Publications by authors named "Vivek Subbiah"

262 Publications

Author response to Cunha .

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA

The need to identify biomarkers to predict immunotherapy response for rare cancers has been long overdue. We aimed to study this in our paper, 'Radiomics analysis for predicting pembrolizumab response in patients with advanced rare cancers'. In this response to the Letter to the Editor by Cunha , we explain and discuss the reasons behind choosing LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and XGBoost (eXtreme Gradient Boosting) with LOOCV (Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation) as the feature selection and classifier method, respectively for our radiomics models. Also, we highlight what care was taken to avoid any overfitting on the models. Further, we checked for the multicollinearity of the features. Additionally, we performed 10-fold cross-validation instead of LOOCV to see the predictive performance of our radiomics models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-003299DOI Listing
July 2021

Food and Drug Administration approvals in phase 3 Cancer clinical trials.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 12;21(1):695. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd Unit 1422, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Phase 3 oncologic randomized clinical trials (RCTs) can lead to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals. In this study, we aim to identify trial-related factors associated with trials leading to subsequent FDA drug approvals.

Methods: We performed a database query through the ClinicalTrials.gov registry to search for oncologic phase 3 RCTs on February 2020. We screened all trials for therapeutic, cancer-specific, phase 3, randomized, multi-arm trials. We then identified whether a trial was used for subsequent FDA drug approval through screening of FDA approval announcements.

Results: In total, 790 trials were included in our study, with 225 trials (28.4%) generating data that were subsequently used for FDA approvals. Of the 225 FDA approvals identified, 65 (28.9%) were based on trials assessing overall survival (OS) as a primary endpoint (PEP), two (0.9%) were based on trials with a quality of life (QoL) PEP, and 158 approvals (70.2%) were based on trials with other PEP (P = 0.01). FDA approvals were more common among industry funded-trials (219, 97.3%; P < 0.001), and less common among trials sponsored by national cooperative groups (21, 9.3%; P < 0.001). Finally, increased pre-hoc power and meeting patients' accrual target were associated with FDA approvals (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The majority of FDA approvals are based on data generated from trials analyzing surrogate primary endpoints and trials receiving industry funding. Additional studies are required to understand the complexity of FDA approvals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08457-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196526PMC
June 2021

Pralsetinib for patients with advanced or metastatic RET-altered thyroid cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, registrational, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Aug 9;9(8):491-501. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Earle A Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET represent important therapeutic targets in thyroid cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET-altered thyroid cancers.

Methods: ARROW, a phase 1/2, open-label study done in 13 countries across 71 sites in community and hospital settings, enrolled patients 18 years or older with RET-altered locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET-mutant medullary thyroid and RET fusion-positive thyroid cancers, and an Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment). Phase 2 primary endpoints assessed for patients who received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision, were overall response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1.1; masked independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed for patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had received previous cabozantinib or vandetanib, or both, or were ineligible for standard therapy and patients with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer; safety was assessed for all patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer. This ongoing study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis.

Findings: Between Mar 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020, 122 patients with RET-mutant medullary and 20 with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancers were enrolled. Among patients with baseline measurable disease who received pralsetinib by July 11, 2019 (enrolment cutoff for efficacy analysis), overall response rates were 15 (71%) of 21 (95% CI 48-89) in patients with treatment-naive RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer and 33 (60%) of 55 (95% CI 46-73) in patients who had previously received cabozantinib or vandetanib, or both, and eight (89%) of nine (95% CI 52-100) in patients with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer (all responses confirmed for each group). Common (≥10%) grade 3 and above treatment-related adverse events among patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer enrolled by May 22, 2020, were hypertension (24 patients [17%] of 142), neutropenia (19 [13%]), lymphopenia (17 [12%]), and anaemia (14 [10%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in 21 patients (15%), the most frequent (≥2%) of which was pneumonitis (five patients [4%]). Five patients [4%] discontinued owing to treatment-related events. One (1%) patient died owing to a treatment-related adverse event.

