Publications by authors named "Vivekanand Vivekanand"

31 Publications

Multifaceted production strategies and applications of glucosamine: a comprehensive review.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Dec 19:1-21. Epub 2021 Dec 19.

Microbial Catalysis and Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer, India.

Glucosamine (GlcN) and its derivatives are in high demand and used in various applications such as food, a precursor for the biochemical synthesis of fuels and chemicals, drug delivery, cosmetics, and supplements. The vast number of applications attributed to GlcN has raised its demand, and there is a growing emphasis on developing production methods that are sustainable and economical. Several: physical, chemical, enzymatic, microbial fermentation, recombinant processing methods, and their combinations have been reported to produce GlcN from chitin and chitosan available from different sources, such as animals, plants, and fungi. In addition, genetic manipulation of certain organisms has significantly improved the quality and yield of GlcN compared to conventional processing methods. This review will summarize the chitin and chitosan-degrading enzymes found in various organisms and the expression systems that are widely used to produce GlcN. Furthermore, new developments and methods, including genetic and metabolic engineering of and to produce high titers of GlcN and GlcNAc will be reviewed. Moreover, other sources of glucosamine production viz. starch and inorganic ammonia will also be discussed. Finally, the conversion of GlcN to fuels and chemicals using catalytic and biochemical conversion will be discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2021.2003750DOI Listing
December 2021

Organic waste conversion through anaerobic digestion: A critical insight into the metabolic pathways and microbial interactions.

Metab Eng 2022 Jan 2;69:323-337. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jaipur, 302017, Rajasthan, India. Electronic address:

Anaerobic digestion is a promising method for energy recovery through conversion of organic waste to biogas and other industrial valuables. However, to tap the full potential of anaerobic digestion, deciphering the microbial metabolic pathway activities and their underlying bioenergetics is required. In addition, the behavior of organisms in consortia along with the analytical abilities to kinetically measure their metabolic interactions will allow rational optimization of the process. This review aims to explore the metabolic bottlenecks of the microbial communities adopting latest advances of profiling and C tracer-based analysis using state of the art analytical platforms (GC, GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR). The review summarizes the phases of anaerobic digestion, the role of microbial communities, key process parameters of significance, syntrophic microbial interactions and the bottlenecks that are critical for optimal bioenergetics and enhanced production of valuables. Considerations into the designing of efficient synthetic microbial communities as well as the latest advances in capturing their metabolic cross talk will be highlighted. The review further explores how the presence of additives and inhibiting factors affect the metabolic pathways. The critical insight into the reaction mechanism covered in this review may be helpful to optimize and upgrade the anaerobic digestion system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2021.11.014DOI Listing
January 2022

Bioengineered bioreactors: a review on enhancing biomethane and biohydrogen production by CFD modeling.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):6418-6433

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is numerical strategy developed for simulating the behavior of liquid and gas flow. CFD may be applied starting from aerospace, engine design, vehicle aerodynamics, power plants and chemical industries for analyzing and solving relevant system design and process issues. Biogas produced during anaerobic digestion (AD) is sustainable and renewable alternative to fossil fuels. AD may improve the controlled production of biogas and offers significant environmental benefits. This review focuses on research outcomes relevant for enhanced biogas production by exploring the possible applications of CFD in AD technology. CFD-related research performed in AD conditions in order to improve mixing performance, reduce power consumption, and understand the effects of total solid (TS) concentrations on flow behavior have been discussed. In addition, the use of AD for bio-hydrogen production, wastewater treatment, and sludge treatment are looked in. This review also identifies novel areas for AD technology advancement where there is potential for economic improvement in renewable energy production. Finally, future research needs have been identified, focusing on the opportunities to integrate conceptual and mathematical models for advancing CFD simulations for bioenergy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1972195DOI Listing
December 2021

Production of biofuels from biomass: Predicting the energy employing artificial intelligence modelling.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 23;340:125642. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malviya National Institute of Technology, JLN Marg, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017 India. Electronic address:

Bioenergy may be a major replacement of fossil fuels which can make the path easier for sustainable development and decrease the dependency on conventional sources of energy. The main concern with the bioenergy is the availability of feedstock, dealing with its economics as well as its demand and supply chain management. This review deals with the finding of distinct potential of different Artificial Intelligence technologies focusing the challenges in bioenergy production system and its overall improvement in application. The study also highlights the contribution of Artificial Intelligence techniques for the prediction of energy from biomass and evaluates the computing-reasoning techniques for managing bioenergy production, biomass supply chain and optimization of process parameters for efficient bioconversion technologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125642DOI Listing
November 2021

