the intra-observer reliability of the VASS was consistent over time (P < 0.001). Intraclass correlation at time 1 was 0.928 (95% CI = 0.910, 0.943) and at time 2 was 0.944 (95% CI = 0.931, 0.996), indicating a high reliability level among different observers.

Conclusions: The VASS is a reliable scale to assess the severity of VLS, and it might be considered as an outcome measure in future VLS trials.

Level Of Evidence: 4:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjz342DOI Listing
November 2020

Aerobic and breathing exercises improve dyspnea, exercise capacity and quality of life in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Mar;12(3):1041-1055

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease associated with significant dyspnea and limited exercise capacity. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence of exercise interventions during pulmonary rehabilitation that aim to improve exercise capacity, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in IPF patients.

Methods: Searches were performed in MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed and PEDro from inception to January 2019 using search terms for: (I) participants: 'IPF or interstitial lung disease'; (II) interventions: 'aerobic training or resistance training or respiratory muscle training'; and (III) outcomes: 'exercise capacity or dyspnea or health-related quality of life'. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts to identify eligible studies. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist and meta-analyses were performed.

Results: Of 1,677 articles identified, 14 were included (four randomized controlled trials and 10 prospective pre-post design studies) that examined 362 patients receiving training and 95 control subjects. Exercise capacity was measured with the 6-minute walk distance, peak oxygen consumption, peak work rate, or endurance time for constant work rate cycling, which increased after exercise [aerobic exercise; aerobic and breathing exercises; aerobic and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) exercises] compared to the control groups. Dyspnea scores improved after aerobic and breathing exercises. HRQL also improved after aerobic exercise training alone or combined with breathing exercises. Aerobic training alone or combined with IMT or breathing exercises improved exercise capacity.

Conclusions: Breathing exercises appears to complement exercise training towards improved dyspnea and HRQL in patients with IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.12.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139046PMC
March 2020

New species of Eurythenes from hadal depths of the Mariana Trench, Pacific Ocean (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

Zootaxa 2020 Mar 5;4748(1):zootaxa.4748.1.9. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK, NE1 7RU.

Eurythenes S. I. Smith in Scudder, 1882 are one of the largest scavenging deep-sea amphipods (max. 154 mm) and are found in every ocean across an extensive bathymetric range from the shallow polar waters to hadal depths. Recent systematic studies of the genus have illuminated a cryptic species complex and highlighted the benefits of using a combination of morphological and molecular identification approaches. In this study, we present the ninth species, Eurythenes plasticus sp. nov., which was recovered using baited traps between the depths 6010 and 6949 m in the Mariana Trench (Northwest Pacific Ocean) in 2014. This new Eurythenes species was found to have distinct morphological characteristics and be a well-supported clade based on sequence variation at two mitochondrial regions (16S rDNA and COI). While this species is new to science and lives in the remote hadal zone, it is not exempt from the impacts of anthropogenic pollution. Indeed, one individual was found to have a microplastic fibre, 83.74% similar to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), in its hindgut. As this species has a bathymetric range spanning from abyssal to hadal depths in the Central Pacific Ocean basin, it offers further insights into the biogeography of Eurythenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4748.1.9DOI Listing
March 2020

Impact of Physical Training Programs on Physical Fitness in People With Class II and III Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Phys Ther 2020 06;100(6):963-978

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Interdivisional Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto; and KITE-Toronto Rehab-University Health Network.

Background: Physical training, regardless of the presence of concurrent weight loss, provides numerous health benefits for individuals who are overweight and obese and have or are at risk for cardiovascular disease.

Purpose: The purpose of this review was to identify different types of physical training programs (aerobic, resistance, or combined), with or without counseling/diet modifications, and their impact on physical fitness in individuals who have class II and III obesity.

Data Sources: Medline and Medline In-Process, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and PubMed were searched up to June 2017.

Study Selection: This review had the following inclusion criteria: body mass index of ≥35 kg/m2 and age 18 years or older; supervised physical training program; randomized controlled trial; physical fitness outcome (muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and/or flexibility); in English or Portuguese; and available full-text article.