Interpretation: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, potent once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00120-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Pralsetinib for RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 07 9;22(7):959-969. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET have been identified in multiple tumour types, including 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, oral, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: ARROW is a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study done at 71 sites (community and academic cancer centres) in 13 countries (Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET fusion-positive NSCLC, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment) were enrolled. In phase 2, patients received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib, and could continue treatment until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision. Phase 2 primary endpoints were overall response rate (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1·1 and assessed by blinded independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease who had received platinum-based chemotherapy or were treatment-naive because they were ineligible for standard therapy. This ongoing study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with treatment-naive RET fusion-positive NSCLC was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis.

Findings: Of 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC enrolled between March 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020 (data cutoff), 92 with previous platinum-based chemotherapy and 29 who were treatment-naive received pralsetinib before July 11, 2019 (efficacy enrolment cutoff); 87 previously treated patients and 27 treatment-naive patients had centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease. Overall responses were recorded in 53 (61%; 95% CI 50-71) of 87 patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy, including five (6%) patients with a complete response; and 19 (70%; 50-86) of 27 treatment-naive patients, including three (11%) with a complete response. In 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC, common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (43 patients [18%]), hypertension (26 [11%]), and anaemia (24 [10%]); there were no treatment-related deaths in this population.

Interpretation: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, promising, once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00247-3DOI Listing
July 2021

The L730V/I RET roof mutations display different activities toward pralsetinib and selpercatinib.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2021 Jun 7;5(1):48. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Peggy and Charles Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Recently Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pralsetinib (BLU-667) and selpercatinib (LOXO-292) are RET-selective protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors for treating RET-altered cancers, but whether they have distinct activity was unknown. The L730V/I mutations at the roof of the solvent-front site of the RET kinase were identified as strongly resistant to pralsetinib but not to selpercatinib. Selpercatinib effectively inhibited these mutants and the KIF5B-RET(L730V/I) oncogene-driven tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00188-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184971PMC
June 2021

Intracranial Efficacy of Selpercatinib in Fusion-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers on the LIBRETTO-001 Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: We report the intracranial efficacy of selpercatinib, a highly potent and selective RET inhibitor, approved in the United States for fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).

Patients And Methods: In the global phase 1/2 LIBRETTO-001 trial (NCT03157128) in advanced -altered solid tumors, selpercatinib was dosed orally (160 mg twice every day) in 28-day cycles. Patients with baseline intracranial metastases had MRI/CT scans every 8 weeks for 1 year (12 weeks thereafter). In this pre-planned analysis of patients with fusion-positive NSCLC with baseline intracranial metastases, the primary endpoint was independently assessed intracranial objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST 1.1. Secondary endpoints included intracranial disease control rate, intracranial duration of response, and intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) independently reviewed.

Results: Eighty patients with NSCLC had brain metastases at baseline. Patients were heavily pretreated (median = 2 systemic therapies, range = 0-10); 56% of patients received ≥1 course of intracranial radiation (14% whole brain radiotherapy, 45% stereotactic radiosurgery). Among 22 patients with measurable intracranial disease at baseline, intracranial ORR was 82% [95% confidence interval (CI), 60-95], including 23% with complete responses. Among all intracranial responders (measurable and nonmeasurable, = 38), median duration of intracranial response was not reached (95% CI, 9.3-NE) at a median duration of follow-up of 9.5 months (IQR = 5.7, 12.0). At 12 months, 55% of intracranial responses were ongoing. In all 80 patients, median intracranial PFS was 13.7 months (95% CI, 10.9-NE) at a median duration of follow-up of 11.0 months (IQR = 7.4, 16.5). No new safety signals were revealed in patients with brain metastases compared with the full NSCLC trial population.

Conclusions: Selpercatinib has robust and durable intracranial efficacy in patients with fusion-positive NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0800DOI Listing
June 2021

A Phase I Trial of the MET/ Inhibitor Crizotinib Combined with the VEGF Inhibitor Pazopanib in Patients with Advanced Solid Malignancies.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 7;14:3037-3049. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Crizotinib inhibits ALK, MET and ROS1 tyrosine kinases but the development of resistance to monotherapy is an issue. The anti-angiogenic properties of pazopanib could overcome crizotinib drug resistance. Additionally, the anti-angiogenic properties of crizotinib could augment the clinical efficacy of pazopanib.