Impact of combined chlorine and UV technology on the bacterial diversity, antibiotic resistance genes and disinfection by-products in treated sewage.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 21;339:125615. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Civil Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, JLN Marg, Jaipur 302017, India. Electronic address:

This paper explores the effect of hybrid chlorine and UV disinfection treatment against their individual usage on microbial community, functional genes, antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. The disinfectant doses of 2.5 mg L chlorine and 41 mJ cm UV were selected based on the coliform counts to be attained in treated sewage. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in control (secondary treated) sample followed by UV, chlorine and hybrid disinfection. The highest elimination of bacterial species (296) was achieved in hybrid treatment, which was far better than the standalone treatments. The disinfection with all the disinfectants used resulted in increased abundance of ARGs. Motility genes were found to be enriched in hybrid disinfected samples. DBP concentrations were within the stipulated norms for all the disinfectant treatments used. Hybrid disinfection was observed to be more effective in alleviating the risks associated with the reuse of treated sewage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125615DOI Listing
November 2021

Enhancing hydrolysis and syntropy simultaneously in solid state anaerobic digestion: Digester performance and techno-economic evaluation.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 13;338:125538. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, JLN Marg, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the effect of alkali and biochar addition for simultaneous increment of hydrolysis and syntropy for higher methane yield from pearl millet straw (PMS) in solid state anaerobic digestion. A taguchi based design of experiment was coupled with grey relation analysis for multiple output optimization. Study showed that 0.5 g (g/100 g PMS) of alkali and 10 g/L of biochar was the optimised dosing. Statistically, contribution of biochar and alkali was 48 and 21% respectively on the multiple output. The confirmation test revealed that hydrolysis rate constant, k and total volatile fatty acid/alkalinity ratio for reactor having optimised conditions was 0.0521 d and 0.36 while for control, it was 0.0595 d and 0.76 respectively. Techno-economic assessment showed US$ 25,652 of net present value and 11.29% of internal rate of return. Sensitivity analysis showed that capital expenditure and methane yield was most sensitive to net present value.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125538DOI Listing
October 2021

Strategies to improve solid state anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: an overview.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 23;331:125036. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India. Electronic address:

Solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) of lignocellulosic biomass may be attractive solution for its valorisation. Compared to liquid state anaerobic digestion (LSAD), SSAD can handle higher organic loading rates (OLR), requires a less water and smaller reactor volume. It may require lower energy demand for heating or mixing and has higher volumetric methane productivity. Besides numerous benefits of SSAD processes and progress in system design, there are still obstacles, which need to be overcome for its successful implementations. This review aims to compile the recent trends in enhancing the bioconversion of agricultural stubbles in SSAD. Several pretreatment procedures used to breaking lignin and cellulose complex, method to overcome carbon to nitrogen ratio imbalance, use of carbon-based conducting materials to enhance Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) conversion and additives for achieving nutrient balance will be discussed in this review. Leachate recirculation and its impacts on SSAD of agricultural stubbles are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125036DOI Listing
July 2021

Enhanced xylitol production using non-detoxified xylose rich pre-hydrolysate from sugarcane bagasse by newly isolated Pichia fermentans.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2020 Dec 29;13(1):209. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL, UK.

Background: Integrated management of hemicellulosic fraction and its economical transformation to value-added products is the key driver towards sustainable lignocellulosic biorefineries. In this aspect, microbial cell factories are harnessed for the sustainable production of commercially viable biochemicals by valorising C5 and C6 sugars generated from agro-industrial waste. However, in the terrestrial ecosystem, microbial systems can efficiently consume glucose. On the contrary, pentose sugars are less preferred carbon source as most of the microbes lack metabolic pathway for their utilization. The effective utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars is key for economical biorefinery.

Results: Bioprospecting the food waste and selective enrichment on xylose-rich medium led to screening and isolation of yeast which was phylogenetically identified as Pichia fermentans. The newly isolated xylose assimilating yeast was explored for xylitol production. The wild type strain robustly grew on xylose and produced xylitol with > 40% conversion yield. Chemical mutagenesis of isolated yeast with ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) yielded seven mutants. The mutant obtained after 15 min EMS exposure, exhibited best xylose bioconversion efficiency. This mutant under shake flask conditions produced maximum xylitol titer and yield of 34.0 g/L and 0.68 g/g, respectively. However, under the same conditions, the control wild type strain accumulated 27.0 g/L xylitol with a conversion yield of 0.45 g/g. Improved performance of the mutant was attributed to 34.6% activity enhancement in xylose reductase with simultaneous reduction of xylitol dehydrogenase activity by 22.9%. Later, the culture medium was optimized using statistical design and validated at shake flask and bioreactor level. Bioreactor studies affirmed the competence of the mutant for xylitol accumulation. The xylitol titer and yield obtained with pure xylose were 98.9 g/L and 0.67 g/g, respectively. In comparison, xylitol produced using non-detoxified xylose rich pre-hydrolysate from sugarcane bagasse was 79.0 g/L with an overall yield of 0.54 g/g.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of newly isolated P. fermentans in successfully valorising the hemicellulosic fraction for the sustainable xylitol production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-020-01845-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772924PMC
December 2020

