Publications by authors named "Vivek V Sharma"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Beta synchrony for expressive language lateralizes to right hemisphere in development.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 17;11(1):3949. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 686 Bay Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 0A4, Canada.

A left perisylvian network is known to support language in healthy adults. Low-beta (13-23 Hz) event-related desynchrony (ERD) has been observed during verb generation, at approximately 700-1200 ms post-stimulus presentation in past studies; the signal is known to reflect increased neuronal firing and metabolic demand during language production. In contrast, concurrent beta event-related synchrony (ERS) is thought to reflect neuronal inhibition but has not been well studied in the context of language. Further, while low-beta ERD for expressive language has been found to gradually shift from bilateral in childhood to left hemispheric by early adulthood, developmental lateralization of ERS has not been established. We used magnetoencephalography to study low beta ERS lateralization in a group of children and adolescents (n = 78), aged 4 to less than 19 years, who performed covert verb generation. We found that the youngest children had bilateral ERD and ERS. By adolescence, low-beta ERD was predominantly left lateralized in perisylvian cortex (i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's regions), while beta ERS was predominantly right lateralized. Increasing lateralization was significantly correlated to age for both ERD (Spearman's r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and ERS (Spearman's r =  - 0.44, p < 0.01). Interestingly, while ERD lateralized in a linear manner, ERS lateralization followed a nonlinear trajectory, suggesting distinct developmental trajectories. Implications to early-age neuroplasticity and neuronal inhibition are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83373-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889886PMC
February 2021

Absolute Pitch and Musical Expertise Modulate Neuro-Electric and Behavioral Responses in an Auditory Stroop Paradigm.

Front Neurosci 2019 6;13:932. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Music and Health Research Collaboratory, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Musicians have considerable experience naming pitch-classes with verbal (e.g., Doh, Ré, and Mi) and semiotic tags (e.g., musical notation). On the one end of the spectrum, musicians can identify the pitch of a piano tone or quality of a chord without a reference tone [i.e., absolute pitch (AP) or relative pitch], which suggests strong associations between the perceived pitch information and verbal labels. Here, we examined the strength of this association using auditory versions of the Stroop task while neuro-electric brain activity was measured using high-density electroencephalography. In separate blocks of trials, participants were presented with congruent or incongruent auditory words from English language (standard auditory Stroop), Romanic solemnization, or German key lexicons (the latter two versions require some knowledge of music notation). We hypothesized that musically trained groups would show greater Stroop interference effects when presented with incongruent musical notations than non-musicians. Analyses of behavioral data revealed small or even non-existent congruency effects in musicians for solfège and keycodes versions of the Stroop task. This finding was unexpected and appears inconsistent with the hypothesis that musical training and AP are associated with high strength response level associations between a perceived pitch and verbal label. The analyses of event-related potentials revealed three temporally distinct modulations associated with conflict processing. All three modulations were larger in the auditory word Stroop than in the other two versions of the Stroop task. Only AP musicians showed significant congruity effects around 450 and 750 ms post-stimulus when stimuli were presented as Germanic keycodes (i.e., C or G). This finding suggests that AP possessors may process alpha-numeric encodings as word forms with a semantic value, unlike their RP possessing counterparts and non-musically trained individuals. However, the strength of musical conditional associations may not exceed that of standard language in speech.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743413PMC
September 2019