Publications by authors named "Volodymyr B Koman"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High Thermal Effusivity Nanocarbon Materials for Resonant Thermal Energy Harvesting.

Small 2021 Mar 6:e2006752. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Carbon nanomaterials have extraordinary thermal properties, such as high conductivity and stability. Nanocarbon combined with phase change materials (PCMs) can yield exceptionally high thermal effusivity composites optimal for thermal energy harvesting. The progress in synthesis and processing of high effusivity materials, and their application in resonant energy harvesting from temperature variations is reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202006752DOI Listing
March 2021

Diameter Dependence of Water Filling in Lithographically Segmented Isolated Carbon Nanotubes.

ACS Nano 2021 Feb 29;15(2):2778-2790. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Although the structure and properties of water under conditions of extreme confinement are fundamentally important for a variety of applications, they remain poorly understood, especially for dimensions less than 2 nm. This problem is confounded by the difficulty in controlling surface roughness and dimensionality in fabricated nanochannels, contributing to a dearth of experimental platforms capable of carrying out the necessary precision measurements. In this work, we utilize an experimental platform based on the interior of lithographically segmented, isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes to study water under extreme nanoscale confinement. This platform generates multiple copies of nanotubes with identical chirality, of diameters from 0.8 to 2.5 nm and lengths spanning 6 to 160 μm, that can be studied individually in real time before and after opening, exposure to water, and subsequent water filling. We demonstrate that, under controlled conditions, the diameter-dependent blue shift of the Raman radial breathing mode (RBM) between 1 and 8 cm measures an increase in the interior mechanical modulus associated with liquid water filling, with no response from exterior water exposure. The observed RBM shift with filling demonstrates a non-monotonic trend with diameter, supporting the assignment of a minimum of 1.81 ± 0.09 cm at 0.93 ± 0.08 nm with a nearly linear increase at larger diameters. We find that a simple hard-sphere model of water in the confined nanotube interior describes key features of the diameter-dependent modulus change of the carbon nanotube and supports previous observations in the literature. Longer segments of 160 μm show partial filling from their ends, consistent with pore clogging. These devices provide an opportunity to study fluid behavior under extreme confinement with high precision and repeatability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c08634DOI Listing
February 2021

Real-time detection of wound-induced HO signalling waves in plants with optical nanosensors.

Nat Plants 2020 04 15;6(4):404-415. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Decoding wound signalling in plants is critical for understanding various aspects of plant sciences, from pest resistance to secondary metabolite and phytohormone biosynthesis. The plant defence responses are known to primarily involve NADPH-oxidase-mediated HO and Ca signalling pathways, which propagate across long distances through the plant vasculature and tissues. Using non-destructive optical nanosensors, we find that the HO concentration profile post-wounding follows a logistic waveform for six plant species: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), arugula (Eruca sativa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), strawberry blite (Blitum capitatum), sorrel (Rumex acetosa) and Arabidopsis thaliana, ranked in order of wave speed from 0.44 to 3.10 cm min. The HO wave tracks the concomitant surface potential wave measured electrochemically. We show that the plant RbohD glutamate-receptor-like channels (GLR3.3 and GLR3.6) are all critical to the propagation of the wound-induced HO wave. Our findings highlight the utility of a new type of nanosensor probe that is species-independent and capable of real-time, spatial and temporal biochemical measurements in plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-0632-4DOI Listing
April 2020

Highly Ordered Two-Dimensional MoS Archimedean Scroll Bragg Reflectors as Chromatically Adaptive Fibers.

Nano Lett 2020 May 29;20(5):3067-3078. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, United States.