Combined fungal and bacterial pretreatment of wheat and pearl millet straw for biogas production - A study from batch to continuous stirred tank reactors.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Feb 10;321:124523. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India. Electronic address:

In present study, chitinolytic bacteria were employed to bioaugment the biogas production from fungal pretreated agricultural residues. The fungal pretreatment of wheat and pearl millet straw was done by Chaetomium globosporum. Pretreated straw were digested anaerobically at batch scale with and without the presence of chitinolytic bacteria. Contrary to untreated samples, the addition of chitionolytic bacteria with pretreated wheat and pearl millet straw provided 41 and 57% higher biogas yield. The study was further upscaled to continuous stirred tank reactors. At continuous scale too, wheat straw pretreated with Chaetomium globosporum combined with chitinolytic bacteria resulted in 16% higher biogas yield in contrast to untreated straw. Higher abundance of methanogens was detected in reactors running with pretreated wheat straw during microbial community analysis. The identified bacteria belonged mostly to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria phyla.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124523DOI Listing
February 2021

Chemoenzymatic Production and Engineering of Chitooligosaccharides and -acetyl Glucosamine for Refining Biological Activities.

Front Chem 2020 24;8:469. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Microbial Catalysis and Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer, India.

Chitooligosaccharides (COS) and -acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) are currently of enormous relevance to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetics, food, and agriculture industries due to their wide range of biological activities, which include antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, anticoagulant, wound healing, immunoregulatory, and hypocholesterolemic effects. A range of methods have been developed for the synthesis of COS with a specific degree of polymerization along with high production titres. In this respect, chemical, enzymatic, and microbial means, along with modern genetic manipulation techniques, have been extensively explored; however no method has been able to competently produce defined COS and GlcNAc in a mono-system approach. Henceforth, the chitin research has turned toward increased exploration of chemoenzymatic processes for COS and GlcNAc generation. Recent developments in the area of green chemicals, mainly ionic liquids, proved vital for the specified COS and GlcNAc synthesis with better yield and purity. Moreover, engineering of COS and GlcNAc to generate novel derivatives viz. carboxylated, sulfated, phenolic acid conjugated, amino derived COS, etc., further improved their biological activities. Consequently, chemoenzymatic synthesis and engineering of COS and GlcNAc emerged as a useful approach to lead the biologically-active compound-based biomedical research to an advanced prospect in the forthcoming era.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329927PMC
June 2020

Life-cycle assessment of sewage sludge-based large-scale biogas plant.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Aug 11;309:123373. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, Rajasthan, India. Electronic address:

The aim of this work was to study the life-cycle assessment (LCA) and impact of a biogas plant based on the municipal sewage sludge (6000 m capacity biogas plant at Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Delawas, Jaipur - Rajasthan, India), analyzing the environmental effects instigated due to basic systems of biogas production and also to examine the impact of using biogas as an alternate fuel using ReCiPe and midpoint methods. The results indicatedthat the construction of plant was insignificant to the whole life cycle impacts. Biogas plant showed negative GHG emissions (-0.2385 kg CO eq/m) compared to coal-based electricity plants and digestate produced could be a good option to replace chemical fertilizer. Biogas production and agricultural spreading contributed -3.059E-08 kg CFC-11 eq/m towards beneficial effects which may be attributed to the avoidance of electricity and artificial fertilizers. The results indicated that sewage sludge-based biogas plant showed beneficial impact on the environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123373DOI Listing
August 2020

Biological treatment of lignocellulosic biomass by Curvularia lunata for biogas production.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Mar 6;306:123151. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur 302017, Rajasthan, India. Electronic address:

In the present study, biological treatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been performed by employing Curvularia lunata. Optimization of treatment conditions was performed by using response surface methodology to reduce the duration of treatment time. Three factors were studied at three severity levels: temperature - 28, 32, 36 °C; moisture content - 65, 75, 85%; treatment time - 14, 28, 42 days. Released reducing sugars were considered as the output response as the disruption of lignin barrier by biological treatment should increase the quantity of free reducing sugar. Impact of different combinations of factors (at varying severity levels) on output response was studied to attain the optimized conditions: 32 °C, 23 days and 65% moisture. Predicted outcomes were aligned with the experimental results (R = 0.93). After treating at optimized conditions, wheat and pearl millet straw were subjected to anaerobic digestion and showcased 19 and 28% increase in biogas production respectively as compared to the untreated straws.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123151DOI Listing
March 2020

Linkages between Respiratory Symptoms in Women and Biofuel Use: Regional Case Study of Rajasthan, India.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 09 25;16(19). Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1E 6DE, UK.