Data Extraction: Three reviewers independently extracted data, assessed study risk of bias using the Cochrane tool, and discussed disagreements until consensus was reached.

Data Synthesis: Of the 9460 identified articles, 26 were included and 8 were used in a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed improvements in walking speed and maximal oxygen uptake but not knee extension strength in the intervention groups. The Cochrane risk-of-bias score indicated that the majority of the data were from randomized controlled trials with a low or unclear risk of bias.

Limitations: The large variability of outcomes and interventions made comparisons difficult.

Conclusions: A combination of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise, in addition to diet modifications, may improve cardiovascular and muscular endurance in individuals with class II and III obesity. However, conclusions must be interpreted with caution because of the heterogeneity in interventions and outcome measures among the studies and an unclear risk of bias in several studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzaa045DOI Listing
June 2020

Fat Grafting Improves Fibrosis and Scarring in Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus: Results From a Prospective Cohort Study.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2020 Jul;24(3):305-310

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lipotransfer in women presenting with fibrosis and scarring due to lichen sclerosus.

Materials And Methods: This prospective cohort study included 33 women attending the vulvar clinic of a public hospital. Patients received one lipotransfer treatment. Validated measures were used prospectively to assess the sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale); symptoms (visual analog scale for itching, burning, soreness), pain (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale 20); psychological status and quality of life (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Relationship Assessment Scale, Wound Management Questionnaire Revised); physician-based disease signs (Vulvar Architecture Severity Scale). Data were analyzed using paired t test with nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test and unpaired t test with nonparametric Mann-Whitney test (Prism6 Software).

Results: The mean (SD) follow-up was 12.9 (3.5) months. Sexual function improved after treatment (p < .001), as well as the distress associated with sexuality (p < .0001). A significant improvement was reported in itching (p < .001), burning (p < .05), soreness (p < .001), and pain (p < .0001). Patients reported a significant improvement in romantic relationship (p < .05), anxiety (p < .0001), and depression (p < .0001). Improvement was not significant in the self-care associated with self-disgust assessment (p = .42). The clinical physician-based score showed an overall improvement in all the treated areas to lesser or greater extent.

Conclusions: The use of fat grafting in lichen sclerosus is promising. Further studies are required to rule out a potential placebo effect and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanism of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000520DOI Listing
July 2020

How good are doctors at plain English?

Authors:
William J Reid

BMJ 2020 Mar 11;368:m945. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m945DOI Listing
March 2020

Association of Low Baseline Diaphragm Muscle Mass With Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation and Mortality Among Critically Ill Adults.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 02 5;3(2):e1921520. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Low diaphragm muscle mass at the outset of mechanical ventilation may predispose critically ill patients to poor clinical outcomes.

Objective: To determine whether lower baseline diaphragm thickness (Tdi) is associated with delayed liberation from mechanical ventilation and complications of acute respiratory failure (reintubation, tracheostomy, prolonged ventilation >14 days, or death in the hospital).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Secondary analysis (July 2018 to June 2019) of a prospective cohort study (data collected May 2013 to January 2016). Participants were 193 critically ill adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation at 3 intensive care units in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Exposures: Diaphragm thickness was measured by ultrasonography within 36 hours of intubation and then daily. Patients were classified as having low or high diaphragm muscle mass according to the median baseline Tdi.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was time to liberation from ventilation accounting for the competing risk of death and adjusting for age, body mass index, severity of illness, sepsis, change in Tdi during ventilation, baseline comorbidity, and study center. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital death and complications of acute respiratory failure.