Nanostructured fibers provide a basis for a unique class of multifunctional textiles, composites, and membrane applications, including those capable of chromatic modulating because of their high aspect ratio, surface area, and processing capability. Here in, we utilize two-dimensional (2D) materials including molybdenum disulfide (MoS) and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) to generate single layer Archimedean scroll fibers, possessing cross sections formed from a single 2D molecular layer. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer MoS (0.29-0.33% in volume) and 226-259 nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were used to create Bragg reflector fibers, exploiting the anisotropic function, exhibiting reflection at 630-709 nm, and verifying the highly ordered nanoinclusions. The Bragg reflectors show a memory response to heating and cooling, which switches the reflection wavelength from 629 to 698 nm. We simulate the reflection and transmission spectra of MoS/PMMA and MoS/polydimethylsiloxane layered composites to provide the design of scroll fiber composites using the transfer matrix methods. Moreover, we demonstrate the incorporation of a few-layer CVD hBN into the scroll fiber composite that emits photons at 576 nm. The highly oriented layered structures extend the capability of the fiber nanocomposites to take advantage of anisotropic optical, electrical, and thermal properties unique to 2D materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b05004DOI Listing
May 2020

Chloroplast-selective gene delivery and expression in planta using chitosan-complexed single-walled carbon nanotube carriers.

Nat Nanotechnol 2019 05 25;14(5):447-455. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Plant genetic engineering is an important tool used in current efforts in crop improvement, pharmaceutical product biosynthesis and sustainable agriculture. However, conventional genetic engineering techniques target the nuclear genome, prompting concerns about the proliferation of foreign genes to weedy relatives. Chloroplast transformation does not have this limitation, since the plastid genome is maternally inherited in most plants, motivating the need for organelle-specific and selective nanocarriers. Here, we rationally designed chitosan-complexed single-walled carbon nanotubes, utilizing the lipid exchange envelope penetration mechanism. The single-walled carbon nanotubes selectively deliver plasmid DNA to chloroplasts of different plant species without external biolistic or chemical aid. We demonstrate chloroplast-targeted transgene delivery and transient expression in mature Eruca sativa, Nasturtium officinale, Nicotiana tabacum and Spinacia oleracea plants and in isolated Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts. This nanoparticle-mediated chloroplast transgene delivery tool provides practical advantages over current delivery techniques as a potential transformation method for mature plants to benefit plant bioengineering and biological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0375-4DOI Listing
May 2019

Implanted Nanosensors in Marine Organisms for Physiological Biologging: Design, Feasibility, and Species Variability.

ACS Sens 2019 01 11;4(1):32-43. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering , King Abdullah University of Science and Technology , Thuwal 23955-6900 , Saudi Arabia.

In recent decades, biologists have sought to tag animals with various sensors to study aspects of their behavior otherwise inaccessible from controlled laboratory experiments. Despite this, chemical information, both environmental and physiological, remains challenging to collect despite its tremendous potential to elucidate a wide range of animal behaviors. In this work, we explore the design, feasibility, and data collection constraints of implantable, near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors based on DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) embedded within a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel. These sensors are enabled by Corona Phase Molecular Recognition (CoPhMoRe) to provide selective chemical detection for marine organism biologging. Riboflavin, a key nutrient in oxidative phosphorylation, is utilized as a model analyte in in vitro and ex vivo tissue measurements. Nine species of bony fish, sharks, eels, and turtles were utilized on site at Oceanogràfic in Valencia, Spain to investigate sensor design parameters, including implantation depth, sensor imaging and detection limits, fluence, and stability, as well as acute and long-term biocompatibility. Hydrogels were implanted subcutaneously and imaged using a customized, field-portable Raspberry Pi camera system. Hydrogels could be detected up to depths of 7 mm in the skin and muscle tissue of deceased teleost fish ( Sparus aurata and Stenotomus chrysops) and a deceased catshark ( Galeus melastomus). The effects of tissue heterogeneity on hydrogel delivery and fluorescence visibility were explored, with darker tissues masking hydrogel fluorescence. Hydrogels were implanted into a living eastern river cooter ( Pseudemys concinna), a European eel ( Anguilla anguilla), and a second species of catshark ( Scyliorhinus stellaris). The animals displayed no observable changes in movement and feeding patterns. Imaging by high-resolution ultrasound indicated no changes in tissue structure in the eel and catshark. In the turtle, some tissue reaction was detected upon dissection and histopathology. Analysis of movement patterns in sarasa comet goldfish ( Carassius auratus) indicated that the hydrogel implants did not affect swimming patterns. Taken together, these results indicate that this implantable form factor is a promising technique for biologging using aquatic vertebrates with further development. Future work will tune the sensor detection range to the physiological range of riboflavin, develop strategies to normalize sensor signal to account for the optical heterogeneity of animal tissues, and design a flexible, wearable device incorporating optoelectronic components that will enable sensor measurements in moving animals. This work advances the application of nanosensors to organisms beyond the commonly used rodent and zebrafish models and is an important step toward the physiological biologging of aquatic organisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.8b00538DOI Listing
January 2019