Methods: We evaluated the safety and responses in patients with advanced solid tumors treated with crizotinib and pazopanib.

Results: Eighty-two patients (median age 53 years, range 18-78 years) were enrolled. The median number of prior systemic therapies was 3 (range, 0-8). We were able to dose escalate to dose level 8 (crizotinib 250 mg twice daily and pazopanib 800 mg daily) with no MTD identified. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were seen in 32% of patients with the highest prevalence being fatigue (n=9, 11%), diarrhea (n=6, 7%), vomiting (n=3, 4%), anemia (n=2, 2%) and ALT increased (n=2, 2%). Of the 82 patients, 61 (74%) had measurable disease by RECISTv1.1 and reached first restaging (6 weeks). Partial response (PR) was observed in 6/61 (10%) patients, and stable disease (SD) lasting ≥6 months was observed in 10/61 patients (16%) (total = 16/61 (26%) of patients with SD ≥6 months/PR).

Conclusion: Dose level 6 (crizotinib 200 mg twice daily and pazopanib 600 mg daily) was the most tolerable dosing of the combination and can be used in future studies. We also observed moderate clinical activity in patients with advanced solid tumors that had received numerous prior therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S291801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114359PMC
May 2021

Selinexor in combination with topotecan in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors: Results of an open-label, single-center, multi-arm phase Ib study.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (Phase I Clinical Trials Program), Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background Selinexor, a first-in-class, oral selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound inhibits Exportin-1(XPO1), had demonstrated synergistic activity with many chemotherapies and conferred in vivo antitumor efficacy in hematologic as well as solid tumors. Methods This open-label, single-center, multi-arm phase 1b study used a standard 3 + 3 design and a "basket type" expansion. Selinexor with intravenous topotecan was given in one of the 13 parallel arms. Patients with advanced or metastatic relapsed/refractory solid tumors following prior systemic therapy, or in whom the addition of selinexor to standard chemotherapy deemed appropriate, were eligible. Results Fourteen patients with the median age of 61 years (range, 22-68years) were treated, and the most common cancer types were gynecological cancers; ovarian (n = 5), endometrial (n = 2), and 1 each with fallopian tube and vaginal cancers. Of the 14 patients treated, 12 (86 %) had at least one treatment-related adverse event (TRAE). The most common TRAEs were anemia (71 %), thrombocytopenia (57 %), hyponatremia (57 %), vomiting (57 %), fatigue (50 %), nausea (50 %), and neutropenia (36 %). Two patients had dose limiting toxicities. One patient dosed at selinexor 80 mg had grade 3 nausea and vomiting and one patient dosed at selinexor 60 mg experienced grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Of the 13 efficacy evaluable patients, one (8 %) with endometrial cancer achieved unconfirmed partial response (uPR) and the time-to-treatment failure (TTF) was 48 weeks, whereas 6 of the 13 (46 %) patients had stable disease (SD) contributing to the clinical benefit rate of 46 %. The median TTF for all patients was 9 weeks (range, 2-48weeks). Conclusions Once weekly selinexor in combination with topotecan was viable and showed some preliminary tumor efficacy. The recommend phase 2 dose of selinexor was 60 mg once weekly in combination with IV topotecan.Trial registration: NCT02419495. Registered 14 April 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02419495.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01119-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Radiomics analysis for predicting pembrolizumab response in patients with advanced rare cancers.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Apr;9(4)

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA

Background: We present a radiomics-based model for predicting response to pembrolizumab in patients with advanced rare cancers.