Women in low and middle-income countries predominantly use biofuel for cooking, resulting in potential adverse health outcomes. In India, it is estimated that about 40% of total primary energy consumption is in the domestic sector with biofuels alone accounting for about 75% of domestic energy consumption. This study assesses linkages between wood consumption and perceptions of women's health, combining results from a rapid assessment of eight rural districts in Rajasthan with a regression analysis of data from Rajasthan State (sample size 41,965 women) from the Demographic and Health Survey 7 dataset (2015-2016). The results of the rapid survey indicate that women who cook with biofuels perceive adverse health outcomes. Educational level, income, and age have an impact on fuel consumption and clean fuel purchased. The regression model drawing upon data on women at a regional level in Rajasthan yielded significant results suggesting a strong association between fuel type and symptoms of respiratory infection controlling for age and education. This research is timely as it provides valuable evidence for India's Ujjawala Scheme which has the mandate of providing LPG connections to women from below the poverty line.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6801899PMC
September 2019

Prioritization of solid concentration and temperature for solid state anaerobic digestion of pearl millet straw employing multi-criteria assessment tool.

Sci Rep 2019 08 15;9(1):11902. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 302 017, India.

India produces huge quantities of agricultural residues and stubbles and mainly disposed by burning on site causing air pollution. The organic matter present in the residues and stubble may be utilized by anaerobic digestion as a source of renewable energy subsequently reducing emission of greenhouse gases caused by burning. In the present study, solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) of pearl millet straw was investigated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature with four different total solid (TS) content (15, 20, 25 and 30%). Results showed that 20 and 25% TS generated maximum methane (124.1 ± 7 and 162.4 ± 9L/kg VS) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature respectively. However, increasing TS content beyond 25% did not show significant increment on methane yield. Analytical analysis showed correlation between the reduction of volatile solids and methane yield as well as VFA (volatile fatty acid) accumulation at high TS content. Also, VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija Komoromisno Resenje (VIKOR) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods as MultiCriteria Decision Making modelling (MCDM) applied to select best possible alternative for SSAD of pearl millet. MCDM analysis showed that VIKOR method endorsed the experimental results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48437-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695487PMC
August 2019

Biochar enabled syntrophic action: Solid state anaerobic digestion of agricultural stubble for enhanced methane production.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Oct 27;289:121712. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, JLN Marg, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India. Electronic address:

In this study, effect of hardwood biochar on solid state anaerobic digestion of wheat straw has been investigated. The concentration of biochar was 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g/L and added in inoculum along with wheat straw for anaerobic action. Results showed that 10 g/L of hardwood biochar led to 2-fold increment in methane yield (223 L/kg VS) compared to the control (110 L/kg VS). However, increasing the concentration of hardwood biochar did not help in significant increase in methane yield and raised pH and alkalinity up to 8.3 and 24.3 g/L respectively. Principal component analysis showed that methane yield is positively correlated with volatile solid reduction while biochar loading is directly correlated with pH as well as alkalinity and inversely correlated with total volatile fatty acid. This study revealed that biochar may help to maintain syntrophy in the anaerobic reactor and enhance methane yield significantly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121712DOI Listing
October 2019

: A novel laccase producing fungus for improving the hydrolyzability of lignocellulosic biomass.

Heliyon 2019 Mar 18;5(3):e01353. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India.

