Publications by authors named "W B REED"

1,007 Publications

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Pathologic upgrading in favorable intermediate risk active surveillance patients: Clinical heterogeneity and implications for active surveillance decision.

Urol Oncol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Georgia-Augusta University, Augusta, GA; Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta, GA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Current guidelines support active surveillance (AS) for select patients with favorable intermediate risk (FIR) prostate cancer (CaP). A significant proportion of FIR CaP patients undergoing surgical treatment are found to have evidence of adverse pathology. Our objective was to determine the incidence and predictors of pathologic upgrading in FIR AS patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

Materials And Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Prostate with Watchful Waiting (WW) database was used to identify men younger than 80 years with National Comprehensive Cancer Network FIR CaP initially opting for AS and/or WW between 2010 and 2015 and subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy at least one year following diagnosis. Patients were assigned into one of three subgroups based on their intermediate risk factor: Gleason Score 7(3 + 4) (Group 1), prostate specific antigen level of 10-20 ng/ml (Group 2), and cT2b-c (Group 3). Pathologic upgrading was present in Group 1 if pathologic GS was 7 (4 + 3) or worse. For patients in Groups 2 and 3, upgrading occurred if pathologic GS was 7 (3 + 4) or worse. Oncologic and sociodemographic predictors of pathologic upgrading were evaluated univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results: 18,760 patients were identified. Pathologic upgrading occurred in 138 (13.3%), 59 (25.0%), and 8,011 (45.8%) patients in groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Pathologic downgrading occurred in 226 (21.7%) patients in group 1. Significant predictors of pathologic upgrading on multivariable analysis included older age at diagnosis: 70 to 79 vs. 40 to 49 years (Groups 1 and 3, P < 0.05), a more recent diagnosis: 2014 to2015 vs. 2010-2011 (Groups 2 and 3, P < 0.005), higher volume disease: 37.5% to 49.9% vs. 0% to 12.4% (Groups 2 and 3, P < 0.005), and clinically palpable disease (Groups 1 and 2, P < 0.05). Additional risk factors for upgrading included uninsured or Medicaid status, diagnosis in a Western region (Group 2), African American ethnicity and higher socioeconomic status (Group 3) CONCLUSIONS: FIR CaP is a clinically heterogeneous risk group with incidence of pathologic upgrading ranging from 13.3% in those with GS 7 (3 + 4) to 45.8% in those with cT2b-c disease. Risk of pathologic upgrading in FIR CaP patients initially managed with AS and/or WW is significantly associated with multiple patient-level oncologic and sociodemographic variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.02.017DOI Listing
March 2021

Digital mammographic interpretation by UK radiographer mammographers: A JAFROC analysis of observer performance.

Radiography (Lond) 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital, UK; School of Allied and Public Health Professions, Canterbury Christ Church University, UK; North Central and East London Cancer Alliance, UK; Health Education England, London, UK; Radiology Department, University College London Hospitals, UK.

Introduction: Radiologists utilise mammography test sets to bench mark their performance against recognised standards. Using a validated test set, this study compares the performance of radiographer readers against previous test results for radiologists.

Methods: Under similar test conditions radiographer readers were given an established test set of 60 mammograms and tasked to identify breast cancer, they were measured against their ability to identify, locate and give a confidence level for cancer being present on a standard set of mammographic images. The results were then compared to previously published results for radiologists for similar or the same test sets.

Results: The 10 radiographer readers demonstrated similar results to radiologists and for lesion sensitivity were the highest scoring group. The study group score a sensitivity of 83; a specificity of 69.3 and lesion sensitivity of 74.8 with ROC and JAFROC scores of 0.86 and 0.74 respectively.

Conclusion: Under test conditions radiographers are able to identify and accurately locate breast cancer in a range of complex mammographic backgrounds.

Implications For Practice: The study was performed under experimental conditions with results comparable to breast radiologists under similar conditions, translation of these findings into clinical practice will help address access and capacity issues in the timely identification and diagnosis of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2021.02.015DOI Listing
March 2021

The Neurophysiological Impact of Experimentally-Induced Pain on Direct Muscle Spindle Afferent Response: A Scoping Review.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 19;15:649529. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Musculoskeletal pain disorders are among the leading causes of years lived with disability worldwide representing a significant burden to society. Studies investigating a "nociceptive-fusimotor" relationship using experimentally-induced pain/noxious stimuli and muscle spindle afferent (MSA) response have been published over several decades. The purpose of this scoping review was to systematically identify and summarize research findings related to the impact of experimentally-induced pain or noxious stimulation on direct MSA discharge/response. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane and Embase were searched from database inception to August 2020. Eligible studies were: (a) published in English; (b) clinical or pre-clinical studies; (c) original data studies; (d) included the investigation of MSA response to experimentally-induced pain or noxious stimulation; (e) included quantification of at least one direct physiological measure associated with MSA activity/response. Two-phase screening procedures were conducted by a pair of independent reviewers and data extracted from eligible studies. The literature search resulted in 195 articles of which 23 met inclusion criteria. Six studies (26%) were classified as clinical and 17 (74%) as pre-clinical. Two clinical studies investigated the effects of sacral dermatome pin-pricking on MSA response, while the remaining 4 studies investigated the effects of tonic muscle and/or skin pain induced by injection/infusion of hypertonic saline into the tibialis anterior muscle or subdermal tissues. In pre-clinical studies, muscle pain was induced by injection of noxious substances or the surgical removal of the meniscus at the knee joint. Clinical studies in awake humans reported that experimentally-induced pain did not affect, or else slightly decreased MSA spontaneous discharge and/or response during weak dorsiflexor muscle contraction, thus failing to support an excitatory nociceptive-fusimotor relationship. However, a majority of pre-clinical studies indicated that ipsilateral and contralateral muscle injection of noxious substances altered MSA resting discharge and/or response to stretch predominately through static fusimotor reflex mechanisms. Methodological differences (use of anesthesia, stretch methodology, etc.) may ultimately be responsible for the discrepancies between clinical and pre-clinical findings. Additional investigative efforts are needed to reconcile these discrepancies and to clearly establish or refute the existence of nociceptive-fusimotor relationship in muscular pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.649529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933477PMC
February 2021

Factors contributing to racial differences in gait mechanics differ by sex.