Results: A total of 193 patients were available for analysis; the mean (SD) age was 60 (15) years, 73 (38%) were female, and the median (interquartile range) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 10 (8-13). Median (interquartile range) baseline Tdi was 2.3 (2.0-2.7) mm. In the primary prespecified analysis, baseline Tdi of 2.3 mm or less was associated with delayed liberation from mechanical ventilation (adjusted hazard ratio for liberation, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36-0.74). Lower baseline Tdi was associated a higher risk of complications of acute respiratory failure (adjusted odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.20-2.61 per 0.5-mm decrement) and prolonged weaning (adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.42-3.74). Lower baseline Tdi was also associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.00-2.16 per 0.5-mm decrement), particularly after discharge from the intensive care unit (adjusted odds ratio, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.35-5.32 per 0.5-mm decrement).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, low baseline diaphragm muscle mass in critically ill patients was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, complications of acute respiratory failure, and an increased risk of death in the hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.21520DOI Listing
February 2020

Genetic Variation and Potential for Resistance Development to the tTA Overexpression Lethal System in Insects.

G3 (Bethesda) 2020 04 9;10(4):1271-1281. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Molecular Biotechnology Training Program,

Release of insect pests carrying the dominant lethal tetracycline transactivator (tTA) overexpression system has been proposed as a means for population suppression. High levels of the tTA transcription factor are thought to be toxic due to either transcriptional squelching or interference with protein ubiquitination. Here we utilized the Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to examine the influence of genetic variation on the efficacy of a female-specific tTA overexpression system. The level of female lethality between DGRP lines varied from 11 to 97% with a broad sense heritability of 0.89. A genome-wide association analysis identified 192 allelic variants associated with high or low lethality ( < 10), although none were significant when corrected for multiple testing. 151 of the variants fell within 108 genes that were associated with several biological processes including transcription and protein ubiquitination. In four lines with high female lethality, tTA RNA levels were similar or higher than in the parental tTA overexpression strain. In two lines with low lethality, tTA levels were about two fold lower than in the parental strain. However, in two other lines with low lethality, tTA levels were similar or approximately 30% lower. RNAseq analysis identified genes that were up or downregulated in the four low female lethal lines compared to the four high lethal lines. For example, genes associated with RNA processing and rRNA maturation were significantly upregulated in low lethal lines. Our data suggest that standing genetic variation in an insect population could provide multiple mechanisms for resistance to the tTA overexpression system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.120.400990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144068PMC
April 2020

Skeletal muscle oxygenation and regional blood volume during incremental limb loading in interstitial lung disease.

ERJ Open Res 2020 Jan 27;6(1). Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Dept of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) exhibit reduced exercise capacity and exertional hypoxaemia. The role of peripheral (muscle) limitation to exercise tolerance in ILD is not well studied to date.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study examined skeletal muscle oxygen saturation ( ) and regional blood volume of the knee extensors and elbow flexors during incremental limb loading in healthy people and people with varying severity of ILD. Isotonic concentric exercise was performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. and regional blood volume were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy over the vastus lateralis and biceps.

Results: Thirteen people who were dependent on oxygen, candidates for lung transplant and with severe ILD (forced vital capacity (FVC) 59±20% predicted), 10 people who were not oxygen dependent with mild ILD (FVC 81±17% predicted) and 13 healthy people (FVC 101±14% predicted) were included. Total haemoglobin, a marker of regional blood volume, was lower at task failure in the knee extensors in participants with severe ILD compared to healthy participants (p=0.05). At task failure for both knee-extensor loading and elbow-flexor loading, was decreased to similar levels across all groups, but occurred at lower total workloads in the ILD groups (all p<0.01).

Conclusions: Overall, people with severe ILD had lower levels of total work and experienced less increase in blood volume in the knee extensors after knee-extensor loading compared to healthy people. Peripheral muscle dysfunction in severe ILD may have contributed to muscle deoxygenation at lower workloads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00083-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983499PMC
January 2020

Neck and Inspiratory Muscle Recruitment during Inspiratory Loading and Neck Flexion.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 07;52(7):1610-1616

Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, BRAZIL.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare muscle activation of the diaphragm (DIA), scalenes (SA), parasternal intercostals (PS), and sternomastoid (SM) during submaximal intermittent neck flexion (INF) versus submaximal inspiratory threshold loading (ITL) until task failure in healthy adults.