Rapid economic growth and urbanization is imposing an unseen pressure on energy sector to fulfill the increasing energy demand. Non edible horticultural residues viz. wheat and pearl millet straw have the potential to become an economical resource for waste to energy conversion. However, maximum hydrolyzability of the crop residues is a prerequisite for efficient conversion of complex organic materials into biofuels. In the present study, mycological treatment of wheat and pearl millet straw was accomplished by employing The straw samples were exposed to mycological treatment for 14, 28 and 42 days. The improvement in hydrolyzability of straw was assessed by estimating the increase in reducing sugar release. The competence of for treating the straw samples was evaluated by measuring the % lignin removal after treatment. Furthermore, the structural and morphological changes in the straw samples after mycological treatment were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results revealed 124 and 91% increase in reducing sugar release along with 43 and 41% removal of lignin for wheat and pearl millet straw respectively. Significant differences were also observed in in the structure, crystallanity and surface morphology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430019PMC
March 2019

Biological treatment of lignocellulosic biomass by Chaetomium globosporum: Process derivation and improved biogas production.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 May 23;128:176-183. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, Rajasthan, India. Electronic address:

Chaetomium globosporum was isolated from aeolian soil samples collected from semi-arid locations in the state of Rajasthan, India. The efficiency of fungal strain for biological treatment of biomass to improve biogas yield was screened by estimating laccase enzyme activity under submerged fermentation system. Further, lignocellulosic biomass(s) wheat and pearl millet straw were subjected to biological treatment and subsequent increase in release of reducing sugar as compared to untreated straw was determined. Optimization of biological treatment conditions was accomplished by employing response surface methodology with Box Behnken design of experiments. Impact of three parameters (temperature, residence time, moisture content) was analyzed using three severity levels on output response of biological treatment in terms of released reducing sugar (g/L). Observed values were well fitted with second order polynomial equation (R = 0.91) and predicted outcomes were in agreement with experimental results. Optimized treatment conditions were: 36 °C, 31 days residence time and 81% moisture. A 2.9 fold increase in reducing sugar was released when substrates were treated under these conditions. Our research findings emphasize importance of optimizing biological treatment conditions to achieve high biogas yield when using wheat and pearl millet straw as feedstocks and similar treatment could be carried out for other lignocellulosic feedstocks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.118DOI Listing
May 2019

Multicriteria Decision Model and Thermal Pretreatment of Hotel Food Waste for Robust Output to Biogas: Case Study from City of Jaipur, India.

Biomed Res Int 2018 16;2018:9416249. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, Rajasthan, India.

The anaerobic batch test (45 days at 37°C) was performed to describe the effect of thermal pretreatment at moderate temperatures (60, 80, and 100°C) over durations of 10 and 20 minutes on the enhancement of biogas production using hotel food waste from city of Jaipur, India. The results showed that the total cumulative biogas production with thermal pretreatment (100°C, 10 minutes) was 41% higher than the control. Also, this alternative gets first rank using multicriteria decision making model, VIKOR. This outcome was obtained due to the enhancement of degradation of organic compounds such as protein and volatile solids that occurred in the linear trend. Modified Gompertz and Logistic models were used to study the effect of different pretreatment parameters on lag time and biogas yield. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were also employed to investigate the effect of thermal pretreatment on the physiochemical properties of food waste.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9416249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165605PMC
January 2019

Affordable Imaging Lab for Noninvasive Analysis of Biomass and Early Vigour in Cereal Crops.

Biomed Res Int 2018 19;2018:5713158. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 23053 Alnarp, Sweden.

Plant phenotyping by imaging allows automated analysis of plants for various morphological and physiological traits. In this work, we developed a low-cost RGB imaging phenotyping lab (LCP lab) for low-throughput imaging and analysis using affordable imaging equipment and freely available software. LCP lab comprising RGB imaging and analysis pipeline is set up and demonstrated with early vigour analysis in wheat. Using this lab, a few hundred pots can be photographed in a day and the pots are tracked with QR codes. The software pipeline for both imaging and analysis is built from freely available software. The LCP lab was evaluated for early vigour analysis of five wheat cultivars. A high coefficient of determination ( 0.94) was obtained between the dry weight and the projected leaf area of 20-day-old wheat plants and of 0.9 for the relative growth rate between 10 and 20 days of plant growth. Detailed description for setting up such a lab is provided together with custom scripts built for imaging and analysis. The LCP lab is an affordable alternative for analysis of cereal crops when access to a high-throughput phenotyping facility is unavailable or when the experiments require growing plants in highly controlled climate chambers. The protocols described in this work are useful for building affordable imaging system for small-scale research projects and for education.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5713158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933035PMC
October 2018

Synergistic effects of anaerobic co-digestion of whey, manure and fish ensilage.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Feb 27;249:35-41. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P. O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway. Electronic address:

Biogas production potential of the three feedstocks fish ensilage, manure and whey was evaluated using biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Since anaerobic digestion of single substrates may be inefficient due to imbalances in the carbon-nitrogen ratio, degree of biodegradability and/or due to lack of nutrients needed by the microbial community, co-digestion of these substrates was also assessed, revealing synergistic effects and a particularly good effect of combining manure with fish ensilage. In this latter case, methane yields were up to 84% higher than the weighted average of the methane yields obtained with the individual substrates. The type of substrate was the dominating cause of variation in methane production rates and yields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.169DOI Listing
February 2018

Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling.