Methods: The study included 57 patients with advanced rare cancers who were enrolled in our phase II clinical trial of pembrolizumab. Tumor response was evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and immune-related RECIST (irRECIST). Patients were categorized as 20 "controlled disease" (stable disease, partial response, or complete response) or 37 progressive disease). We used 3D-slicer to segment target lesions on standard-of-care, pretreatment contrast enhanced CT scans. We extracted 610 features (10 histogram-based features and 600 second-order texture features) from each volume of interest. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression was used to detect the most discriminatory features. Selected features were used to create a classification model, using XGBoost, for the prediction of tumor response to pembrolizumab. Leave-one-out cross-validation was performed to assess model performance.

Findings: The 10 most relevant radiomics features were selected; XGBoost-based classification successfully differentiated between controlled disease (complete response, partial response, stable disease) and progressive disease with high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in patients assessed by RECIST (94.7%, 97.3%, and 90%, respectively; p<0.001) and in patients assessed by irRECIST (94.7%, 93.9%, and 95.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Additionally, the common features of the RECIST and irRECIST groups also highly predicted pembrolizumab response with accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and p value of 94.7%, 97%, 90%, p<0.001% and 96%, 96%, 95%, p<0.001, respectively.

Conclusion: Our radiomics-based signature identified imaging differences that predicted pembrolizumab response in patients with advanced rare cancer.

Interpretation: Our radiomics-based signature identified imaging differences that predicted pembrolizumab response in patients with advanced rare cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051405PMC
April 2021

First-in-Human Phase I Study of ABBV-085, an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Targeting LRRC15, in Sarcomas and Other Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 5;27(13):3556-3566. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

University of Colorado - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Purpose: Leucine-rich repeat containing 15 (LRRC15) is expressed on stromal fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment of multiple solid tumor types and may represent an interesting target for therapy, particularly in patients with sarcomas where LRRC15 is also expressed by malignant cells. ABBV-085 is a monomethyl auristatin-E antibody-drug conjugate that targets LRRC15 and showed antineoplastic efficacy in preclinical experiments. Herein, we report findings of ABBV-085 monotherapy or combination therapy in adult patients with sarcomas and other advanced solid tumors.

Patients And Methods: This first-in-human phase I study (NCT02565758) assessed ABBV-085 safety, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antitumor activity. The study consisted of two parts: dose escalation and dose expansion. ABBV-085 was administered by intravenous infusion at 0.3 to 6.0 mg/kg every 14 days.

Results: In total, 85 patients were enrolled; 45 patients received the recommended expansion dose of 3.6 mg/kg ABBV-085 monotherapy, including 10 with osteosarcoma and 10 with undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). Most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and decreased appetite. The overall response rate for patients with osteosarcoma/UPS treated at 3.6 mg/kg was 20%, including four confirmed partial responses. No monotherapy responses were observed for other advanced cancers treated at 3.6 mg/kg. One patient treated with ABBV-085 plus gemcitabine achieved partial response.

Conclusions: ABBV-085 appeared safe and tolerable at a dose of 3.6 mg/kg every 14 days, with preliminary antitumor activity noted in patients with osteosarcoma and UPS. Given the high unmet need in these orphan malignancies, further investigation into targeting LRRC15 in these sarcomas may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4513DOI Listing
July 2021

Immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer harbouring driver mutations.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 05 19;96:102179. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Oncology Department, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2021.102179DOI Listing
May 2021

Patient-Reported Out-of-Pocket Costs and Financial Toxicity During Early-Phase Oncology Clinical Trials.

Oncologist 2021 07 21;26(7):588-596. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Clinical trials are an important therapeutic option for patients with cancer. Although financial burden in cancer treatment is well documented, the financial burden associated with clinical trials is not well understood.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a survey regarding economic burden and financial toxicity in patients with cancer enrolled in phase I clinical trials for >1 month. Financial toxicity score was assessed using the Comprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity survey. Patients also reported monthly out-of-pocket (OOP) costs.