Gait Posture 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 495 Old Turner Street Blacksburg, VA, 24060, 300 Norris Hall, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Racial differences in gait mechanics have been recently reported, but we don't know what factors may drive differences in gait and whether these factors are innate or modifiable. The answers to those questions will inform both basic research and clinical interventions and outcomes.

Research Question: Do anthropometric, strength, and health status measures explain racial differences in gait between African Americans (AA) and white Americans (WA)?

Methods: Venous blood samples, anthropometric measures, lower extremity strength, and an assessment of health status were collected from 92 participants (18-30 years old) as part of an Institutional Review Board-approved study. 3D motion capture and force plate data were recorded during 7 walking trials at set regular (1.35 m/s) and fast (1.6 m/s) speeds. Racial differences in gait were identified at both speeds. Correlations between anthropometric, strength, and health status independent variables and outcome measures were computed after stratifying data by sex. Stepwise linear regression models evaluated whether the inclusion of anthropometric, strength, and health status independent variables explained racial effects.

Results: In males, no racial differences in gait were explained by independent variables. Q-angle and ankle dorsiflexion strength accounted for racial differences in self-selected walking speed in females. Racial differences in ankle plantarflexion angle were explained by ankle plantarflexion strength differences.

Significance: Factors that explain racial differences in gait in females were both innate and modifiable. These data make clear that it is important to include racially diverse normative gait databases in research studies. These results also identify potential intervention targets aimed at reducing racial health disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.02.024DOI Listing
February 2021

Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the diagnosis and management of acute colonic diverticulitis: a review of current and future use.

J Med Radiat Sci 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Imaging Science, Sydney School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Diverticular disease is one of the most common causes of outpatient visits and hospitalisations across Australia, North America and Europe. According to the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GESA, 2010), approximately 33% of Australians over 45 years of age and 66% over 85 years of age have some form of colonic diverticulosis. Patients with colonic diverticulosis are known to develop subsequent complications such as acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD), and when more than one attack of diverticulitis occurs, there is a 70-90% chance that the individual will experience ongoing problems and recurring infections throughout their lifetime. Medical imaging is fundamental in the diagnosis, treatment and ongoing management of ACD and its complications, with Computed Tomography (CT) identified as the prevailing gold standard in the last few decades. Cross-database searching highlighted a large gap in the literature regarding the effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a non-ionising radiation alternative imaging tool for ACD imaging after the mid-2000s, despite ongoing technological advancements in this modality. This narrative review identified 13 key publications (11 primary prospective cohort studies, 1 systematic review and 1 meta-analysis) that evaluate MRI for ACD imaging, of which five were published within the last decade. Several existing MRI protocols are deemed suitable for ACD imaging, and it is recommended they be re-evaluated in larger cohorts. Future studies should consider the rapidly growing technological improvements of MRI, its cost efficiency and its applicability in modern day healthcare settings when addressing ACD management. This is especially important considering the gradual rise in radiation dose among the Australian population attributable to increased CT referrals, alongside increased reporting of ACD cases in younger individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmrs.458DOI Listing
February 2021

The cognitive and perceptual processes that affect observer performance in lung cancer detection: a scoping review.

J Med Radiat Sci 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Imaging Science, Sydney School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: Early detection of malignant pulmonary nodules through screening has been shown to reduce lung cancer-related mortality by 20%. However, perceptual and cognitive factors that affect nodule detection are poorly understood. This review examines the cognitive and visual processes of various observers, with a particular focus on radiologists, during lung nodule detection.

Methods: Four databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus and PubMed) were searched to extract studies on eye-tracking in pulmonary nodule detection. Studies were included if they used eye-tracking to assess the search and detection of lung nodules in computed tomography or 2D radiographic imaging. Data were charted according to identified themes and synthesised using a thematic narrative approach.

Results: The literature search yielded 25 articles and five themes were discovered: 1 - functional visual field and satisfaction of search, 2 - expert search patterns, 3 - error classification through dwell time, 4 - the impact of the viewing environment and 5 - the effect of prevalence expectation on search. Functional visual field reduced to 2.7° in 3D imaging compared to 5° in 2D radiographs. Although greater visual coverage improved nodule detection, incomplete search was not responsible for missed nodules. Most radiological errors during lung nodule detection were decision-making errors (30%-45%). Dwell times associated with false-positive (FP) decisions informed feedback systems to improve diagnosis. Interruptions did not influence diagnostic performance; however, it increased viewing time by 8% and produced a 23.1% search continuation accuracy. Comparative scanning was found to increase the detection of low contrast nodules. Prevalence expectation did not directly affect diagnostic accuracy; however, decision-making time increased by 2.32 seconds with high prevalence expectations.