Methods: Twelve healthy adults performed submaximal ITL or INF tests in random order for 2 d. Surface electromyography was monitored to acquire root mean square (RMS) and median power frequency (MPF) from the SA, PS, SM, and DIA. Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal voluntary contraction for neck flexion were determined. Next, participants performed the first submaximal test-ITL or INF-targeting 50% ± 5% of the maximal inspiratory pressure or maximal voluntary contraction, respectively, until task failure. After a rest, they performed the other test until task failure. Two days later, they performed ITL and INF but in the opposite order. The Borg scale assessed breathlessness and perceived exertion.

Results: Endurance times for ITL and INF were 38.1 and 26.3 min, respectively. INF activated three of four inspiratory muscles at higher average RMS (PS, SM, and SA) and at different MPF (PS, SM, and DIA but not SA) compared with ITL. During ITL, RMS did not change in the four inspiratory muscles over time, but MPF decreased in PS, SM, and SA (P < 0.04). In contrast, RMS increased in three of four inspiratory muscles (SM, PS, and SA) during INF, but MPF did not change throughout its duration. Borg rating was 3.9-fold greater than ITL compared with INF.

Conclusion: At a similar percentage of maximal load, INF evokes greater activation of primary muscles of inspiration (PS and SA) and a major accessory muscle of inspiration (SM) compared with ITL during a prolonged submaximal protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002271DOI Listing
July 2020

Antiviral Effectors and Gene Drive Strategies for Mosquito Population Suppression or Replacement to Mitigate Arbovirus Transmission by .

Insects 2020 Jan 12;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 12.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

The mosquito vector transmits arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of medical importance, including Zika, dengue, and yellow fever viruses. Controlling mosquito populations remains the method of choice to prevent disease transmission. Novel mosquito control strategies based on genetically manipulating mosquitoes are being developed as additional tools to combat arbovirus transmission. Genetic control of mosquitoes includes two basic strategies: population suppression and population replacement. The former aims to eliminate mosquito populations while the latter aims to replace wild populations with engineered, pathogen-resistant mosquitoes. In this review, we outline suppression strategies being applied in the field, as well as current antiviral effector genes that have been characterized and expressed in transgenic for population replacement. We discuss cutting-edge gene drive technologies that can be used to enhance the inheritance of effector genes, while highlighting the challenges and opportunities associated with gene drives. Finally, we present currently available models that can estimate mosquito release numbers and time to transgene fixation for several gene drive systems. Based on the recent advances in genetic engineering, we anticipate that antiviral transgenic exhibiting gene drive will soon emerge; however, close monitoring in simulated field conditions will be required to demonstrate the efficacy and utility of such transgenic mosquitoes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023000PMC
January 2020

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Review of Disease, Pharmacological, and Nonpharmacological Strategies With a Focus on Symptoms, Function, and Health-Related Quality of Life.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2020 06 28;59(6):1362-1378. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Division of Palliative Care, Department of Supportive Care, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Palliative Care, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Despite several advances in treatment, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains a progressive, symptomatic, and terminal disease in patients not suitable for lung transplantation. With disease progression, IPF often leads to a constellation of symptoms, including dyspnea, cough, anxiety, and depression. Palliative care is appropriate to support these patients. However, traditional curriculum in palliative care has often focused on supporting patients with malignant disease, and clinicians are not universally trained to manage patients with progressive nonmalignant diseases such as IPF. Current antifibrotic therapies aim to slow disease progression but are not able to reduce symptoms or improve daily function and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Palliative care in this patient group requires an understanding of the clinical characteristics of IPF, comorbidities, common medications used, and nonpharmacological strategies that can be undertaken to improve daily function and HRQL. This review focuses on IPF management strategies and their effects on symptoms, exercise tolerance, HRQL, and survival. Pharmacological interactions and considerations related to commonly used palliative care medications are also reviewed. This review highlights the needs of patients with IPF and caregivers, psychosocial function, patient-reported assessment tools, and topics related to advance care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.12.364DOI Listing
June 2020

Fauna of the Kemp Caldera and its upper bathyal hydrothermal vents (South Sandwich Arc, Antarctica).

R Soc Open Sci 2019 Nov 20;6(11):191501. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Waterfront Campus, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK.

