Publications by authors named "Vojtěch Tláskal"

10 Publications

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Successional Development of Fungal Communities Associated with Decomposing Deadwood in a Natural Mixed Temperate Forest.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 May 25;7(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 14220 Praha 4, Czech Republic.

Deadwood represents an important carbon stock and contributes to climate change mitigation. Wood decomposition is mainly driven by fungal communities. Their composition is known to change during decomposition, but it is unclear how environmental factors such as wood chemistry affect these successional patterns through their effects on dominant fungal taxa. We analysed the deadwood of and across a deadwood succession series of >40 years in a natural fir-beech forest in the Czech Republic to describe the successional changes in fungal communities, fungal abundance and enzymatic activities and to link these changes to environmental variables. The fungal communities showed high levels of spatial variability and beta diversity. In young deadwood, fungal communities showed higher similarity among tree species, and fungi were generally less abundant, less diverse and less active than in older deadwood. pH and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) were the best predictors of the fungal community composition, and they affected the abundance of half of the dominant fungal taxa. The relative abundance of most of the dominant taxa tended to increase with increasing pH or C/N, possibly indicating that acidification and atmospheric N deposition may shift the community composition towards species that are currently less dominant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7060412DOI Listing
May 2021

Complementary Roles of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi and Bacteria Facilitate Deadwood Decomposition.

mSystems 2021 Jan 12;6(1). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic

Forests accumulate and store large amounts of carbon (C), and a substantial fraction of this stock is contained in deadwood. This transient pool is subject to decomposition by deadwood-associated organisms, and in this process it contributes to CO emissions. Although fungi and bacteria are known to colonize deadwood, little is known about the microbial processes that mediate carbon and nitrogen (N) cycling in deadwood. In this study, using a combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and nutrient flux measurements, we demonstrate that the decomposition of deadwood reflects the complementary roles played by fungi and bacteria. Fungi were found to dominate the decomposition of deadwood and particularly its recalcitrant fractions, while several bacterial taxa participate in N accumulation in deadwood through N fixation, being dependent on fungal activity with respect to deadwood colonization and C supply. Conversely, bacterial N fixation helps to decrease the constraints of deadwood decomposition for fungi. Both the CO efflux and N accumulation that are a result of a joint action of deadwood bacteria and fungi may be significant for nutrient cycling at ecosystem levels. Especially in boreal forests with low N stocks, deadwood retention may help to improve the nutritional status and fertility of soils. Wood represents a globally important stock of C, and its mineralization importantly contributes to the global C cycle. Microorganisms play a key role in deadwood decomposition, since they possess enzymatic tools for the degradation of recalcitrant plant polymers. The present paradigm is that fungi accomplish degradation while commensalist bacteria exploit the products of fungal extracellular enzymatic cleavage, but this assumption was never backed by the analysis of microbial roles in deadwood. This study clearly identifies the roles of fungi and bacteria in the microbiome and demonstrates the importance of bacteria and their N fixation for the nutrient balance in deadwood as well as fluxes at the ecosystem level. Deadwood decomposition is shown as a process where fungi and bacteria play defined, complementary roles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.01078-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901482PMC
January 2021

Fungal Communities Are Important Determinants of Bacterial Community Composition in Deadwood.