Conclusion: Visual and cognitive factors influence pulmonary nodule detection. Insights gained from eye-tracking can inform advancements in lung screening. Further exploration of eye-tracking in lung screening, particularly with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), will benefit the future of lung cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmrs.456DOI Listing
February 2021

Electroacupuncture decreases inflammatory pain through a pro-resolving mechanism involving the peripheral annexin A1-formyl peptide receptor 2/ALX-opioid receptor pathway.

Pflugers Arch 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

The pro-resolving mechanism is a recently described endogenous process that controls inflammation. The present study evaluated components of this mechanism, including annexin 1 (ANXA1) and the formyl peptide receptor 2/ALX (FPR2/ALX) receptor, in the antihyperalgesic effect induced by electroacupuncture (EA) in an animal model of persistent peripheral inflammation. Male Swiss mice underwent intraplantar (i.pl.) injection with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed with von Frey monofilaments. Animals were treated with EA (2-10 Hz, ST36-SP6) or subcutaneous BML-111 injection (FPR2/ALX agonist) for 5 consecutive days. In a separate set of experiments, on the first and fifth days after CFA injection, animals received i.pl. WRW4 (FPR2/ALX antagonist) or naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) before EA or BML-111 injection. Paw protein levels of FPR2/ALX and ANXA1 were evaluated on the second day after CFA injection by western blotting technique. EA and BML-111 reduced mechanical hyperalgesia. I.pl. naloxone or WRW4 prevented the antihyperalgesic effect induced by either EA or BML-111. EA increased ANXA1 but did not alter FPR2/ALX receptor levels in the paw. Furthermore, i.pl. pretreatment with WRW4 prevented the increase of ANXA1 levels induced by EA. This work demonstrates that the EA antihyperalgesic effect on inflammatory pain involves the ANXA1/FPR2/ALX pro-resolution pathway. This effect appears to be triggered by the activation of FPR2/ALX receptors and crosstalk communication with the opioid system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-020-02502-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Identifying predictors of patient radiation dose during uterine artery embolisation.

J Med Radiat Sci 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Discipline of Medical Imaging Science, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is regarded as a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids and/or adenomyosis. Dose reduction during UAE is critical for this reproductive-age patient population to minimise the risks of radiation-induced effects. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of radiation dose which can be controlled and optimised for patients during UAE.

Methods: A total of 150 patients between June 2018 and August 2019 were included in this study. Demographic and clinical information such as age, body mass index (BMI), total number of fibroids, total fibroid volume, total uterus volume and dosimetric measurements on Dose Area Product (DAP), Air Kerma (AK) and fluoroscopy time were recorded. Total digital subtraction angiography (DSA), total conventional roadmap (CRM), total last-image hold (LIH) and total fluoroscopy were calculated from the dose report. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictor variables of total dose (DAP) using a regression model.

Results: Total DSA, total CRM and total LIH were identified as the determinants of dose for UAE (P < 0.05) and together accounted for 95.2% of the variance.

Conclusions: This study identified the key imaging predictors of dose for UAE. Total DSA, total CRM and total LIH were shown to have a greater impact on the outcome DAP compared to other demographic or dosimetric measurements. Optimisation of these predictors during future UAE procedures can facilitate radiation dose reduction to the pelvis and reproductive organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmrs.450DOI Listing
November 2020

Using Monte Carlo experiments to select meta-analytic estimators.

Res Synth Methods 2021 Mar 17;12(2):192-215. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Economics and Finance, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

The purpose of this study is to show how Monte Carlo analysis of meta-analytic estimators can be used to select estimators for specific research situations. Our analysis conducts 1620 individual experiments, where each experiment is defined by a unique combination of sample size, effect size, effect size heterogeneity, publication selection mechanism, and other research characteristics. We compare 11 estimators commonly used in medicine, psychology, and the social sciences. These are evaluated on the basis of bias, mean squared error (MSE), and coverage rates. For our experimental design, we reproduce simulation environments from four recent studies. We demonstrate that relative estimator performance differs across performance measures. Estimator performance is a complex interaction of performance indicator and aspects of the application. An estimator that may be especially good with respect to MSE may perform relatively poorly with respect to coverage rates. We also show that the size of the meta-analyst's sample and effect heterogeneity are important determinants of relative estimator performance. We use these results to demonstrate how these observable characteristics can guide the meta-analyst to choose the most appropriate estimator for their research circumstances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1467DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health and perceived strain among caregivers tending children with special needs.

Res Dev Disabil 2020 Dec 6;107:103790. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Physiotherapy, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India.

Background: While COVID-19 outbreak has had adverse psychological effects in children with special needs, the mental state and burden on their caregivers during this pandemic has yet to be reported.

Aims: The objectives of this study were to describe the mental health status and the change in perceived strain among caregivers during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Methods And Procedures: Two hundred sixty four caregivers completed an online survey that assessed demographics, use and perspective on tele-rehabilitation, homecare therapy, caregiver's strain and mental health.

Outcomes And Results: The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were found to be 62.5 %, 20.5 % and 36.4 % respectively. A significant difference in caregiver strain (p <  0.001, effect size = 0.93) was observed during the outbreak compared to levels pre-outbreak (pre-outbreak strain was measured retrospectively). Caregivers not using tele-rehabilitation along with a perception of it being a poor medium for rehabilitation were at greater risks for poor mental health whereas a negative perception on homecare therapy were strongly associated with higher psychological symptoms and strain.