Polymethacrylamide and Carbon Composites that Grow, Strengthen, and Self-Repair using Ambient Carbon Dioxide Fixation.

Adv Mater 2018 Nov 9;30(46):e1804037. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Plants accumulate solid carbon mass and self-repair using atmospheric CO fixation from photosynthesis. Synthetic materials capable of mimicking this property can significantly reduce the energy needed to transport and repair construction materials. Here, a gel matrix containing aminopropyl methacrylamide (APMA), glucose oxidase (GOx), and nanoceria-stabilized extracted chloroplasts that is able to grow, strengthen, and self-repair using carbon fixation is demonstrated. Glucose produced from the embedded chloroplasts is converted to gluconolactone (GL) via GOx, polymerizing with APMA to form a continuously expanding and strengthening polymethacrylamide. The extracted spinach chloroplasts exhibit enhanced stability and produce 12 µg GL mg Chl h after optimization of the temporal illumination conditions and the glucose efflux rate, with the insertion of chemoprotective nanoceria inside the chloroplasts. This system achieves an average growth rate of 60 µm h per chloroplast under ambient CO and illumination over 18 h, thickening with a shear modulus of 3 kPa. This material can demonstrate self-repair using the exported glucose from chloroplasts and chemical crosslinking through the fissures. These results point to a new class of materials capable of using atmospheric CO fixation as a regeneration source, finding utility as self-healing coatings, construction materials, and fabrics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201804037DOI Listing
November 2018

Autoperforation of 2D materials for generating two-terminal memristive Janus particles.

Nat Mater 2018 11 23;17(11):1005-1012. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Graphene and other two-dimensional materials possess desirable mechanical, electrical and chemical properties for incorporation into or onto colloidal particles, potentially granting them unique electronic functions. However, this application has not yet been realized, because conventional top-down lithography scales poorly for producing colloidal solutions. Here, we develop an 'autoperforation' technique that provides a means of spontaneous assembly for surfaces composed of two-dimensional molecular scaffolds. Chemical vapour deposited two-dimensional sheets can autoperforate into circular envelopes when sandwiching a microprinted polymer composite disk of nanoparticle ink, allowing liftoff into solution and simultaneous assembly. The resulting colloidal microparticles have two independently addressable, external Janus faces that we show can function as an intraparticle array of vertically aligned, two-terminal electronic devices. Such particles demonstrate remarkable chemical and mechanical stability and form the basis of particulate electronic devices capable of collecting and storing information about their surroundings, extending nanoelectronics into previously inaccessible environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-018-0197-zDOI Listing
November 2018

Rational Design Principles for the Transport and Subcellular Distribution of Nanomaterials into Plant Protoplasts.