Results: Two hundred and thirteen patients completed the survey (72% non-Hispanic White; 45% with annual income ≤$60,000; 50% lived >300 miles from the clinic; 37% required air travel). Forty-eight percent of patients had monthly OOP costs of at least $1,000. Fifty-five percent and 64% of patients reported unanticipated medical and nonmedical expenses, respectively. Worse financial toxicity was associated with yearly household income <$60,000 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.7; p = .008), having unanticipated medical costs (OR: 3.2; p = .024), and living >100 miles away from the clinical trial hospital (OR: 2.3; p = .043). Non-White or Hispanic patients (OR: 2.5; p = .011) and patients who were unemployed or not working outside the home (OR: 2.5; p = .016) were more likely to report high unanticipated medical costs.

Conclusion: Among patients with cancer participating in clinical trials, economic burden is high, and most of patients' OOP costs were nonmedical costs. Financial toxicity is disproportionally higher in patients with lower income and those who travel farther, and unexpected medical costs were more common among non-White or Hispanic patients. OOP costs can be substantial and are often unexpected for patients.

Implications For Practice: The financial burden of cancer treatment is well documented, but there are limited data regarding the financial burden associated with cancer clinical trials. This study surveyed 213 patients enrolled in early-phase clinical trials. Monthly out-of-pocket costs were at least $1000 for nearly half of patients. Worse financial toxicity was associated with income <$60,000 and living farther away from the hospital. Racial/ethnic minorities had higher rates of unanticipated medical costs. These data help to quantify the high financial burden for patients and may reveal a cause of disparities in clinical trial enrollment for underrepresented populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265355PMC
July 2021

A Phase I Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Evofosfamide in Combination with Ipilimumab in Advanced Solid Malignancies.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 26;27(11):3050-3060. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: As hypoxia can mediate resistance to immunotherapy, we investigated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of combining evofosfamide, a prodrug that alleviates hypoxia, with ipilimumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, in immunologically "cold" cancers, which are intrinsically insensitive to immunotherapy, as well as in "hot/warm" metastatic cancers that are, atypical of such cancers, resistant to immunotherapy.

Patients And Methods: In a phase I, 3+3 dose-escalation trial (NCT03098160), evofosfamide (400-640 mg/m) and ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) were administered in four 3-week cycles. The former was administered on days 1 and 8 of cycles 1-2, while the latter was administered on day 8 of cycles 1-4. Response was assessed using immune-related RECIST and retreatment was allowed, if deemed beneficial, after completion of cycle 4 or at progression.

Results: Twenty-two patients were enrolled, of whom 21 were evaluable, encompassing castration-resistant prostate cancer ( = 11), pancreatic cancer ( = 7), immunotherapy-resistant melanoma ( = 2), and human papillomavirus-negative head and neck cancer ( = 1). Drug-related hematologic toxicities, rash, fever, nausea, vomiting, and elevation of liver enzymes were observed in > 10% of patients. The most common drug-related grade 3 adverse event was alanine aminotransferase elevation (33.3%). Two patients discontinued ipilimumab and 4 required evofosfamide deescalation due to toxicity. Of 18 patients with measurable disease at baseline, 3 (16.7%) achieved partial response and 12 (66.7%) achieved stable disease. The best responses were observed at 560 mg/m evofosfamide. Preexisting immune gene signatures predicted response to therapy, while hypermetabolic tumors predicted progression. Responders also showed improved peripheral T-cell proliferation and increased intratumoral T-cell infiltration into hypoxia.

Conclusions: No new or unexpected safety signals were observed from combining evofosfamide and ipilimumab, and evidence of therapeutic activity was noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172466PMC
June 2021

Precision medicine: preliminary results from the Initiative for Molecular Profiling and Advanced Cancer Therapy 2 (IMPACT2) study.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2021 Mar 19;5(1):21. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Houston, TX, USA.