Conclusions And Implications: This study identified a high prevalence of depression and significant change in strain displayed by caregivers during the COVID-19 outbreak. We identified several factors associated with poor mental health and perceived strain that can be used to help safeguard caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538124PMC
December 2020

Toxicity assessment of a novel oil dispersant based on silica nanoparticles using Fathead minnow.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Dec 7;229:105653. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, United States. Electronic address:

Oil spill accidents are a major concern for aquatic organisms. In recent history, the Deepwater Horizon blowout spilled 500 million liters of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Corexit 9500A was used to disperse the oil since it was the method approved at that time, despite safety concerns about its use. A better solution is necessary for dispersing oil from spills that reduces the toxicity to exposed aquatic organisms. To address this challenge, novel engineered nanoparticles were designed using silica cores grafted with hyperbranched poly(glycidol) branches. Because the silica core and polymers are known to be biocompatible, we hypothesized that these particles are nontoxic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and would decrease their exposure to oil polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Fathead minnow embryos, juveniles and adult stages were exposed to the particles alone or in combination with a water-accommodated fraction of oil. Acute toxicity of nanoparticles to fish was tested by measuring mortality. Sub-lethal effects were also measured including gene expression of cytochrome P450 1a (cyp1a) mRNA and heart rate in embryos. In addition, a mixture of particles plus the water-accommodated fraction was directly introduced to adult female fathead minnows by gavage. Three different nanoparticle concentrations were used (2, 10, and 50 mg/L) in either artificial fresh water or the water-accommodated fraction of the oil. In addition, nanoparticle-free controls were carried out in the two solutions. No significant mortality was observed for any age group or nanoparticle concentration, suggesting the safety of the nanoparticles. In the presence of the water-accommodated fraction alone, juvenile and adult fathead minnows responded by increasing expression of cyp1a. The addition of nanoparticles to the water-accommodated fraction reduced cyp1a gene expression in treatments. Heart rate was also restored to normal parameters in embryos co-exposed to nanoparticles and to the water-accommodated fraction. Measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons confirmed their presence in the tested solutions and the reduction of available PAH in WAF treated with the nanoparticles. Our findings suggest the engineered nanoparticles may be protecting the fish by sequestering polyaromatic hydrocarbons from oil, measured indirectly by the induction of cypa1 mRNAs. Furthermore, chemical analysis showed a reduction in PAH content in the water accommodated fraction with the presence of nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105653DOI Listing
December 2020

Racial differences in gait mechanics.

J Biomech 2020 11 28;112:110070. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

The effect of race has rarely been investigated in biomechanics studies despite racial health disparities in the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and disease, hindering both treatment and assessment of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that racial differences in gait mechanics exist between African Americans (AA) and white Americans (WA). Ninety-two participants (18-30 years old) were recruited with equal numbers in each racial group and sex. Self-selected walking speed was measured for each participant. 3D motion capture and force plate data were recorded during 7 walking trials at regular and fast set speeds. Step length, step width, peak vertical ground reaction force, peak hip extension, peak knee flexion, and peak ankle plantarflexion were computed for all trials at both set speeds. Multivariate and post-hoc univariate ANOVA models were fit to determine main and interaction effects of sex and race (SPSS V26, α = 0.05). Self-selected walking speed was slower in AA (p = 0.004, ƞ = 0.088). No significant interactions between race and sex were identified. Males took longer steps (regular: p < 0.001, ƞ = 0.288, fast: p < 0.001, ƞ = 0.193) and had larger peak knee flexion (regular: p = 0.007, ƞ = 0.081, fast: p < 0.001, ƞ = 0.188) and ankle plantarflexion angles (regular: p = 0.050, ƞ = 0.044, fast: p = 0.049, ƞ = 0.044). Peak ankle plantarflexion angle (regular: p = 0.012, ƞ = 0.071, fast: p < 0.001, ƞ = 0.137) and peak hip extension angle during fast walking (p = 0.007, ƞ = 0.083) were smaller in AA. Equivalency in gait measures between racial groups should not be assumed. Racially diverse study samples should be prioritized in the development of future research and individualized treatment protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.110070DOI Listing
November 2020

Breast-iRRISC: a novel model for predicting the individualised lifetime risk of radiation-induced breast cancer from a single screening event.

Br J Radiol 2021 Jan 8;94(1117):20200734. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus, 75 East St, Lidcombe, Sydney, NSW 2141, Australia.

Objectives: This work establishes the prototype of a new innovative risk model that aims to evaluate the total risk involved with screening mammography for each individual female. This has been specifically designed to accommodate any combination of lifetime screening regimes, using only the information gathered from a single mammographic examination.

Methods: This model prototype was developed with the aid of a large dataset of images from the Cancer Institute New South Wales (CINSW) with over 30,000 images from over 7000 examinations. Each examination is derived from a separate female.

Results: This prototype which we have called Breast Individualised Risk of Radiation-Induced Screening Cancer (Breast-iRRISC) is a novel tool for the assessment of the lifetime risk involved with screening mammography. The results demonstrate the applicability of this approach to the various screening regimes utilised around the globe, in addition to the personalised screening frequency patterns females have undergone and are likely to receive in the future.

Conclusions: This unique tailored approach to risk assessment will further empower females and clinicians towards a more informed clinical decision process regarding future imaging pathways. It will also inform health policy decisions regarding alternate screening durations and intervals.

Advances In Knowledge: Breast-iRRISC is a novel tool that provides females, clinicians and health policymakers around the globe with the ability to quantify the lifetime risk of radiation-induced breast cancer from screening mammography on an individual level from a single exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774682PMC
January 2021

Zanubrutinib (BGB-3111) plus obinutuzumab in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and follicular lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4802-4811

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Tennessee Oncology, PLLC, Nashville, TN.