mSystems 2021 Jan 5;6(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Fungal-bacterial interactions play a key role in the functioning of many ecosystems. Thus, understanding their interactive dynamics is of central importance for gaining predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, it is challenging to disentangle the mechanisms behind species associations from observed co-occurrence patterns, and little is known about the directionality of such interactions. Here, we applied joint species distribution modeling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal and bacterial communities in deadwood to ask whether fungal and bacterial co-occurrences result from shared habitat use (i.e., deadwood's properties) or whether there are fungal-bacterial interactive associations after habitat characteristics are taken into account. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the interactions are mainly modulated through fungal communities influencing bacterial communities. For that, we quantified how much the predictive power of the joint species distribution models for bacterial and fungal community improved when accounting for the other community. Our results show that fungi and bacteria form tight association networks (i.e., some species pairs co-occur more frequently and other species pairs co-occur less frequently than expected by chance) in deadwood that include common (or opposite) responses to the environment as well as (potentially) biotic interactions. Additionally, we show that information about the fungal occurrences and abundances increased the power to predict the bacterial abundances substantially, whereas information about the bacterial occurrences and abundances increased the power to predict the fungal abundances much less. Our results suggest that fungal communities may mainly affect bacteria in deadwood. Understanding the interactive dynamics between fungal and bacterial communities is important to gain predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind fungal-bacterial associations and the directionality of species interactions. Applying joint species distribution modeling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal-bacterial communities in deadwood, we found evidence that nonrandom fungal-bacterial associations derive from shared habitat use as well as (potentially) biotic interactions. Importantly, the combination of cross-validations and conditional cross-validations helped us to answer the question about the directionality of the biotic interactions, providing evidence that suggests that fungal communities may mainly affect bacteria in deadwood. Our modeling approach may help gain insight into the directionality of interactions between different components of the microbiome in other environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.01017-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786133PMC
January 2021

GlobalFungi, a global database of fungal occurrences from high-throughput-sequencing metabarcoding studies.

Sci Data 2020 07 13;7(1):228. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 14220, Praha 4, Czech Republic.

Fungi are key players in vital ecosystem services, spanning carbon cycling, decomposition, symbiotic associations with cultivated and wild plants and pathogenicity. The high importance of fungi in ecosystem processes contrasts with the incompleteness of our understanding of the patterns of fungal biogeography and the environmental factors that drive those patterns. To reduce this gap of knowledge, we collected and validated data published on the composition of soil fungal communities in terrestrial environments including soil and plant-associated habitats and made them publicly accessible through a user interface at https://globalfungi.com . The GlobalFungi database contains over 600 million observations of fungal sequences across > 17 000 samples with geographical locations and additional metadata contained in 178 original studies with millions of unique nucleotide sequences (sequence variants) of the fungal internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 representing fungal species and genera. The study represents the most comprehensive atlas of global fungal distribution, and it is framed in such a way that third-party data addition is possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0567-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359306PMC
July 2020

Oral Microbiota Composition and Antimicrobial Antibody Response in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis.

Microorganisms 2019 Dec 1;7(12). Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Institute of Microbiology of the CAS, v.v.i., 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic.

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disease of the oral mucosa, and it has been recently associated with bacterial and fungal dysbiosis. To study this link further, we investigated microbial shifts during RAS manifestation at an ulcer site, in its surroundings, and at an unaffected site, compared with healed mucosa in RAS patients and healthy controls. We sampled microbes from five distinct sites in the oral cavity. The one site with the most pronounced differences in microbial alpha and beta diversity between RAS patients and healthy controls was the lower labial mucosa. Detailed analysis of this particular oral site revealed strict association of the genus with healed mucosa of RAS patients, whereas the class Clostridia and genera , , , and were associated with the presence of an active ulcer. Furthermore, active ulcers were dominated by , which were negatively correlated with and and positively correlated with species. In addition, RAS patients showed increased serum levels of IgG against compared with healthy controls. Our study demonstrates that the composition of bacteria and fungi colonizing healthy oral mucosa is changed in active RAS ulcers, and that this alteration persists to some extent even after the ulcer is healed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955784PMC
December 2019

A meta-analysis of global fungal distribution reveals climate-driven patterns.

Nat Commun 2019 11 13;10(1):5142. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 14220, Praha 4, Czech Republic.