Small 2018 11 6;14(44):e1802086. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

The ability to control the subcellular localization of nanoparticles within living plants offers unique advantages for targeted biomolecule delivery and enables important applications in plant bioengineering. However, the mechanism of nanoparticle transport past plant biological membranes is poorly understood. Here, a mechanistic study of nanoparticle cellular uptake into plant protoplasts is presented. An experimentally validated mathematical model of lipid exchange envelope penetration mechanism for protoplasts, which predicts that the subcellular distribution of nanoparticles in plant cells is dictated by the particle size and the magnitude of the zeta potential, is advanced. The mechanism is completely generic, describing nanoparticles ranging from quantum dots, gold and silica nanoparticles, nanoceria, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). In addition, the use of imaging flow cytometry to investigate the influence of protoplasts' morphological characteristics on nanoparticle uptake efficiency is demonstrated. Using DNA-wrapped SWNTs as model nanoparticles, it is found that glycerolipids, the predominant lipids in chloroplast membranes, exhibit stronger lipid-nanoparticle interaction than phospholipids, the major constituent in protoplast membrane. This work can guide the rational design of nanoparticles for targeted delivery into specific compartments within plant cells without the use of chemical or mechanical aid, potentially enabling various plant engineering applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201802086DOI Listing
November 2018

Colloidal nanoelectronic state machines based on 2D materials for aerosolizable electronics.

Nat Nanotechnol 2018 09 23;13(9):819-827. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

A previously unexplored property of two-dimensional electronic materials is their ability to graft electronic functionality onto colloidal particles to access local hydrodynamics in fluids to impart mobility and enter spaces inaccessible to larger electronic systems. Here, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of fully autonomous state machines built onto SU-8 particles powered by a two-dimensional material-based photodiode. The on-board circuit connects a chemiresistor circuit element and a memristor element, enabling the detection and storage of information after aerosolization, hydrodynamic propulsion to targets over 0.6 m away, and large-area surface sensing of triethylamine, ammonia and aerosolized soot in inaccessible locations. An incorporated retroreflector design allows for facile position location using laser-scanning optical detection. Such state machines may find widespread application as probes in confined environments, such as the human digestive tract, oil and gas conduits, chemical and biosynthetic reactors, and autonomous environmental sensors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0194-zDOI Listing
September 2018

Ultra-high thermal effusivity materials for resonant ambient thermal energy harvesting.

Nat Commun 2018 02 14;9(1):664. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Materials science has made progress in maximizing or minimizing the thermal conductivity of materials; however, the thermal effusivity-related to the product of conductivity and capacity-has received limited attention, despite its importance in the coupling of thermal energy to the environment. Herein, we design materials that maximize the thermal effusivity by impregnating copper and nickel foams with conformal, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene and octadecane as a phase change material. These materials are ideal for ambient energy harvesting in the form of what we call thermal resonators to generate persistent electrical power from thermal fluctuations over large ranges of frequencies. Theory and experiment demonstrate that the harvestable power for these devices is proportional to the thermal effusivity of the dominant thermal mass. To illustrate, we measure persistent energy harvesting from diurnal frequencies, extracting as high as 350 mV and 1.3 mW from approximately 10 °C diurnal temperature differences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03029-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813115PMC
February 2018

Determining the Optimized Interlayer Separation Distance in Vertical Stacked 2D WS :hBN:MoS Heterostructures for Exciton Energy Transfer.

Small 2018 03 7;14(13):e1703727. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH, UK.

The 2D semiconductor monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, WS and MoS , are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and assembled by sequential transfer into vertical layered heterostructures (VLHs). Insulating hBN, also produced by CVD, is utilized to control the separation between WS and MoS by adjusting the layer number, leading to fine-scale tuning of the interlayer interactions within the VLHs. The interlayer interactions are studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and are demonstrated to be highly sensitive to the input excitation power. For thin hBN separators (one to two layers), the total PL emission switches from quenching to enhancement by increasing the laser power. Femtosecond broadband transient absorption measurements demonstrate that the increase in PL quantum yield results from Förster energy transfer from MoS to WS . The PL signal is further enhanced at cryogenic temperatures due to the suppressed nonradiative decay channels. It is shown that (4 ± 1) layers of hBN are optimum for obtaining PL enhancement in the VLHs. Increasing thickness beyond this causes the enhancement factor to diminish, with the WS and MoS then behaving as isolated noninteracting monolayers. These results indicate how controlling the exciton generation rate influences energy transfer and plays an important role in the properties of VLHs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201703727DOI Listing
March 2018

A Nanobionic Light-Emitting Plant.