Zanubrutinib (BGB-3111) is a next-generation Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed to be more selective with fewer off-target effects. We conducted a phase 1 study to assess the safety of its combination with obinutuzumab and evaluate early efficacy in 81 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) or relapsed/refractory (R/R) follicular lymphoma (FL). In this phase 1b study, zanubrutinib was tolerable at 160 mg twice daily or 320 mg once daily combined with IV obinutuzumab in patients with CLL/SLL (n = 45) and FL (n = 36). Common adverse events (AEs) included upper respiratory tract infection (51%; n = 23), neutropenia (44%; n = 20), contusion (33%; n = 15), cough, diarrhea, or fatigue (27%; n = 12 each), and pyrexia (22%; n = 10) in CLL/SLL patients and upper respiratory tract infection (39%; n = 14), contusion (28%; n = 10), fatigue (25%; n = 9), and cough (22%; n = 8) in FL patients. Neutropenia was the most common grade 3/4 AE (CLL/SLL, 31% [n = 14]; FL, 14% [n = 5]). Five patients required temporary dose reductions, and 5 discontinued the study drug because of AEs. Overall response rate (ORR) was 100% (n = 20) in treatment-naïve CLL patients and 92% (n = 23) in R/R CLL patients. ORR in 36 R/R FL patients was 72% (n = 26), with 14 complete and 12 partial responses. Median follow-up was 29 months (range, 8-37) for CLL patients and 20 months (range, 2-37) for FL patients. Zanubrutinib and obinutuzumab combination therapy was generally well tolerated. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02569476.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556127PMC
October 2020

Investigating Visual Hindsight Bias in Medical Imaging.

Acad Radiol 2020 10 4;27(10):1494. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Imaging Science, Sydney School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus, 75 East Street, Lidcombe, Sydney, NSW 2146, Australia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.05.044DOI Listing
October 2020

Knowledge translation: Radiographers compared to other healthcare professionals.

Radiography (Lond) 2020 10 14;26 Suppl 2:S27-S32. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

School of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, 75 East St, Lidcombe, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: This narrative review examines the current status of evidence-based practice and knowledge translation in diagnostic radiography. It explores knowledge translation efforts in the allied health professions aimed at systematically implementing evidence-based practice and suggests ways that these may be applied within diagnostic radiography.

Key Findings: Knowledge translation in diagnostic radiography is in its infancy with numerous examples of key findings of rigorous studies not implemented in practice. Utilising frameworks, models and theories to systematically translate knowledge into evidence-based practice has been shown to be effective in other allied health professions. Whilst few studies in diagnostic radiography report utilising these systematic approaches to implementing evidence-based practice, those that do, show promising results. Attitudes towards evidence-based practice within diagnostic radiography are becoming more positive and it is important to use this positive shift in attitudes to create real evidence-based change in the profession.

Conclusion: The potential benefits of systematically translating knowledge into evidence-based practice in diagnostic radiography are wide reaching with positive implications for our patients, the profession and wider community. Leaders at all levels of radiography must work towards implementing evidence-based practice in their daily work.

Implications For Practice: Systematic approaches to knowledge translation should be adopted and reported in diagnostic radiography in order to more effectively translate knowledge into evidence-based practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2020.06.007DOI Listing
October 2020

Increasing iterative reconstruction strength at low tube voltage in coronary CT angiography protocols using 3D-printed and Catphan 500 phantoms.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2020 Sep 13;21(9):209-214. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Imaging Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney School of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm strength at different tube voltages in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) protocols using a three-dimensional (3D)-printed and Catphan 500 phantoms.

Methods: A 3D-printed cardiac insert and Catphan 500 phantoms were scanned using CCTA protocols at 120 and 100 kVp tube voltages. All CT acquisitions were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm at 40% and 60% strengths. Image quality characteristics such as image noise, signal-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-noise ratio (CNR), high spatial resolution, and low contrast resolution were analyzed.

Results: There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between 120 and 100 kVp measures for image noise for FBP vs ASIR 60% (16.6 ± 3.8 vs 16.7 ± 4.8), SNR of ASIR 40% vs ASIR 60% (27.3 ± 5.4 vs 26.4 ± 4.8), and CNR of FBP vs ASIR 40% (31.3 ± 3.9 vs 30.1 ± 4.3), respectively. Based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) analysis, there was a minimal change of image quality for each tube voltage but increases when higher strengths of ASIR were used. The best measure of low contrast detectability was observed at ASIR 60% at 120 kVp.

Conclusions: Changing the IR strength has yielded different image quality noise characteristics. In this study, the use of 100 kVp and ASIR 60% yielded comparable image quality noise characteristics to the standard CCTA protocols using 120 kVp of ASIR 40%. A combination of 3D-printed and Catphan 500 phantoms could be used to perform CT dose optimization protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.12977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497920PMC
September 2020

Medium- and long-term functional behavior evaluations in an experimental focal ischemic stroke mouse model.

