Publications by authors named "Vivian P Chou"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mesenchymal stromal SB623 cell implantation mitigates nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2017 06 6;11(6):1835-1843. Epub 2015 Oct 6.

Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA.

Regenerative medicine for the treatment of motor features in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a promising therapeutic option. Donor cells can simultaneously address multiple pathological mechanisms while responding to the needs of the host tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) promote recovery using various animal models of PD. SanBio Inc. has developed a novel cell type designated SB623, which are adult bone marrow-derived MSCs transfected with Notch intracellular domain. In this preclinical study, SB623 cells protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigrostriatal injury when transplanted unilaterally into C57BL/6 mouse striatum 3 days prior to toxin exposure. Specifically, mice with the SB623 cell transplants revealed significantly higher levels of striatal dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity and stereological nigral cell counts in the ipsilateral hemisphere vs vehicle-treated mice following MPTP administration. Interestingly, improvement in markers of striatal dopaminergic integrity was also noted in the contralateral hemisphere. These data indicate that MSCs transplantation, specifically SB623 cells, may represent a novel therapeutic option to ameliorate damage related to PD, not only at the level of striatal terminals (i.e. the site of implantation) but also at the level of the nigral cell body. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.2081DOI Listing
June 2017

Gene-environment interaction models to unmask susceptibility mechanisms in Parkinson's disease.

J Vis Exp 2014 Jan 7(83):e50960. Epub 2014 Jan 7.

Center for Health Sciences, SRI International.

Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, but its effects in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis are less understood. Gene-environment interaction models have utility in unmasking the impact of specific cellular pathways in toxicity that may not be observed using a solely genetic or toxicant disease model alone. To evaluate if distinct LOX isozymes selectively contribute to PD-related neurodegeneration, transgenic (i.e. 5-LOX and 12/15-LOX deficient) mice can be challenged with a toxin that mimics cell injury and death in the disorder. Here we describe the use of a neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which produces a nigrostriatal lesion to elucidate the distinct contributions of LOX isozymes to neurodegeneration related to PD. The use of MPTP in mouse, and nonhuman primate, is well-established to recapitulate the nigrostriatal damage in PD. The extent of MPTP-induced lesioning is measured by HPLC analysis of dopamine and its metabolites and semi-quantitative Western blot analysis of striatum for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of dopamine. To assess inflammatory markers, which may demonstrate LOX isozyme-selective sensitivity, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1 immunohistochemistry are performed on brain sections containing substantia nigra, and GFAP Western blot analysis is performed on striatal homogenates. This experimental approach can provide novel insights into gene-environment interactions underlying nigrostriatal degeneration and PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/50960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089441PMC
January 2014

Neuroinflammation and α-synuclein accumulation in response to glucocerebrosidase deficiency are accompanied by synaptic dysfunction.

Mol Genet Metab 2014 Feb 11;111(2):152-62. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

Center for Health Sciences, Biosciences Division, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. Electronic address:

Clinical, epidemiological and experimental studies confirm a connection between the common degenerative movement disorder Parkinson's disease (PD) that affects over 1 million individuals, and Gaucher disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. Recently, human imaging studies have implicated impaired striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in early PD pathogenesis in the context of Gaucher disease mutations, but the underlying mechanisms have yet to be characterized. In this report we describe and characterize two novel long-lived transgenic mouse models of Gba deficiency, along with a subchronic conduritol-ß-epoxide (CBE) exposure paradigm. All three murine models revealed striking glial activation within nigrostriatal pathways, accompanied by abnormal α-synuclein accumulation. Importantly, the CBE-induced, pharmacological Gaucher mouse model replicated this change in dopamine neurotransmission, revealing a markedly reduced evoked striatal dopamine release (approximately 2-fold) that indicates synaptic dysfunction. Other changes in synaptic plasticity markers, including microRNA profile and a 24.9% reduction in post-synaptic density size, were concomitant with diminished evoked dopamine release following CBE exposure. These studies afford new insights into the mechanisms underlying the Parkinson's-Gaucher disease connection, and into the physiological impact of related abnormal α-synuclein accumulation and neuroinflammation on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.12.003DOI Listing
February 2014

Evidence of oxidative stress in young and aged DJ-1-deficient mice.

FEBS Lett 2013 May 13;587(10):1562-70. Epub 2013 Apr 13.

The Parkinson's Institute, Department of Basic Research, Sunnyvale, CA, USA.

Loss of DJ-1 function contributes to pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigate the impact of aging and DJ-1 deficiency in transgenic mice. Ventral midbrain from young DJ-1-deficient mice revealed no change in 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), but HSP60, HSP40 and striatal dopamine turnover were significantly elevated compared to wildtype. In aged mice, the chaperone response observed in wildtype animals was absent from DJ-1-deficient transgenics, and nigral 4-HNE immunoreactivity was enhanced. These changes were concomitant with increased striatal dopamine levels and uptake. Thus, increased oxidants and diminished protein quality control may contribute to nigral oxidative damage with aging in the model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2013.04.001DOI Listing
May 2013

Isotopic reinforcement of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids diminishes nigrostriatal degeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Toxicol Lett 2011 Nov 10;207(2):97-103. Epub 2011 Aug 10.