Nano Lett 2017 12 1;17(12):7951-7961. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 77 Massachusetts Aveue, Cambridge, Massachusetts United States.

The engineering of living plants for visible light emission and sustainable illumination is compelling because plants possess independent energy generation and storage mechanisms and autonomous self-repair. Herein, we demonstrate a plant nanobionic approach that enables exceptional luminosity and lifetime utilizing four chemically interacting nanoparticles, including firefly luciferase conjugated silica (SNP-Luc), d-luciferin releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-LH), coenzyme A functionalized chitosan (CS-CoA) and semiconductor nanocrystal phosphors for longer wavelength modulation. An in vitro kinetic model incorporating the release rates of the nanoparticles is developed to maximize the chemiluminescent lifetimes to exceed 21.5 h. In watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and other species, the nanoparticles circumvent limitations such as luciferin toxicity above 400 μM and colocalization of enzymatic reactions near high adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Pressurized bath infusion of nanoparticles (PBIN) is introduced to deliver a mixture of nanoparticles to the entire living plant, well described using a nanofluidic mathematical model. We rationally design nanoparticle size and charge to control localization within distinct tissues compartments with 10 nm nanoparticles localizing within the leaf mesophyll and stomata guard cells, and those larger than 100 nm segregated in the leaf mesophyll. The results are mature watercress plants that emit greater than 1.44 × 10 photons/sec or 50% of 1 μW commercial luminescent diodes and modulate "off" and "on" states by chemical addition of dehydroluciferin and coenzyme A, respectively. We show that CdSe nanocrystals can shift the chemiluminescent emission to 760 nm enabling near-infrared (nIR) signaling. These results advance the viability of nanobionic plants as self-powered photonics, direct and indirect light sources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04369DOI Listing
December 2017

Persistent drought monitoring using a microfluidic-printed electro-mechanical sensor of stomata in planta.

Lab Chip 2017 11;17(23):4015-4024

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Stomatal function can be used effectively to monitor plant hydraulics, photosensitivity, and gas exchange. Current approaches to measure single stomatal aperture, such as mold casting or fluorometric techniques, do not allow real time or persistent monitoring of the stomatal function over timescales relevant for long term plant physiological processes, including vegetative growth and abiotic stress. Herein, we utilize a nanoparticle-based conducting ink that preserves stomatal function to print a highly stable, electrical conductometric sensor actuated by the stomata pore itself, repeatedly and reversibly for over 1 week. This stomatal electro-mechanical pore size sensor (SEMPSS) allows for real-time tracking of the latency of single stomatal opening and closing times in planta, which we show vary from 7.0 ± 0.5 to 25.0 ± 0.5 min for the former and from 53.0 ± 0.5 to 45.0 ± 0.5 min for the latter in Spathiphyllum wallisii. These values are shown to correlate with the soil water potential and the onset of the wilting response, in quantitative agreement with a dynamic mathematical model of stomatal function. A single stoma of Spathiphyllum wallisii is shown to distinguish between incident light intensities (up to 12 mW cm) with temporal latency slow as 7.0 ± 0.5 min. Over a seven day period, the latency in opening and closing times are stable throughout the plant diurnal cycle and increase gradually with the onset of drought. The monitoring of stomatal function over long term timescales at single stoma level will improve our understanding of plant physiological responses to environmental factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7lc00930eDOI Listing
November 2017

Ionic Strength-Mediated Phase Transitions of Surface-Adsorbed DNA on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