Cogn Neurodyn 2020 Aug 19;14(4):473-481. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx) and Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina at Palhoça, 25 Pedra Branca Avenue, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, as well as a major financial burden for health care systems. CVA rodent models provide experimental support to determine possible in vivo therapies to reduce brain injury and consequent sequelae. This study analyzed nociceptive, motor, cognitive and mood functions in mice submitted to distal middle cerebral artery (DMCA) occlusion. Male C57BL mice (n = 8) were randomly allocated to control or DMCA groups. Motor function was evaluated with the tests: grip force, rotarod and open field; and nociceptive threshold with von Frey and hot plate assessments. Cognitive function was evaluated with the inhibitory avoidance test, and mood with the tail suspension test. Evaluations were conducted on the seventh- and twenty-eighth-day post DMCA occlusion to assess medium- and long-term effects of the injury, respectively. DMCA occlusion significantly decreases muscle strength and spontaneous locomotion ( < 0.05) both medium- and long term; as well as increases immobility in the tail-suspension test ( < 0.05), suggesting a depressive-type behavior. However, DMCA occlusion did not affect nociceptive threshold nor cognitive functions ( > 0.05). These results suggest that, medium- and long-term effects of DMCA occlusion include motor function impairments, but no sensory dysfunction. Additionally, the injury affected mood but did not hinder cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11571-020-09584-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334328PMC
August 2020

Social capital and health: a meta-analysis.

J Health Econ 2020 07 1;72:102317. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

College of Business and Law, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

The relationship between social capital and health has received extensive attention in fields such as public health, medicine, epidemiology, gerontology and other health-related disciplines. In contrast, the economics literature on this subject is relatively small. To address this research gap, we investigate the cross-disciplinary empirical literature using meta-analysis. We analyze 12,778 estimates from 470 studies. Our analysis finds that social capital is significantly related to a variety of positive health outcomes. However, the effect sizes are consistently very small. This finding is robust across different types of social capital (e.g., cognitive, structural, bonding, bridging, linking), and for many different measures of health outcomes (e.g., mortality, disease/illnesses, depression). The small effects that we estimate cast doubt on recent initiatives to promote health through social capital such as those by the WHO, the OECD, and US Healthy People 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2020.102317DOI Listing
July 2020

Physiological Responses Induced by Manual Therapy in Animal Models: A Scoping Review.

Front Neurosci 2020 8;14:430. Epub 2020 May 8.

Rehabilitation Science Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Physiological responses related to manual therapy (MT) treatment have been investigated over decades using various animal models. However, these studies have not been compiled and their collective findings appraised. The purpose of this scoping review was to assess current scientific knowledge on the physiological responses related to MT and/or simulated MT procedures in animal models so as to act as a resource to better inform future mechanistic and clinical research incorporating these therapeutic interventions. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane, Embase, and Index of Chiropractic Literature (ICL) were searched from database inception to August 2019. Eligible studies were: (a) published in English; (b) non-cadaveric animal-based; (c) original data studies; (d) included a form of MT or simulated MT as treatment; (e) included quantification of at least one delivery parameter of MT treatment; (f) quantification of at least one physiological measure that could potentially contribute to therapeutic mechanisms of action of the MT. MT studies were categorized according to three main intervention types: (1) mobilization; (2) manipulation; and (3) massage. Two-phase screening procedures were conducted by a pair of independent reviewers, data were extracted from eligible studies and qualitatively reported. The literature search resulted in 231 articles of which 78 met inclusion criteria and were sorted by intervention type. Joint mobilization induced changes in nociceptive response and inflammatory profile, gene expression, receptor activation, neurotransmitter release and enzymatic activity. Spinal manipulation produced changes in muscle spindle response, nocifensive reflex response and neuronal activity, electromyography, and immunologic response. Physiological changes associated with massage therapy included autonomic, circulatory, lymphatic and immunologic functions, visceral response, gene expression, neuroanatomy, function and pathology, and cellular response to simulated massage. Pre-clinical research supports an association between MT physiological response and multiple potential short-term MT therapeutic mechanisms. Optimization of MT delivery and/or treatment efficacy will require additional preclinical investigation in which MT delivery parameters are controlled and reported using pathological and/or chronic pain models that mimic neuromusculoskeletal conditions for which MT has demonstrated clinical benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227122PMC
May 2020

Spinal Mobilization Prevents NGF-Induced Trunk Mechanical Hyperalgesia and Attenuates Expression of CGRP.

Front Neurosci 2020 30;14:385. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) is a complex and growing global health problem in need of more effective pain management strategies. Spinal mobilization (SM) is a non-pharmacological approach recommended by most clinical guidelines for LBP, but greater utilization and treatment optimization are hampered by a lack of mechanistic knowledge underlying its hypoalgesic clinical effects.

Methods: Groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral trunk (L5 vertebral level) injections (50 μl) of either vehicle (phosphate-buffer solution, PBS; VEH) or nerve growth factor (NGF; 0.8 μM) on Days 0 and 5 with or without daily L5 SM (VEH, NGF, VEH + SM, VEH + SM). Daily passive SM (10 min) was delivered by a feedback motor (1.2 Hz, 0.9N) from Days 1 to 12. Changes in pain assays were determined for mechanical and thermal reflexive behavior, exploratory behavior (open field events) and spontaneous pain behavior (rat grimace scale). On Day 12, lumbar (L1-L6) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested bilaterally and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive immunoreactive neurons were quantified from 3 animals (1 DRG tissue section per segmental level) per experimental group.

Results: NGF induced bilateral trunk (left = 0.006, right = 0.001) mechanical hyperalgesia and unilateral hindpaw allodynia ( = 0.006) compared to the vehicle group by Day 12. Additionally, we found for the first time that NGF animals demonstrated decreased exploratory behaviors (total distance traveled) and increased grimace scale scoring compared to the VEH group. Passive SM prevented this development of local (trunk) mechanical hyperalgesia and distant (hindpaw) allodynia, and normalized grimace scale scores. NGF increased CGRP positive immunoreactive neurons in ipsilateral lumbar DRGs compared to the VEH group ([L1] = 0.02; [L2] = 0.007) and SM effectively negated this increase in pain-related neuropeptide CGRP expression.