Biomed Res Int 2017 14;2017:2370927. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India.

Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to continuous increase of the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. There is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to reduce food waste burden by adopting standard management practices. Currently, various kinds of approaches are investigated in waste food processing and management for societal benefits and applications. Anaerobic digestion approach has appeared as one of the most ecofriendly and promising solutions for food wastes management, energy, and nutrient production, which can contribute to world's ever-increasing energy requirements. Here, we have briefly described and explored the different aspects of anaerobic biodegrading approaches for food waste, effects of cosubstrates, effect of environmental factors, contribution of microbial population, and available computational resources for food waste management researches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/2370927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331173PMC
April 2017

The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2015 Jul 7;99(13):5749-61. Epub 2015 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P. O. Box 5003, 1432, Ås, Norway.

A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, we have analyzed changes in the microbial composition and performance of an inoculum during storage using barcoded pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and determination of the biomethane potential, respectively. The inoculum was stored at room temperature, 4 and -20 °C for up to 11 months and cellulose was used as a standard substrate to test the biomethane potential. Storage up to 1 month resulted in similar final methane yields, but the rate of methane production was reduced by storage at -20 °C. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively. Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage. In conclusion, this study suggests that biogas inocula may be stored up to 1 month with low loss of methanogenic activity, and identifies bacterial and archaeal species that are affected by the storage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-015-6623-0DOI Listing
July 2015

Microbial community structure and dynamics during co-digestion of whey permeate and cow manure in continuous stirred tank reactor systems.

Bioresour Technol 2014 Nov 30;171:350-9. Epub 2014 Aug 30.

Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway. Electronic address:

Microbial community profiles in two parallel CSTR biogas reactors fed with whey permeate and cow manure were investigated. The operating conditions for these two reactors were identical, yet only one of them (R1) showed stable performance, whereas the other (R2) showed a decrease in methane production accompanied by accumulation of propionic acid and, later, acetic acid. This gave a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of the microbial communities in two biogas reactors apparently operating close to the edge of stability. The microbial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the methanogens Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales in both reactors, but with larger fluctuations in R2. Correlation analyses showed that the depletion of propionic acid in R1 and the late increase of acetic acid in R2 was related to several bacterial groups. The biogas production in R1 shows that stable co-digestion of manure and whey can be achieved with reasonable yields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.08.095DOI Listing
November 2014

Microbial community structure in a biogas digester utilizing the marine energy crop Saccharina latissima.

3 Biotech 2013 Oct 25;3(5):407-414. Epub 2012 Oct 25.

Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Post Office Box 5003, 1432, Ås, Norway.

Seaweed is a highly attractive marine crop for the production of biofuels, due to its rapid growth rate as well as high polysaccharide and low lignin content. One appealing exploitation route is the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion. Interestingly, despite the compositional differences between seaweed and lignocellulosic biomass, available data indicate that conditions and inocula traditionally used for the latter may work well for seaweed. To gain more insight into the underlying microbial processes, we have generated 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing data to comparatively describe microbial communities in biogas digesters containing either the seaweed Saccharina latissima or wheat straw. The seaweed digesters gave better biogas yield and a higher relative abundance of core group Methanosaeta-affiliated Archaea. Conversely, variation in biomass had only minor abundance effects towards dominant bacterial lineages and influenced only low-abundant bacterial OTUs. Affiliations between dominant archaeal and bacterial phylotypes described here and previously identified anaerobic digestion core groups indicate that trends are beginning to emerge within these newly explored microbial ecosystems, the understanding of which is currently impeded by limited published datasets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-012-0097-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3781269PMC
October 2013

Effect of different steam explosion conditions on methane potential and enzymatic saccharification of birch.

Bioresour Technol 2013 Jan 9;127:343-9. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway.

Birch (Betula pubescens) was steam exploded at 13 different conditions with temperatures ranging from 170 to 230 °C and residence times ranging from 5 to 15 min. Increasing severity in the pretreatment led to degradation of xylan and formation of pseudo-lignin. The effect of the pretreatments was evaluated by running enzymatic saccharification and anaerobic digestion followed by analysis of sugar and methane yields, respectively. Enzymatically released glucose increased with pretreatment severity up to 220 °C for 10 min and levels of solubilized glucose reached 97% of the theoretical maximum. The highest methane yield (369 mL gVS(-1)) was obtained at a severity factor of 4.5 and this yield was 1.8 times higher than the yield from untreated birch. Enzymatic glucose yields and methane yields were generally correlated. The results indicate that steam-exploded birch can be effectively converted to either glucose or methane.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.118DOI Listing
January 2013

Outcomes of angiosome and non-angiosome targeted revascularization in critical lower limb ischemia.