J Am Chem Soc 2017 11 7;139(46):16791-16802. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides have unique, and in some cases sequence-specific molecular interactions with the surface of carbon nanotubes that remain the subject of fundamental study. In this work, we observe and analyze a generic, ionic strength-mediated phase transition exhibited by over 25 distinct oligonucleotides adsorbed to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in colloidal suspension. The phase transition occurs as monovalent salts are used to modify the ionic strength from 500 mM to 1 mM, causing a reversible reduction in the fluorescence quantum yield by as much as 90%. The phase transition is only observable by fluorescence quenching within a window of pH and in the presence of dissolved O, but occurs independently of this optical quenching. The negatively charged phosphate backbone increases (decreases) the DNA surface coverage on an areal basis at high (low) ionic strength, and is well described by a two-state equilibrium model. The resulting quantitative model is able to describe and link, for the first time, the observed changes in optical properties of DNA-wrapped SWCNTs with ionic strength, pH, adsorbed O, and ascorbic acid. Cytosine nucleobases are shown to alter the adhesion of the DNA to SWCNTs through direct protonation from solution, decreasing the driving force for this phase transition. We show that the phase transition also changes the observed SWCNT corona phase, modulating the recognition of riboflavin. These results provide insight into the unique molecular interactions between DNA and the SWCNT surface, and have implications for molecular sensing, assembly, and nanoparticle separations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b09258DOI Listing
November 2017

Observation of the Marcus Inverted Region of Electron Transfer from Asymmetric Chemical Doping of Pristine (n,m) Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

J Am Chem Soc 2017 11 20;139(43):15328-15336. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

The concept of electrical energy generation based on asymmetric chemical doping of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) papers is presented. We explore 27 small, organic, electron-acceptor molecules that are shown to tune the output open-circuit voltage (V) across three types of pristine SWNT papers with varying (n,m) chirality distributions. A considerable enhancement in the observed V, from 80 to 440 mV, is observed for SWNT/molecule acceptor pairs that have molecular volume below 120 Å and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies centered around -0.8 eV. The electron transfer (ET) rate constants driving the V generation are shown to vary with the chirality-associated Marcus theory, suggesting that the energy gaps between SWNT and the LUMO of acceptor molecules dictate the ET process. When the ET rate constants and the maximum V are plotted versus the LUMO energy of the acceptor organic molecule, volcano-shaped dependencies, characteristic of the Marcus inverted region, are apparent for three distinct sources of SWNT papers with modes in diameter distributions of 0.95, 0.83, and 0.75 nm. This observation, where the ET driving force exceeds reorganization energies, allows for an estimation of the outer-sphere reorganization energies with values as low as 100 meV for the (8,7) SWNT, consistent with a proposed image-charge modified Born energy model. These results expand the fundamental understanding of ET transfer processes in SWNT and allow for an accurate calculation of energy generation through asymmetric doping for device applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b04314DOI Listing
November 2017

Nanosensor Technology Applied to Living Plant Systems.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2017 06;10(1):113-140

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139; email:

An understanding of plant biology is essential to solving many long-standing global challenges, including sustainable and secure food production and the generation of renewable fuel sources. Nanosensor platforms, sensors with a characteristic dimension that is nanometer in scale, have emerged as important tools for monitoring plant signaling pathways and metabolism that are nondestructive, minimally invasive, and capable of real-time analysis. This review outlines the recent advances in nanotechnology that enable these platforms, including the measurement of chemical fluxes even at the single-molecule level. Applications of nanosensors to plant biology are discussed in the context of nutrient management, disease assessment, food production, detection of DNA proteins, and the regulation of plant hormones. Current trends and future needs are discussed with respect to the emerging trends of precision agriculture, urban farming, and plant nanobionics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anchem-061516-045310DOI Listing
June 2017

Non-invasive continuous monitoring of pro-oxidant effects of engineered nanoparticles on aquatic microorganisms.

