Publications by authors named "Vladimir Cordeiro de Carvalho"

7 Publications

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Bioactive glass S53P4 to fill-up large cavitary bone defect after acute and chronic osteomyelitis treated with antibiotic-loaded cement beads: A prospective case series with a minimum 2-year follow-up.

Injury 2021 Jul 1;52 Suppl 3:S23-S28. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Trauma Service, Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG-S53P4) has been used in the treatment of osteomyelitis with excellent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of patients treated with use of antibiotic-loaded cement beads, followed by bone defects filling using bioglass.

Methods: We treated a prospective series of patients presenting with acute or chronic osteomyelitis of a long bone of the upper or lower limb. The first-stage procedure involved debridement and filling of cavitary defects with antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads. When signs of infection subsided, the defects were filled with BAG-S53P4. The main outcomes assessed were the reinfection rate, need for reoperation, radiographic and functional evaluations (DASH and Lysholm scores).

Results: Ten patients were included, aged between 4 and 66 years (mean 25.4 years). The source of infection was hematogenic in five cases and post-traumatic in the other five. Hematogenic infections required two debridements before filling with bioglass, whereas post-traumatic cases required only one. The time between the first debridement and the application of bioglass varied from 1 to 63 weeks (average of 17 weeks). All patients showed a favorable evolution after bioglass procedure, with no need for reoperation or relevant wound problems. The radiographic evaluation showed partial incorporation of the material and adequate bone formation, and functional scores were satisfactory in all cases.

Conclusion: The treatment of osteomyelitis with surgical debridement and PMMA beads, followed by filling of bone defect with BAG-S53P4, was effective in all patients evaluated, with adequate infectious control and bone regeneration. No cases required reoperation after bioglass implantation. Patients with hematogenous osteomyelitis required a greater number of debridements before filling with bioglass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2021.05.030DOI Listing
July 2021

Bacteria drug resistance profile affects knee and hip periprosthetic joint infection outcome with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Aug 24;21(1):574. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, 333 Dr Ovídeo Pires de Campos St, São Paulo, Zip Code 05403-010, Brazil.

Background: Evaluate the effect of bacteria drug resistance profile on the success rates of debridement, antibiotics and implant retention.

Methods: All early acute periprosthetic infections in hip and knee arthroplasties treated with DAIR at our institution over the period from 2011 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The success rate was evaluated according to the type of organism identified in culture: multidrug-sensitive (MSB), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRB) and according to other risk factors for treatment failure. The data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics.

Results: Fifty-seven patients were analyzed; there were 37 in the multidrug-sensitive bacteria (MSB) group, 11 in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) group and 9 in the other multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRB) group. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the treatment failure rate among the three groups: 8.3% for the MSB group, 18.2% for the MRSA group and 55.6% for the MRB group (p = 0.005). Among the other risk factors for treatment failure, the presence of inflammatory arthritis presented a failure rate of 45.1 (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: DAIR showed a good success rate in cases of early acute infection by multidrug-sensitive bacteria. In the presence of infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria or association with rheumatic diseases the treatment failure rate was higher and other surgical options should be considered in this specific population. The MRSA group showed intermediate results between MSB and MRB and should be carefully evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03570-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445907PMC
August 2020

Prosthetic joint infection due to Candida species: Case series and review of literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Apr;99(15):e19735

Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Hospital das Clíncias HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: The increase in the number of patients with prosthetic joints will entail a rise in the absolute number of infections associated with these procedures. Although less frequent, infections by Candida species are also expected to increase, and the clinical and surgical management of these cases is based on case reports and opinion of specialists. The objective of the present study was to review the available literature and describe the cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by Candida species in patients of the Institute of Orthopedics and Trauma of the University of São Paulo Faculty of Medicine Clinics Hospital (IOT-HCFMUSP) between 2007 and 2014.

Patient Concerns: Eleven patients were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection due to Candida with mean age of 65 years. The most frequent comorbidities were heart disease and diabetes mellitus, and the main personal antecedent was previous bacterial infection in the prosthetic joint. At least one risk factor for fungal infection was present in 73% of the patients. There was no difference between the prevalence of infections caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species, and there was bacterial co-infection in 55% of the cases.

Diagnosis: For building up the case series, patients with cultures of bone and joint specimens that were positive for Candida species and had a clinical diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection were included in the case series.

Interventions: Surgical debridement with removal of the prosthesis was the most frequently used surgical approach (45%). All patients were treated with monotherapy, and the most frequently used antifungal agent was fluconazole. The total duration of antifungal therapy was 6 months in 73% of the cases.

Outcomes: After the initial management, 73% of the patients achieved clinical remission.

Conclusion: The most indicated initial management was debridement with removal of the prosthesis, and the most used treatment regimen was fluconazole monotherapy. The most prevalent treatment duration was 6 months. The initial management led to a favorable outcome in 73% of the cases.

