Publications by authors named "Vivien Woditsch"

4 Publications

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Hepatobiliary phenotypes of adults with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

Gut 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Health Care Provider of the European Reference Network on Rare Liver Disorders (ERN RARE LIVER), Vienna, Austria.

Objective: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a common, potentially lethal inborn disorder caused by mutations in alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). Homozygosity for the 'Pi*Z' variant of AAT (Pi*ZZ genotype) causes lung and liver disease, whereas heterozygous 'Pi*Z' carriage (Pi*MZ genotype) predisposes to gallstones and liver fibrosis. The clinical significance of the more common 'Pi*S' variant remains largely undefined and no robust data exist on the prevalence of liver tumours in AATD.

Design: Baseline phenotypes of AATD individuals and non-carriers were analysed in 482 380 participants in the UK Biobank. 1104 participants of a multinational cohort (586 Pi*ZZ, 239 Pi*SZ, 279 non-carriers) underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and alcohol consumption.

Results: Among UK Biobank participants, Pi*ZZ individuals displayed the highest liver enzyme values, the highest occurrence of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (adjusted OR (aOR)=21.7 (8.8-53.7)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=44.5 (10.8-183.6)). Subjects with Pi*MZ genotype had slightly elevated liver enzymes and moderately increased odds for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=1.7 (1.2-2.2)) and cholelithiasis (aOR=1.3 (1.2-1.4)). Individuals with homozygous Pi*S mutation (Pi*SS genotype) harboured minimally elevated alanine aminotransferase values, but no other hepatobiliary abnormalities. Pi*SZ participants displayed higher liver enzymes, more frequent liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=3.1 (1.1-8.2)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=6.6 (1.6-26.9)). The higher fibrosis burden was confirmed in a multinational cohort. Male sex, age ≥50 years, obesity and the presence of diabetes were associated with significant liver fibrosis.

Conclusion: Our study defines the hepatobiliary phenotype of individuals with the most relevant AATD genotypes including their predisposition to liver tumours, thereby allowing evidence-based advice and individualised hepatological surveillance.
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February 2021

Liver Phenotypes of European Adults Heterozygous or Homozygous for Pi∗Z Variant of AAT (Pi∗MZ vs Pi∗ZZ genotype) and Noncarriers.

Gastroenterology 2020 08 4;159(2):534-548.e11. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background & Aims: Homozygosity for the Pi∗Z variant of the gene that encodes the alpha-1 antitrypsin peptide (AAT), called the Pi∗ZZ genotype, causes a liver and lung disease called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Heterozygosity (the Pi∗MZ genotype) is a risk factor for cirrhosis in individuals with liver disease. Up to 4% of Europeans have the Pi∗MZ genotype; we compared features of adults with and without Pi∗MZ genotype among persons without preexisting liver disease.

Methods: We analyzed data from the European Alpha-1 Liver Cohort, from 419 adults with the Pi∗MZ genotype, 309 adults with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, and 284 individuals without the variant (noncarriers). All underwent a comprehensive evaluation; liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) were made by transient elastography. Liver biopsies were analyzed to define histologic and biochemical features associated with the Pi∗Z variant. Levels of serum transaminases were retrieved from 444,642 participants, available in the United Kingdom biobank.

Results: In the UK biobank database, levels of serum transaminases were increased in subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype compared with noncarriers. In the Alpha-1 Liver Cohort, adults with Pi∗MZ had lower levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase in serum and lower LSMs than adults with the Pi∗ZZ variant, but these were higher than in noncarriers. Ten percent of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype vs 4% of noncarriers had LSMs of 7.1 kPa or more (adjusted odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-11.8). Obesity and diabetes were the most important factors associated with LSMs ≥7.1 kPa in subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype. AAT inclusions were detected in liver biopsies of 63% of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype, vs 97% of subjects with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, and increased with liver fibrosis stages. Subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype did not have increased hepatic levels of AAT, whereas levels of insoluble AAT varied among individuals.

Conclusions: Adults with the Pi∗MZ genotype have lower levels of serum transaminases, fewer AAT inclusions in liver, and lower liver stiffness than adults with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, but higher than adults without the Pi∗Z variant. These findings should help determine risk of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype and aid in counseling.
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August 2020

Liver Fibrosis and Metabolic Alterations in Adults With alpha-1-antitrypsin Deficiency Caused by the Pi*ZZ Mutation.