J Vasc Surg 2013 Jan 9;57(1):44-9. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

Jain Institute of Vascular Sciences, Bhagwan Mahavir Jain Hospital, NCR, India.

Objective: Blood supply to the foot is from the posterior tibial, anterior tibial, and the peroneal arteries. Ischemic ulceration of the foot is the most common cause for major amputations in vascular surgical patients. It can be presumed that revascularization of the artery directly supplying the ischemic angiosome may be superior to indirect revascularization of the concerned ischemic angiosome.

Methods: This was a prospective study of 64 patients with continuous single crural vessel runoff to the foot presenting with critical limb ischemia from January 2007 to September 2008. Direct revascularization (DR) of the ischemic angiosome was performed in 61% (n=39), indirect revascularization (IR) in 39% (n=25). Open surgery was performed in 60.9% and endovascular interventions in 39.1%. All patients were evaluated for the status of the wound and limb salvage at 1, 3, and 6 months. The study end points were major amputation or death, limb salvage, and wound epithelialization at 6 months.

Results: In the study, 81.2% of patients had forefoot ischemia, 17.2% had ischemic heel, whereas 1.6% had midfoot nonhealing ischemic ulceration. The runoff involved the anterior tibial artery in 42.2% (27/64), posterior tibial artery in 34.4% (22/64), and the peroneal artery in 23.4% (15/64). All patients were followed at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively for ulcer healing, major amputation, or death. At the end of 6 months, nine patients expired, and six were lost to follow-up. Of 49 patients who completed 6 months, nine underwent major amputation, and 40 had limb salvage. Ulcer healing at 1, 3, and 6 months for DR vs IR were 7.9% vs 5%, 57.6% vs 12.5%, and 96.4% vs 83.3%, respectively. This difference in the rates of ulcer healing between the DR and IR groups was statistically significant (P=.021). The limb salvage in the DR group (84%) and IR group (75%) was not statistically significant (P=.06). The mortality was 10.2% for DR and 20% for IR at 6 months.

Conclusions: To attain better ulcer healing rates combined with higher limb salvage, direct revascularization of the ischemic angiosome should be considered whenever possible. Revascularization should not be denied to patients with indirect perfusion of the ischemic angiosome as acceptable rates of limb salvage are obtained.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2012.07.042DOI Listing
January 2013

Impact of steam explosion on biogas production from rape straw in relation to changes in chemical composition.

Bioresour Technol 2012 Nov 4;123:608-15. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway.

An 81day trial compared the cumulative production of methane from rape straw pre-treated by steam explosion at 15 levels of severity. The final methane yields were similar. The temporal variation in production rate exhibited two peaks: maximum production occurred in the first peak at around 21days with heights that increased with severity; the height of the second peak reduced with severity and peaked between 32 and 36days. Changes in the straw composition were investigated using mid-infrared spectroscopy. These were also strongly related to the degree of severity, allowing good predictive models to be built of severity and subsequently the rate of methane production. The main spectral changes showed the degradation of cellulose and xylose-containing hemicelluloses and production of furfural-like components commonly associated with biomass pre-treatments. Only small changes to lignin were associated with increased methane generation suggesting a structural rather than chemical role in this process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.06.088DOI Listing
November 2012

C. elegans ten-1 is synthetic lethal with mutations in cytoskeleton regulators, and enhances many axon guidance defective mutants.

BMC Dev Biol 2010 May 24;10:55. Epub 2010 May 24.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg S-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Teneurins are transmembrane proteins that assist morphogenetic processes in many organisms. ten-1 is the C. elegans teneurin homolog with two transcripts, ten-1a and ten-1b, that respectively encode a long (TEN-1L) and short (TEN-1S) form of the protein. We previously isolated a C. elegans mutant where one pharyngeal neuron was frequently misplaced, and now show that it corresponds to a novel allele of ten-1.