The evolutionary and environmental factors that shape fungal biogeography are incompletely understood. Here, we assemble a large dataset consisting of previously generated mycobiome data linked to specific geographical locations across the world. We use this dataset to describe the distribution of fungal taxa and to look for correlations with different environmental factors such as climate, soil and vegetation variables. Our meta-study identifies climate as an important driver of different aspects of fungal biogeography, including the global distribution of common fungi as well as the composition and diversity of fungal communities. In our analysis, fungal diversity is concentrated at high latitudes, in contrast with the opposite pattern previously shown for plants and other organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi appear to have narrower climatic tolerances than pathogenic fungi. We speculate that climate change could affect ecosystem functioning because of the narrow climatic tolerances of key fungal taxa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13164-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853883PMC
November 2019

Cellulase-Hemicellulase Activities and Bacterial Community Composition of Different Soils from Algerian Ecosystems.

Microb Ecol 2019 Apr 12;77(3):713-725. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Laboratorio de Ecología Microbiana Aplicada, Departmento de Ciencias Químicas y Recursos Naturales, Universidad de La Frontera, Ave. Franciosco Salazar, 01145, Temuco, Chile.

Soil microorganisms are important mediators of carbon cycling in nature. Although cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading bacteria have been isolated from Algerian ecosystems, the information on the composition of soil bacterial communities and thus the potential of their members to decompose plant residues is still limited. The objective of the present study was to describe and compare the bacterial community composition in Algerian soils (crop, forest, garden, and desert) and the activity of cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes. Bacterial communities were characterized by high-throughput 16S amplicon sequencing followed by the in silico prediction of their functional potential. The highest lignocellulolytic activity was recorded in forest and garden soils whereas activities in the agricultural and desert soils were typically low. The bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (in particular classes α-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and γ-proteobacteria), Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria dominated in all soils. Forest and garden soils exhibited higher diversity than agricultural and desert soils. Endocellulase activity was elevated in forest and garden soils. In silico analysis predicted higher share of genes assigned to general metabolism in forest and garden soils compared with agricultural and arid soils, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism. The highest potential of lignocellulose decomposition was predicted for forest soils, which is in agreement with the highest activity of corresponding enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-018-1251-8DOI Listing
April 2019

Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2017 12;93(12)

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the CAS, Vídenská 1083, 14220 Praha 4, Czech Republic.

Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content was the strongest drivers of community composition. Bacterial biomass positively correlated with N content and increased with decomposition along with the concurrent decrease in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio. Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales were abundant bacterial orders throughout the whole decay process, but many bacterial taxa were specific either for young (<15 years) or old dead wood. During early decomposition, bacterial genera able to fix N2 and to use simple C1 compounds (e.g. Yersinia and Methylomonas) were frequent, while wood in advanced decay was rich in taxa typical of forest soils (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Rhodoplanes). Although the bacterial contribution to dead wood turnover remains unclear, the community composition appears to reflect the changing conditions of the substrate and suggests broad metabolic capacities of its members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fix157DOI Listing
December 2017

Bacterial succession on decomposing leaf litter exhibits a specific occurrence pattern of cellulolytic taxa and potential decomposers of fungal mycelia.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2016 11 18;92(11). Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the CAS, Vídeňská 1083, 14220 Praha 4, Czech Republic.

The decomposition of dead plant biomass contributes to the carbon cycle and is one of the key processes in temperate forests. While fungi in litter decomposition drive the chemical changes occurring in litter, the bacterial community appears to be important as well, especially later in the decomposition process when its abundance increases. In this paper, we describe the bacterial community composition in live Quercus petraea leaves and during the subsequent two years of litter decomposition. Members of the classes Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant throughout the experiment. Bacteria present in the oak phyllosphere were rapidly replaced by other taxa after leaf senescence. There were dynamic successive changes in community composition, in which the early-stage (months 2-4), mid-stage (months 6-8) and late-stage (months 10-24) decomposer communities could be distinguished, and the diversity increased with time. Bacteria associated with dead fungal mycelium were important during initial decomposition, with sequence relative abundances of up to 40% of the total bacterial community in months 2 and 4 when the highest fungal biomass was observed. Cellulose-decomposing bacteria were less frequent, with abundance ranging from 4% to 15%. The bacterial community dynamics reflects changes in the availability of possible resources either of the plant or microbial origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiw177DOI Listing
November 2016