Descriptors: Prosthetic joint infection, Candida, treatment, and diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220503PMC
April 2020

Septic arthritis of the knee: clinical and laboratory comparison of groups with different etiologies.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2016 Dec 1;71(12):715-719. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Divisa˜o de Doenc¸as Infecciosas, Sa˜o Paulo/SP Brazil.

Objectives:: To clinically and epidemiologically characterize a population diagnosed with and treated for septic arthritis of the knee, to evaluate the treatment results and to analyze the differences between patients with positive and negative culture results, patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates and patients with S. aureus- and non-S. aureus-related infections.

Methods:: One hundred and five patients with septic knee arthritis were included in this study. The clinical and epidemiological data were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare patients with and without an isolated causative agent, patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens and patients with S. aureus-related and non S. aureus-related infections.

Results:: Causative agents were isolated in 81 patients. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 65 patients and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated in 16 patients. The most commonly isolated bacterium was S. aureus. Comparing cases with an isolated pathogen to cases without an isolated pathogen, no differences between the studied variables were found except for the longer hospital stays of patients in whom an etiological agent was identified. When comparing Gram-positive bacteria with Gram-negative bacteria, patients with Gram-positive-related infections exhibited higher leukocyte counts. Patients with S. aureus-related infections were more frequently associated with healthcare-related environmental encounters.

Conclusion:: S. aureus is the most common pathogen of septic knee arthritis. Major differences were not observed between infections with isolated and non-isolated pathogens and between infections with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. S. aureus infections were more likely to be associated with a prior healthcare environment exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2016(12)07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5175290PMC
December 2016

Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy for orthopedic infections - a successful public healthcare experience in Brazil.

Braz J Infect Dis 2016 May-Jun;20(3):272-5. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Treatment of orthopedic infections usually requires prolonged antimicrobial therapy, ranging from 14 days up to 6 months. Nowadays, rising levels of antimicrobial resistance demands parenteral therapy for many patients. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is a modality that allows treatment out of hospital in these situations. In Brazil, where a public universal healthcare system allows full coverage for all citizens, implantation and dissemination of OPAT programs would be beneficial for patients and for the system, because it would allow a better allocation of health resources. The Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP (IOT) started, in July 2013, a partnership with municipal health authorities in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to initiate an OPAT program in which patients discharged from that hospital would be able to continue antimicrobial therapy at primary care facilities. When necessary, patients could also receive their therapy at the day-hospital located at IOT. Primary care nursing and physician staff were trained about antimicrobial infusion and peripherally inserted central catheter manipulation. An OPAT specific antimicrobial protocol was designed and a special reference and counter-reference organized. As a result, 450 primary healthcare professionals were trained. In the first year of this program, 116 patients were discharged for OPAT. Chronic and acute osteomyelitis were most frequent diagnosis. Teicoplanin, ertapenem and tigecycline were the most used drugs. Duration of treatment varied from 10 to 180 days (average 101, median 42). Total sum of days in OPAT regimen was 11,698. Only 3 patients presented adverse effects. Partnership between services of different levels of complexity allowed implantation of a safe and effective public healthcare OPAT program for treatment of orthopedic infections. This program can serve as a model for developing similar strategies in other regions of Brazil and Latin America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2016.03.005DOI Listing
March 2017

Gram-negative osteomyelitis: clinical and microbiological profile.

Braz J Infect Dis 2012 Jan-Feb;16(1):63-7

Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Despite the growing interest in the study of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) infections, very little information on osteomyelitis caused by GNB is available in the medical literature.

Objectives And Methods: To assess clinical and microbiological features of 101 cases of osteomyelitis caused by GNB alone, between January 2007 and January 2009, in a reference center for the treatment of high complexity traumas in the city of São Paulo.

Results: Most patients were men (63%), with median age of 42 years, affected by chronic osteomyelitis (43%) or acute osteomyelitis associated to open fractures (32%), the majority on the lower limbs (71%). The patients were treated with antibiotics as inpatients for 40 days (median) and for 99 days (median) in outpatient settings. After 6 months follow-up, the clinical remission rate was around 60%, relapse 19%, amputation 7%, and death 5%. Nine percent of cases were lost to follow-up. A total of 121 GNB was isolated from 101 clinical samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Enterobacter sp. (25%), Acinetobacter baumannii (21%) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%). Susceptibility to carbapenems was about 100% for Enterobacter sp., 75% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 60% for Acinetobacter baumannii.

Conclusion: Osteomyelitis caused by GNB remains a serious therapeutic challenge, especially when associated to nonfermenting bacteria. We emphasize the need to consider these agents in diagnosed cases of osteomyelitis, so that an ideal antimicrobial treatment can be administered since the very beginning of the therapy.
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September 2012

[Severe hepatitis and jaundice during the evolution of dengue virus infection: case report].

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2010 May-Jun;43(3):339-41

Divisão de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

We describe the case of a female patient who presented a condition of dengue hemorrhagic fever that evolved with jaundice and significant coagulation abnormalities. Dengue was diagnosed through the presence of anti-dengue IgM antibodies (MAC-ELISA). This disease needs to be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis for acute febrile jaundice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0037-86822010000300026DOI Listing
January 2011
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