Conclusion: SM prevents the development of local (trunk) NGF-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and distant (hindpaw) allodynia, in part, through attenuation of CGRP expression in lumbar DRG sensory neurons. NGF decreases rat exploratory behavior and increases spontaneous pain for which passive SM acts to mitigate these pain-related behavioral changes. These initial study findings suggest that beginning daily SM soon after injury onset might act to minimize or prevent the development of LBP by reducing production of pain-related neuropeptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204433PMC
April 2020

High-intensity swimming exercise reduces inflammatory pain in mice by activation of the endocannabinoid system.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020 Aug 18;30(8):1369-1378. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory, Post-Graduate Program of Health Sciences, University of Southern of Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Brazil.

As exercise intervention solely for pain reduction is relatively new, the available research still leaves an incomplete picture of responsible mechanisms and pathways. Nonetheless, evidence indicates that exercise-induced analgesia involves activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. The present study investigated the role of the eCB system on the antihyperalgesic effect of high-intensity swimming exercise (HISE) in an animal model of peripheral persistent inflammation. Male Swiss mice were allocated to non-exercised and exercised groups and subjected to subcutaneous intraplantar injection (i.pl.) of a single dose of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce inflammatory pain. Cumulative HISE was performed once a day, and mechanical hyperalgesia and edema were evaluated 0.5 hour after HISE for seven consecutive days. To investigate the role of the eCB system on the antihyperalgesic effect of HISE, non-exercised and exercised mice received intraperitoneal (ip), intrathecal (i.t.) or i.pl. injections of vehicle, AM281 (a CB cannabinoid receptor antagonist) or AM630 (a CB cannabinoid receptor antagonist) from the 3rd to 5th day after CFA injection. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated 0.5 hour after HISE. In addition, the effect of the fatty acid amide hydrolase [FAAH] inhibitor or monoacylglycerol lipase [MAGL] inhibitor on the antihyperalgesic action of HISE was investigated. HISE reduced mechanical hyperalgesia with effects prevented by AM281 or AM630 pretreatment in all delivery routes tested. The inhibition of FAAH and MAGL prolonged the antihyperalgesic effect of HISE. These data demonstrate evidence for the role of the eCB system upon exercise-induced analgesia in a murine model of inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13705DOI Listing
August 2020

The design of a laboratory apparatus to simulate the dust generated by longwall shield advances.

Int J Coal Sci Technol 2019 Oct;6

CDC NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA 15236, USA.

A laboratory apparatus (shield dust simulator) was designed and constructed to simulate the dust generated during the advance of longwall hydraulic roof supports, or shields. The objective of the study was to develop a tool that could be used to test the hypothesis that foam applied to a mine roof prior to a shield advance could be used to reduce the respirable dust generated during shield advances. This paper will outline the design parameters for the development of the system, as well as describe baseline testing of coal and limestone dust. Results show that the average instantaneous respirable dust concentrated during simulated shield advance. Confidence intervals were calculated from the instantaneous respirable dust data to determine the repeatability of the data produced by the device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40789-019-00273-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185039PMC
October 2019

Evaluation of an integrated 3D-printed phantom for coronary CT angiography using iterative reconstruction algorithm.

J Med Radiat Sci 2020 Sep 27;67(3):170-176. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: 3D-printed imaging phantoms are now increasingly available and used for computed tomography (CT) dose optimisation study and image quality analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrated 3D-printed cardiac insert phantom when evaluating iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) protocols.

Methods: The 3D-printed cardiac insert phantom was positioned into a chest phantom and scanned with a 16-slice CT scanner. Acquisitions were performed with CCTA protocols using 120 kVp at four different tube currents, 300, 200, 100 and 50 mA (protocols A, B, C and D, respectively). The image data sets were reconstructed with a filtered back projection (FBP) and three different IR algorithm strengths. The image quality metrics of image noise, signal-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated for each protocol.

Results: Decrease in dose levels has significantly increased the image noise, compared to FBP of protocol A (P < 0.001). As a result, the SNR and CNR were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). For FBP, the highest noise with poor SNR and CNR was protocol D with 19.0 ± 1.6 HU, 18.9 ± 2.5 and 25.1 ± 3.6, respectively. For IR algorithm, the highest strength (AIDR3D ) yielded the lowest noise with excellent SNR and CNR.

Conclusions: The use of IR algorithm and increasing its strengths have reduced noise significantly and thus increased the SNR and CNR when compared to FBP. Therefore, this integrated 3D-printed phantom approach could be used for dose optimisation study and image quality analysis in CCTA protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmrs.387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476188PMC
September 2020

Artificial intelligence and convolution neural networks assessing mammographic images: a narrative literature review.

J Med Radiat Sci 2020 Jun 5;67(2):134-142. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Discipline of Medical Imaging Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales, Australia.