J Nanobiotechnology 2017 Mar 7;15(1):19. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory (NAM), École Polytechnique Fédéral de Lausanne, EPFL/IST/IMT/NAM, Station 11, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are key drivers for the development of highly sophisticated new technologies. As all new attainments, the rapidly increasing used of ENMs raise concerns about their safety for the environment and humans. There is growing evidence showing that if engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, there is a possibility that they could cause harm to aquatic microorganisms. Among the divers effects triggering their toxicity the ability of ENMs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of oxidizing biomolecules is currently considered a central mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, development of sensitive tools for quantification of the ROS generation and oxidative stress are highly sought. After briefly introducing ENMs-induced ROS generation and oxidative stress in the aquatic microorganisms (AMOs), this overview paper focuses on a new optical biosensor allowing sensitive and dynamic measurements of HO in real-time using multiscattering enhanced absorption spectroscopy. Its principle is based on sensitive absorption measurements of the heme protein cytochrome c whose absorption spectrum alters with the oxidation state of constituent ferrous Fe and ferric Fe. For biological applications cytochrome c was embedded in porous random media resulting in an extended optical path length through multiple scattering of light, which lowers the limit of detection to a few nM of HO. The sensor was also integrated in a microfluidic system containing micro-valves and sieves enabling more complex experimental conditions. To demonstrate its performance, abiotic absorption measurements of low concentrations of dye molecules and 10 nm gold particles were carried out achieving limits of detection in the low nM range. Other biologically relevant reactive oxygen species can be measured at sub-μM concentrations, which was shown for glucose and lactate through enzymatic reactions producing HO. In ecotoxicological investigations HO excreted by aquatic microorganisms exposed to various stressors were measured. Pro-oxidant effects of nano-TiO and nano-CuO towards green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were explored in various exposure media and under different light illuminations. Dynamics of Cd induced effects on photosynthetic activity, sensitisation and recovery of cells of C. reinhardtii was also studied.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-017-0253-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341439PMC
March 2017

Maximal absorption regime in random media.

Opt Express 2016 Oct;24(22):A1306-A1320

Efficient optical energy transfer is key to many technologies, ranging from biosensing to photovoltaics. Here, for the first time we show that by introducing a random medium with appropriate filling factor, absorption in a specific volume can be maximized. Using both numerical simulations and an analytical diffusion model, we identify design rules to maximize absorption in the system with different geometrical and scattering properties. By combining a random medium with an open photonic cavity, we numerically demonstrate a 23-fold enhancement of the absorbed energy. We also show how absorption as high as 99% can be reached in a device as thin as 500 μm for normal incidence illumination. Finally, our data indicate that introducing a non-absorbing random medium into a light trapping system for thin solar cells can enhance absorption of energy by a factor of 2.2. This absorption enhancement, caused by the random medium, is broadband and wide-angle and can help design efficient solar cells, light trapping devices, biosensors and random lasers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.0A1306DOI Listing
October 2016

Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics.

Nat Mater 2017 02 31;16(2):264-272. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors-single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal-embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat4771DOI Listing
February 2017

New insights into ROS dynamics: a multi-layered microfluidic chip for ecotoxicological studies on aquatic microorganisms.

Nanotoxicology 2016 10 21;10(8):1041-50. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

a Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory (NAM) , Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) , Lausanne , Switzerland ;

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the life of every cell, including cellular defense and signaling mechanisms. Continuous and quantitative ROS sensing can provide valuable information about the cell state, but it remains a challenge to measure. Here, we introduce a multi-layered microfluidic chip with an integrated optical sensor for the continuous sensitive detection of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the most stable ROS. This platform includes hydraulically controlled microvalves and microsieves, which enable the precise control of toxicants and complex exposure sequences. In particular, we use this platform to study the dynamics of toxicity-induced ROS generation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during short-term exposures, recovery periods, and subsequent re-exposures. Two cadmium-based toxicants with distinct internalization mechanisms are used as stress inducers: CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) and ionic cadmium (Cd(2+)). Our results show the quantitative dynamics of ROS generation by the model microalga, the recovery of cell homeostasis after stress events and the cumulative nature of two consecutive exposures. The dissolution of quantum dots and its possible influence on toxicity and H2O2 depletion is discussed. The obtained insights are relevant from ecotoxicological and physiological perspectives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2016.1144826DOI Listing
October 2016

Multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor: multiplexed, non-invasive and continuous measurements of cellular processes.