Gastroenterology 2019 09 20;157(3):705-719.e18. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen, Germany; Jülich Aachen Research Alliance-Brain, Aachen, Germany.

Background & Aims: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is among the most common genetic disorders. Severe AATD is caused by a homozygous mutation in the SERPINA1 gene that encodes the Glu342Lys substitution (called the Pi*Z mutation, Pi*ZZ genotype). Pi*ZZ carriers may develop lung and liver diseases. Mutation-associated lung disorders have been well studied, but less is known about the effects in liver. We assessed the liver disease burden and associated features in adults with this form of AATD.

Methods: We collected data from 554 Pi*ZZ adults (403 in an exploratory cohort, 151 in a confirmatory cohort), in 9 European countries, with AATD who were homozygous for the Pi*Z mutation, and 234 adults without the Pi*Z mutation (controls), all without pre-existing liver disease. We collected data on demographic parameters, comorbidities, lung- and liver-related health, and blood samples for laboratory analysis. Liver fibrosis was assessed non-invasively via the serum tests Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index and HepaScore and via transient elastography. Liver steatosis was determined via transient elastography-based controlled attenuation parameter. We performed histologic analyses of livers from transgenic mice that overexpress the AATD-associated Pi*Z variant.

Results: Serum levels of liver enzymes were significantly higher in Pi*ZZ carriers vs controls. Based on non-invasive tests for liver fibrosis, significant fibrosis was suspected in 20%-36% of Pi*ZZ carriers, whereas signs of advanced fibrosis were 9- to 20-fold more common in Pi*ZZ carriers compared to non-carriers. Male sex; age older than 50 years; increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or γ-glutamyl transferase; and low numbers of platelets were associated with higher liver fibrosis burden. We did not find evidence for a relationship between lung function and liver fibrosis. Controlled attenuation parameter ≥280 dB/m, suggesting severe steatosis, was detected in 39% of Pi*ZZ carriers vs 31% of controls. Carriers of Pi*ZZ had lower serum concentrations of triglyceride and low- and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than controls, suggesting impaired hepatic secretion of lipid. Livers from Pi*Z-overexpressing mice had steatosis and down-regulation of genes involved in lipid secretion.

Conclusions: In studies of AATD adults with the Pi*ZZ mutation, and of Pi*Z-overexpressing mice, we found evidence of liver steatosis and impaired lipid secretion. We identified factors associated with significant liver fibrosis in patients, which could facilitate hepatologic assessment and counseling of individuals who carry the Pi*ZZ mutation. Number NCT02929940.
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September 2019

Heterozygous carriage of the alpha1-antitrypsin Pi*Z variant increases the risk to develop liver cirrhosis.

Gut 2019 06 1;68(6):1099-1107. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Objective: Homozygous alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency increases the risk for developing cirrhosis, whereas the relevance of heterozygous carriage remains unclear. Hence, we evaluated the impact of the two most relevant AAT variants ('Pi*Z' and 'Pi*S'), present in up to 10% of Caucasians, on subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or alcohol misuse.

Design: We analysed multicentric case-control cohorts consisting of 1184 people with biopsy-proven NAFLD and of 2462 people with chronic alcohol misuse, both cohorts comprising cases with cirrhosis and controls without cirrhosis. Genotyping for the Pi*Z and Pi*S variants was performed.

Results: The Pi*Z variant presented in 13.8% of patients with cirrhotic NAFLD but only in 2.4% of counterparts without liver fibrosis (p<0.0001). Accordingly, the Pi*Z variant increased the risk of NAFLD subjects to develop cirrhosis (adjusted OR=7.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 24.8)). Likewise, the Pi*Z variant presented in 6.2% of alcohol misusers with cirrhosis but only in 2.2% of alcohol misusers without significant liver injury (p<0.0001). Correspondingly, alcohol misusers carrying the Pi*Z variant were prone to develop cirrhosis (adjusted OR=5.8 (95% CI 2.9 to 11.7)). In contrast, the Pi*S variant was not associated with NAFLD-related cirrhosis and only borderline with alcohol-related cirrhosis (adjusted OR=1.47 (95% CI 0.99 to 2.19)).

Conclusion: The Pi*Z variant is the hitherto strongest single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk factor for cirrhosis in NAFLD and alcohol misuse, whereas the Pi*S variant confers only a weak risk in alcohol misusers. As 2%-4% of Caucasians are Pi*Z carriers, this finding should be considered in genetic counselling of affected individuals.
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June 2019