Faunal assemblages at hydrothermal vents associated with island-arc volcanism are less well known than those at vents on mid-ocean ridges and back-arc spreading centres. This study characterizes chemosynthetic biotopes at active hydrothermal vents discovered at the Kemp Caldera in the South Sandwich Arc. The caldera hosts sulfur and anhydrite vent chimneys in 1375-1487 m depth, which emit sulfide-rich fluids with temperatures up to 212°C, and the microbial community of water samples in the buoyant plume rising from the vents was dominated by sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria. A total of 12 macro- and megafaunal taxa depending on hydrothermal activity were collected in these biotopes, of which seven species were known from the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) vents and three species from vents outside the Southern Ocean. Faunal assemblages were dominated by large vesicomyid clams, actinostolid anemones, sea spiders and lepetodrilid and cocculinid limpets, but several taxa abundant at nearby ESR hydrothermal vents were rare such as the stalked barnacle . Multivariate analysis of fauna at Kemp Caldera and vents in neighbouring areas indicated that the Kemp Caldera is most similar to vent fields in the previously established Southern Ocean vent biogeographic province, showing that the species composition at island-arc hydrothermal vents can be distinct from nearby seafloor-spreading systems. C and N isotope values of megafaunal species analysed from the Kemp Caldera were similar to those of the same or related species at other vent fields, but none of the fauna sampled at Kemp Caldera had C values, indicating nutritional dependence on Epsilonproteobacteria, unlike fauna at other island-arc hydrothermal vents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894572PMC
November 2019

After-Effects of Thixotropic Maneuvers on Chest Wall and Compartmental Operational Volumes of Healthy Subjects Using Optoelectronic Plethysmography.

Front Physiol 2019 1;10:1376. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

PneumoCardioVascular Laboratory, Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes, Empresa Brasileira de Serviços Hospitalares (EBSERH), Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

The volumes assessed by optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) and based on a three-compartmental model provide an accurate breath-by-breath index of expiratory and inspiratory (ribcage muscles and diaphragm) muscle length. Thus, after performing thixotropic maneuvers, OEP may also provide evidence regarding the history-dependent properties of these muscles. We studied the after-effects of different thixotropic conditionings on chest wall (CW) and compartmental operational volumes of 28 healthy subjects (25.5 ± 2.2 years, FVC 94.8 ± 5.5, and FEV 95.5 ± 8.9) using OEP. Conditionings were composed of inspiratory or expiratory contractions performed from total lung capacity (TLC) or residual volume (RV). The study protocol was composed of three consecutive contractions of the same maneuver, with 60 s of spontaneous breathing in between, and after-effects were studied in the first seven respiratory cycles of each contraction. Cumulative effects were also assessed by comparing the after-effects of each thixotropic maneuver. Inspiratory contractions performed from both TLC and RV acutely increased end-inspiratory (EIV) CW volumes (all < 0.0001), mainly on both upper and lower ribcage compartments (i.e., non-diaphragmatic inspiratory muscles and diaphragm, respectively); while, expiratory contractions from RV decreased CW volumes ( < 0.0001) by reducing the upper ribcage and abdominal volumes (all < 0.0001). The response of the thixotropic maneuvers did not present a cumulative effect. In healthy, the use of the three-compartmental model through OEP allows a detailed assessment of the diaphragm, inspiratory and expiratory muscle thixotropy. Furthermore, specific conditioning maneuvers led to thixotropy of the inspiratory ribcage, diaphragm, and expiratory muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6838213PMC
November 2019

Musical Role Asymmetries in Piano Duet Performance Influence Alpha-Band Neural Oscillation and Behavioral Synchronization.