Biomed Opt Express 2015 Jul 5;6(7):2353-65. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory (NAM), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

The continuous measurement of uptake or release of biomarkers provides invaluable information for understanding and monitoring the metabolism of cells. In this work, a multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor for the multiplexed, non-invasive, and continuous detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lactate and glucose is presented. The sensing scheme is based on optical monitoring of the oxidation state of the metalloprotein cytochrome c (cyt c). The analyte of interest is enzymatically converted into H2O2 leading to an oxidation of the cyt c. Contact microspotting is used to prepare nanoliter-sized sensing spots containing either pure cyt c, a mixture of cyt c with glucose oxidase (GOx) to detect glucose, or a mixture of cyt c with lactate oxidase (LOx) to detect lactate. The sensing spots are embedded in a multiscattering porous medium that enhances the optical signal. We achieve limits of detection down to 240 nM and 110 nM for lactate and glucose, respectively. A microfluidic embodiment enables multiplexed and crosstalk-free experiments on living organisms. As an example, we study the uptake of exogenously supplied glucose by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and simultaneously monitor the stress-related generation of H2O2. This multifunctional detection scheme provides a powerful tool to study biochemical processes at cellular level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.6.002353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4505694PMC
July 2015

Portable oxidative stress sensor: dynamic and non-invasive measurements of extracellular H₂O₂ released by algae.

Biosens Bioelectron 2015 Jun 23;68:245-252. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory (NAM), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by aerobic organisms are essential for physiological processes such as cell signaling, apoptosis, immune defense and oxidative stress mechanisms. Unbalanced oxidant/antioxidant budgets are involved in many diseases and, therefore, the sensitive measurement of ROS is of great interest. Here, we present a new device for the real-time monitoring of oxidative stress by measuring one of the most stable ROS, namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This portable oxidative stress sensor contains the heme protein cytochrome c (cyt c) as sensing element whose spectral response enables the detection of H2O2 down to a detection limit of 40 nM. This low detection limit is achieved by introducing cyt c in a random medium, enabling multiscattering that enhances the optical trajectory through the cyt c spot. A contact microspotting technique is used to produce reproducible and reusable cyt c spots which are stable for several days. Experiments in static and microfluidic regimes, as well as numerical simulations demonstrate the suitability of the cyt c/H2O2 reaction system for the real-time sensing of the kinetics of biological processes without H2O2 depletion in the measurement chamber. As an example, we detect the release of H2O2 from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to either 180 nM functionalized CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, or to 10 mg/l TiO2 nanoparticles. The continuous measurement of extracellular H2O2 by this optical sensor with high sensitivity is a promising new means for real-time cytotoxicity tests, the investigation of oxidative stress and other physiological cell processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2014.12.044DOI Listing
June 2015

Multiscattering-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

Anal Chem 2015 Feb 13;87(3):1536-43. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory (NAM), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) , CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

An original scheme for sensitive absorption measurements, particularly well-suited for low analyte concentrations, is presented. The technique is based on multiscattering-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (MEAS) and benefits from the advantages of conventional absorption spectroscopy: simplicity, rapidity, and low costs. The technique relies on extending the optical path through the sensing volume by suspending dielectric beads in the solution containing the analytes of interest, resulting in multiple scattering of light, which increases the optical path length through the sample. This way, a higher sensitivity and lower limit of detection, compared to those of conventional absorption spectroscopy, can be achieved. The approach is versatile and can be used for a broad variety of analytes. Here, it is applied to the detection of phenol red, 10 nm gold nanoparticles, and envy green fluorescence dye; the limit of detection is decreased by a factor of 7.2 for phenol red and a factor of 3.3 for nanoparticles and dye. The versatility of this approach is illustrated by its application in increasing the sensitivity of colorimetric detection with gold nanoparticle probes and a commercially available hydrogen peroxide bioassay. The influence of different parameters describing the scattering medium is investigated in detail experimentally and numerically, with very good agreement between the two. Those parameters can be effectively used to tailor the enhancement for specific applications and analytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac502267qDOI Listing
February 2015