Precision medicine is associated with favorable outcomes in selected patients with cancer. Herein, we report an interim analysis of IMPACT2, an ongoing randomized study evaluating genomic profiling and targeted agents in metastatic cancer. Patients with metastatic cancer underwent tumor genomic profiling (ClinialTrials.gov: NCT02152254), and 69 patients met the criteria for randomization. Tumor board and multidisciplinary review of molecular alterations optimized treatment selection. From 5/2014 to 4/2017, 320 patients (median age, 63 years; men, 47%) had tumor molecular aberrations, and 213 (66.56%) received anticancer therapy. The most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (42%), KRAS (16%), PIK3CA (12%), and CDKN2A (11%). The median OS was 10.9 months (95% CI, 8.8-12.9). OS was shorter in patients with higher tumor mutational burden. Independent factors associated with shorter OS were age ≥60 years, liver metastases, low albumin levels, high LDH levels, and KRAS and TP53 mutations. Outcomes for randomized patients will be reported after completion of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00159-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979841PMC
March 2021

Overview of Ocular Side Effects of Selinexor.

Oncologist 2021 07 8;26(7):619-623. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: The aim of this review is to elucidate the type and frequency of ocular adverse events associated with selinexor with a goal to quantify the occurrence of these events in our investigator-initiated trial.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 174 patients treated with at least one dose of selinexor in combination with multiple standard chemotherapy or immunotherapy agents between July 2015 and July 2020 at a comprehensive cancer center in the U.S. All reported ocular adverse events were assessed.

Results: A total of 174 patient medical records were reviewed. All patients received at least one dose of selinexor in combination with multiple standard chemotherapy or immunotherapy agents in our cohort of patients with advanced malignancies. A total of 34 (19.54%) patients experienced 37 ocular adverse events. The most frequently reported ocular symptom was blurred vision, which was reported in 22 (12.64%) patients. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event was dry eye syndrome reported in 21 (12.1%) patients, and 19 (10.9%) of them were diagnosed with mild dry eye. The second most common treatment-related adverse event was the progression of age-related nuclear sclerosis (cataract) reported in 7 (4.0%) patients. None of the ocular adverse events required therapy discontinuation.

Conclusion: Our findings highlight that ocular adverse events associated with oral selinexor were mild. The most frequently reported ocular treatment-related adverse events were mild dry eye and progression of age-related nuclear sclerosis. None of the ocular adverse events required therapy discontinuation.

Implications For Practice: Patients receiving selinexor in combination with multiple standard chemotherapy or immunotherapy agents were reviewed, with a total of 34 patients experiencing 37 ocular adverse events. Findings highlight that ocular adverse events associated with oral selinexor were mild. The most frequently reported ocular treatment-related adverse events were mild dry eye and progression of age-related nuclear sclerosis. None of the ocular adverse events required therapy discontinuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265354PMC
July 2021

COVID-19 vaccine guidance for patients with cancer participating in oncology clinical trials.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2021 05 15;18(5):313-319. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (Phase I Clinical Trials Program), Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Emerging efficacy data have led to the emergency use authorization or approval of COVID-19 vaccines in several countries worldwide. Most trials of COVID-19 vaccines excluded patients with active malignancies, and thus data on the safety, tolerability and efficacy of the vaccines in patients with cancer are currently limited. Given the risk posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, decisions regarding the use of vaccines against COVID-19 in patients participating in trials of investigational anticancer therapies need to be addressed promptly. Patients should not have to choose between enrolling on oncology clinical trials and receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Clinical trial sponsors, investigators and treating physicians need operational guidance on COVID-19 vaccination for patients with cancer who are currently enrolled or might seek to enrol in clinical trials. Considering the high morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in patients with cancer, the benefits of vaccination are likely to far outweigh the risks of vaccine-related adverse events. Herein, we provide operational COVID-19 vaccine guidance for patients participating in oncology clinical trials. In our perspective, continued quality oncological care requires that patients with cancer, including those involved in trials, be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination, which should not affect trial eligibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41571-021-00487-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957448PMC
May 2021

Combination Therapies for Precision Oncology: The Ultimate Whack-A-Mole Game.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 11;27(10):2672-2674. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Cancer Medicine, Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

The single-agent activity of MEK inhibitors in MAPK or CDK4/6 inhibitors in cyclin pathway aberrant tumors has been limited. The combination of trametinib and palbociclib demonstrates safety, tolerability, and clinical activity in a histology-independent manner, representing a therapeutic approach for patients harboring co-occurring aberrations..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0254DOI Listing
May 2021

Phase 1 trial of ADI-PEG20 plus cisplatin in patients with pretreated metastatic melanoma or other advanced solid malignancies.