Front Neurosci 2019 15;13:1088. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics, Department of Music, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Recent work in interpersonal coordination has revealed that neural oscillations, occurring spontaneously in the human brain, are modulated during the sensory, motor, and cognitive processes involved in interpersonal interactions. In particular, alpha-band (8-12 Hz) activity, linked to attention in general, is related to coordination dynamics and empathy traits. Researchers have also identified an association between each individual's attentiveness to their co-actor and the relative similarity in the co-actors' roles, influencing their behavioral synchronization patterns. We employed music ensemble performance to evaluate patterns of behavioral and neural activity when roles between co-performers are systematically varied with complete counterbalancing. Specifically, we designed a piano duet task, with three types of co-actor dissimilarity, or asymmetry: (1) musical role (starting vs. joining), (2) musical task similarity (similar vs. dissimilar melodic parts), and (3) performer animacy (human-to-human vs. human-to-non-adaptive computer). We examined how the experience of these asymmetries in four initial musical phrases, alternatingly played by the co-performers, influenced the pianists' performance of a subsequent unison phrase. Electroencephalography was recorded simultaneously from both performers while playing keyboards. We evaluated note-onset timing and alpha modulation around the unison phrase. We also investigated whether each individual's self-reported empathy was related to behavioral and neural activity. Our findings revealed closer behavioral synchronization when pianists played with a human vs. computer partner, likely because the computer was non-adaptive. When performers played with a human partner, or a joining performer played with a computer partner, having a similar vs. dissimilar musical part did not have a significant effect on their alpha modulation immediately prior to unison. However, when starting performers played with a computer partner with a dissimilar vs. similar part there was significantly greater alpha synchronization. In other words, starting players attended less to the computer partner playing a similar accompaniment, operating in a solo-like mode. Moreover, this alpha difference based on melodic similarity was related to a difference in note-onset adaptivity, which was in turn correlated with performer trait empathy. Collectively our results extend previous findings by showing that musical ensemble performance gives rise to a socialized context whose lasting effects encompass attentiveness, perceptual-motor coordination, and empathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.01088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6803471PMC
October 2019

The future of bioenergy.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 01 5;26(1):274-286. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Energy from biomass plays a large and growing role in the global energy system. Energy from biomass can make significant contributions to reducing carbon emissions, especially from difficult-to-decarbonize sectors like aviation, heavy transport, and manufacturing. But land-intensive bioenergy often entails substantial carbon emissions from land-use change as well as production, harvesting, and transportation. In addition, land-intensive bioenergy scales only with the utilization of vast amounts of land, a resource that is fundamentally limited in supply. Because of the land constraint, the intrinsically low yields of energy per unit of land area, and rapid technological progress in competing technologies, land intensive bioenergy makes the most sense as a transitional element of the global energy mix, playing an important role over the next few decades and then fading, probably after mid-century. Managing an effective trajectory for land-intensive bioenergy will require an unusual mix of policies and incentives that encourage appropriate utilization in the short term but minimize lock-in in the longer term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973137PMC
January 2020

Interval aerobic exercise in individuals with advanced interstitial lung disease: a feasibility study.

Physiother Theory Pract 2019 Oct 18:1-9. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto , Toronto , ON , Canada.

: Aerobic exercise is used in the rehabilitation setting in people with interstitial lung disease (ILD), however little is known about interval exercise as a training strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses and preferences of a single bout of interval exercise with continuous exercise in individuals with advanced ILD. : Peak work (Wpeak) was obtained from a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). The total volume of prescribed exercise was matched between a bout of interval cycling (alternating 30 seconds at 100% of Wpeak: 30 seconds total rest × 20 min) and continuous cycling (50% of Wpeak × 20 min). : Nine lung transplant candidates with ILD were included: 4 men; 62 (6) years; forced vital capacity (FVC) 60% of predicted; and all using supplemental oxygen. Eight (89%) participants reported a preference for interval exercise and one reported no preference (p = .01). One participant required two unintended breaks during continuous exercise. There were no large differences between interval and continuous exercise although some trends emerged. Interval exercise resulted in a lower peak heart rate (124 (12) vs. 132 (15), p = .04) and a trend toward less oxygen desaturation (drop of 8 (4)% vs. 11 (5)%, p = .05) and lower end-exercise Borg leg fatigue (3.8 (2) vs. 4.4 (2), p = .05). End-exercise dyspnea was similar between both exercise modes. : Interval exercise was well tolerated and preferred by participants with advanced ILD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2019.1678207DOI Listing
October 2019