Studies have shown that the use of artificial intelligence can reduce errors in medical image assessment. The diagnosis of breast cancer is an essential task; however, diagnosis can include 'detection' and 'interpretation' errors. Studies to reduce these errors have shown the feasibility of using convolution neural networks (CNNs). This narrative review presents recent studies in diagnosing mammographic malignancy investigating the accuracy and reliability of these CNNs. Databases including ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE, British Medical Journal and Medscape were searched using the terms 'convolutional neural network or artificial intelligence', 'breast neoplasms [MeSH] or breast cancer or breast carcinoma' and 'mammography [MeSH Terms]'. Articles collected were screened under the inclusion and exclusion criteria, accounting for the publication date and exclusive use of mammography images, and included only literature in English. After extracting data, results were compared and discussed. This review included 33 studies and identified four recurring categories of studies: the differentiation of benign and malignant masses, the localisation of masses, cancer-containing and cancer-free breast tissue differentiation and breast classification based on breast density. CNN's application in detecting malignancy in mammography appears promising but requires further standardised investigations before potentially becoming an integral part of the diagnostic routine in mammography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmrs.385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276180PMC
June 2020

A field study of a roof bolter canopy air curtain (2nd generation) for respirable coal mine dust control.

Int J Min Sci Technol 2019 Sep;29(5):711-720

Prairie State Generating Company LLC, Lively Grove, IL 62257, USA.

A 2nd generation roof bolter canopy air curtain (CAC) design was tested by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at a Midwestern underground coal mine. During the study, the roof bolter never operated downwind of the continuous miner. Using a combination of personal Data Rams (pDR) and gravimetric samplers, the dust control efficiency of the roof bolter CAC was ascertained. Performance evaluation was determined using three methods: (1) comparing roof bolter operator concentrations underneath the CAC to roof bolter concentrations outside the CAC, (2) comparing roof bolter operator concentrations underneath the CAC to the concentrations at the rear of the bolter, and finally, (3) using the gravimetric data directly underneath the CAC to correct roof bolter operator concentrations underneath the CAC and comparing them to the concentrations at the rear of the bolter. Method 1 dust control efficiencies ranged from -53.9% to 60.4%. Method 2 efficiencies ranged from -150.5% to 52.2%, and Method 3 efficiencies ranged from 40.7% to 91%. Reasons for negative and low dust control efficiencies are provided in this paper and include: incorrect sampling locations, large distance between CAC and operator, and contamination of intake air from line curtain. Low dust concentrations encountered during the testing made it difficult to discern whether differences in concentrations were due to the CAC or due to variances inherent in experimental dust measurement. However, the analyses, especially the Method 3 analysis, show that the CAC can be an effective dust control device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2019.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6917209PMC
September 2019

The Effect of Visual Hindsight Bias on Radiologist Perception.

Acad Radiol 2020 07 15;27(7):977-984. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus, 75 East Street, Lidcombe, NSW 2141, Australia; Medical Imaging Optimisation Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales, Australia.

Rationale And Objectives: To measure the effect of visual hindsight bias on radiologists' perception during chest radiograph pulmonary nodule detection.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective multi-observer study to assess the effect of hindsight bias on radiologists' perception. Sixteen radiologists were asked to interpret 15 postero-anterior chest images containing a solitary lung nodule each consisting of 25 incremental levels of blur. Participants were requested initially to detect the nodule by reducing the blur of the images (foresight). They were then asked to increase the blur until the identified nodule was undetectable (hindsight). Participants then repeated the experiment, after being informed of the potential effects of hindsight bias and asked to counteract these effects. Participants were divided into two groups (experienced and less experienced) and the nodules were given different conspicuity ratings to determine the effect of expertise and task difficulty. Eye tracking technology was also utilised to capture visual search.

Results: Wilcoxon analysis demonstrated significant differences between foresight and hindsight values of the radiologists (p = 0.02). However, after being informed of hindsight bias, these differences were no longer significant (p = 0.97). Friedman analysis also determined overall significance in the hindsight ratios between nodule conspicuities for both phases (phase 1: p = 0.02; phase 2: p = 0.02). There was no significance difference between the experienced and less experienced groups.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that radiologists exhibit hindsight bias but appeared to be able to compensate for this phenomenon once its effects were considered. Also, visual hindsight bias appears to be affected by task difficulty with a greater effect occurring with less conspicuous nodules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2019.09.032DOI Listing
July 2020

Is there an oxidative cost of acute stress? Characterization, implication of glucocorticoids and modulation by prior stress experience.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 11 13;286(1915):20191698. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Biology, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837, USA.

Acute rises in glucocorticoid hormones allow individuals to adaptively respond to environmental challenges but may also have negative consequences, including oxidative stress. While the effects of chronic glucocorticoid exposure on oxidative stress have been well characterized, those of acute stress or glucocorticoid exposure have mostly been overlooked. We examined the relationship between acute stress exposure, glucocorticoids and oxidative stress in Japanese quail (). We (i) characterized the pattern of oxidative stress during an acute stressor in two phenotypically distinct breeds; (ii) determined whether corticosterone ingestion, in the absence of acute stress, increased oxidative stress, which we call glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress (GiOS); and (iii) explored how prior experience to stressful events affected GiOS. Both breeds exhibited an increase in oxidative stress in response to an acute stressor. Importantly, in the absence of acute stress, ingesting corticosterone caused an acute rise in plasma corticosterone and oxidative stress. Lastly, birds exposed to no previous acute stress or numerous stressful events had high levels of GiOS in response to acute stress, while birds with moderate prior exposure did not. Together, these findings suggest that an acute stress response results in GiOS, but prior experience to stressors may modulate that oxidative cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.1698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892047PMC
November 2019

Capturing the passenger leukocyte.

Transfusion 2019 11;59(11):3291-3292

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15571DOI Listing
November 2019