Retrotope, Inc., Pre-Clinical and Pharmaceutical Development, Los Altos Hills, CA 94022, USA.

Oxidative damage of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is thought to play a major role in mitochondrial dysfunction related to Parkinson's disease (PD). The toxic products formed by PUFA oxidation inflict further damage on cellular components and contribute to neuronal degeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that isotopic reinforcement, by deuteration of the bisallylic sites most susceptible to oxidation in PUFA may provide at least partial protection against nigrostriatal injury in a mouse model of oxidative stress and cell death, the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model. Mice were fed a fat-free diet supplemented with saturated acids, oleic acid and essential PUFA: either normal, hydrogenated linoleic (LA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic (ALA, 18:3n-3) or deuterated 11,11-D2-LA and 11,11,14,14-D4-ALA in a ratio of 1:1 (to a total of 10% mass fat) for 6 days; each group was divided into two cohorts receiving either MPTP or saline and then continued on respective diets for 6 days. Brain homogenates from mice receiving deuterated PUFA (D-PUFA) vs. hydrogenated PUFA (H-PUFA) demonstrated a significant incorporation of deuterium as measured by isotope ratio mass-spectrometry. Following MPTP exposure, mice fed H-PUFA revealed 78.7% striatal dopamine (DA) depletion compared to a 46.8% reduction in the D-PUFA cohort (as compared to their respective saline-treated controls), indicating a significant improvement in DA concentration with D-PUFA. Similarly, higher levels of the DA metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were detected in MPTP-exposure mice administered D-PUFA; however, saline-treated mice revealed no change in DA or DOPAC levels. Western blot analyses of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) confirmed neuroprotection with D-PUFA, as striatal homogenates showed higher levels of TH immunoreactivity in D-PUFA (88.5% control) vs. H-PUFA (50.4% control) in the MPTP-treated cohorts. In the substantia nigra, a significant improvement was noted in the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons following MPTP exposure in the D-PUFA (79.5% control) vs. H-PUFA (58.8% control) mice using unbiased stereological cell counting. Taken together, these findings indicate that dietary isotopic reinforcement with D-PUFA partially protects against nigrostriatal damage from oxidative injury elicited by MPTP in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.07.020DOI Listing
November 2011

Increased vulnerability of nigrostriatal terminals in DJ-1-deficient mice is mediated by the dopamine transporter.

Neurobiol Dis 2007 Aug 3;27(2):141-50. Epub 2007 May 3.

Department of Basic Research, The Parkinson's Institute, 1170 Morse Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94089, USA.

Mutations in the gene for DJ-1 have been associated with early-onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Previous studies of null DJ-1 mice have shown alterations in striatal dopamine (DA) transmission with no DAergic cell loss. Here we characterize a new line of DJ-1-deficient mice. A subtle locomotor deficit was present in the absence of a change in striatal DA levels. However, increased [(3)H]-DA synaptosomal uptake and [(125)I]-RTI-121 binding were measured in null DJ-1 vs. wild-type mice. Western analyses of synaptosomes revealed significantly higher dopamine transporter (DAT) levels in pre-synaptic membrane fractions. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure exacerbated striatal DA depletion in null DJ-1 mice with no difference in DAergic nigral cell loss. Furthermore, increased 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) synaptosomal uptake and enhanced MPP(+) accumulation were measured in DJ-1-deficient vs. control striatum. Thus, under null DJ-1 conditions, DAT changes likely contribute to altered DA neurotransmission and enhanced sensitivity to toxins that utilize DAT for nigrostriatal entry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2007.03.014DOI Listing
August 2007

Lack of nigrostriatal pathology in a rat model of proteasome inhibition.

Ann Neurol 2006 Aug;60(2):256-60

Department of Basic Research, The Parkinson's Institute, Sunnyvale, CA, USA.

Systemic administration of ubiquitin-proteasome system inhibitors to rodents has been reported to induce certain behavioral and neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease. The goal of this study was to replicate these observations by administering a proteasome inhibitor (PSI) to rats using McNaught and colleagues' protocol. No alterations in locomotor activity or striatal dopamine and its metabolites were observed. Differences in nigral dopaminergic cell number between proteasome inhibitor- and vehicle-treated rats and inclusion bodies were not found. Extending the time of survival after administration and using different solvents failed to alter results, indicating this proteasome inhibitor does not consistently produce the selective toxicity and pathological hallmarks characterizing Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.20938DOI Listing
August 2006