Results: The novel ten-1(et5) allele is a hypomorph since its post-embryonic phenotype is weaker than the null alleles ten-1(ok641) and ten-1(tm651). ten-1 mutants have defects in all pharyngeal neurons that we examined, and in vivo reporters show that only the long form of the ten-1 gene is expressed in the pharynx, specifically in six marginal cells and the M2 neurons. Defects in the pharyngeal M2 neurons were enhanced when the ten-1(ok641) mutation was combined with mutations in the following genes: mig-14, unc-5, unc-51, unc-52 and unc-129. None of the body neurons examined show any defects in the ten-1(ok641) mutant, but genetic interaction studies reveal that ten-1(ok641) is synthetic lethal with sax-3, unc-34 and unc-73, and examination of the hypodermal cells in embryos of the ten-1(ok641) mutant point to a role of ten-1 during hypodermal cell morphogenesis.

Conclusions: Our results are consistent with ten-1 normally providing a function complementary to the cytoskeletal remodeling processes that occur in migrating cells or cells undergoing morphogenesis. It is possible that ten-1 influences the composition/distribution of extracellular matrix.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-213X-10-55DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887410PMC
May 2010

Development and characterization of an oat TILLING-population and identification of mutations in lignin and beta-glucan biosynthesis genes.

BMC Plant Biol 2010 May 12;10:86. Epub 2010 May 12.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, S-40530, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: Oat, Avena sativa is the sixth most important cereal in the world. Presently oat is mostly used as feed for animals. However, oat also has special properties that make it beneficial for human consumption and has seen a growing importance as a food crop in recent decades. Increased demand for novel oat products has also put pressure on oat breeders to produce new oat varieties with specific properties such as increased or improved beta-glucan-, antioxidant- and omega-3 fatty acid levels, as well as modified starch and protein content. To facilitate this development we have produced a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) population of the spring oat cultivar SW Belinda.

Results: Here a population of 2600 mutagenised M2 lines, producing 2550 M3 seed lots were obtained. The M2 population was initially evaluated by visual inspection and a number of different phenotypes were seen ranging from dwarfs to giants, early flowering to late flowering, leaf morphology and chlorosis. Phloroglucinol/HCl staining of M3 seeds, obtained from 1824 different M2 lines, revealed a number of potential lignin mutants. These were later confirmed by quantitative analysis. Genomic DNA was prepared from the M2 population and the mutation frequency was determined. The estimated mutation frequency was one mutation per 20 kb by RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, one mutation per 38 kb by MALDI-TOF analysis and one mutation per 22.4 kb by DNA sequencing. Thus, the overall mutation frequency in the population is estimated to be one mutation per 20-40 kb, depending on if the method used addressed the whole genome or specific genes. During the investigation, 6 different mutations in the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AsPAL1) gene and 10 different mutations in the cellulose synthase-like (AsCslF6) beta-glucan biosynthesis gene were identified.

Conclusion: The oat TILLING population produced in this work carries, on average, hundreds of mutations in every individual gene in the genome. It will therefore be an important resource in the development of oat with specific characters. The population (M5) will be available for academic research via Nordgen http://www.nordgen.org as soon as enough seeds are obtained.[Genbank accession number for the cloned AsPAL1 is GQ373155 and GQ379900 for AsCslF6].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-10-86DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3017761PMC
May 2010

Therapeutic angiogenesis in Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) patients with critical limb ischemia by autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells.

J Vasc Surg 2008 Dec;48(6 Suppl):53S-60S; discussion 60S

Jain Institute of Vascular Sciences, Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain Hospital, Bangalore, India.

Background: Peripheral arterial disease is a significant problem worldwide. In developing countries such as India, the increased incidence of smoking and other forms of nicotine intake has resulted in a large proportion of young individuals with Buerger's disease. The results of surgical and endovascular treatment for this condition have not been very rewarding. Hence, we focused on providing alternative therapies. Neovascularization by autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation is being tried as an alternative therapeutic option. We have reviewed our series of patients who underwent autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation during the last 2 years.

Methods: We enrolled 38 patients who were chosen to undergo autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation for nonreconstructible Buerger's disease. We injected the bone marrow mononuclear cells into the calf muscles of the affected limbs in 36 patients. We monitored ulcer healing, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oximetry (TcPo(2)) level.

Results: No procedurally related complications occurred, although one injected sample of bone marrow aspirate later revealed infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis. Two patients were seropositive on the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and were not injected with the bone marrow mononuclear cells. Three patients (12%) underwent major amputations
Conclusions: Use of bone marrow-derived progenitor cell transplantation into ischemic limbs is a relatively safe procedure with no demonstrable side effects at 6 months. These study data support conducting controlled and multicenter trials to evaluate the efficacy of this therapy in preventing amputation in selected patients with Buerger's disease who have critical limb ischemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2008.09.005DOI Listing
December 2008
-->