Br J Cancer 2021 Apr 5;124(9):1533-1539. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Departments of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Arginine depletion interferes with pyrimidine metabolism and DNA damage-repair pathways, and pairing arginine deiminase pegylated with 20,000-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (ADI-PEG20) with platinum enhances cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo in arginine auxotrophs.

Methods: This single-centre, Phase 1 trial was conducted using a 3 + 3 dose escalation designed to assess safety, tolerability and determine the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) of ADI-PEG20.

Results: We enrolled 99 patients with metastatic argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) deficient malignancies. We observed no dose-limiting toxic effects or treatment-related mortality. Three percent of patients discontinued treatment because of toxicity. After treatment, 5% (5/99) of patients had partial responses, and 41% had stable disease. The median progression-free and overall survival durations were 3.62 and 8.06 months, respectively. Substantial arginine depletion and citrulline escalation persisted in most patients through weeks 24 and 8, respectively. Tumour responses were associated with anti-ADI-PEG20 antibody levels at weeks 8 and 16 (p = 0.031 and p = 0.0357, respectively).

Conclusion: Concurrently administered ADI-PEG20 and cisplatin had an acceptable safety profile and had shown antitumour activity against metastatic ASS1-deficient solid tumours. Further evaluation of this treatment combination is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01230-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076217PMC
April 2021

Phase I study of ABBV-428, a mesothelin-CD40 bispecific, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Feb;9(2)

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: CD40 agonist immunotherapy can potentially license antigen-presenting cells to promote antitumor T-cell activation and re-educate macrophages to destroy tumor stroma. Systemic administration of CD40 agonists has historically been associated with considerable toxicity, providing the rationale for development of tumor-targeted immunomodulators to improve clinical safety and efficacy. This phase I study assessed the safety, tolerability, preliminary antitumor activity, and preliminary biomarkers of ABBV-428, a first-in-class, mesothelin-targeted, bispecific antibody designed for tumor microenvironment-dependent CD40 activation with limited systemic toxicity.

Methods: ABBV-428 was administered intravenously every 2 weeks to patients with advanced solid tumors. An accelerated titration (starting at a 0.01 mg/kg dose) and a 3+3 dose escalation scheme were used, followed by recommended phase II dose cohort expansions in ovarian cancer and mesothelioma, tumor types associated with high mesothelin expression.

Results: Fifty-nine patients were treated at doses between 0.01 and 3.6 mg/kg. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached, and 3.6 mg/kg was selected as the recommended phase II dose. Seven patients (12%) reported infusion-related reactions. Treatment-related grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events were pericardial effusion, colitis, infusion-related reaction, and pleural effusion (n=1 each, 2%), with no cytokine release syndrome reported. The pharmacokinetic profile demonstrated roughly dose-proportional increases in exposure from 0.4 to 3.6 mg/kg. Best response was stable disease in 9/25 patients (36%) treated at the recommended phase II dose. CD40 receptor occupancy >90% was observed on peripheral B-cells starting from 0.8 mg/kg; however, no consistent changes from baseline in intratumoral CD8+ T-cells, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1+) cells, or immune-related gene expression were detected post-ABBV-428 treatment (cycle 2, day 1). Mesothelin membrane staining showed greater correlation with progression-free survival in ovarian cancer and mesothelioma than in the broader dose escalation population.

Conclusions: ABBV-428 monotherapy exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and an acceptable safety profile, particularly for toxicities characteristic of CD40 agonism, illustrating that utilization of a tumor-targeted, bispecific antibody can improve the safety of CD40 agonism as a therapeutic approach. ABBV-428 monotherapy had minimal clinical activity in dose escalation and in a small expansion cohort of patients with advanced mesothelioma or ovarian cancer.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02955251.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-002015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898862PMC
February 2021

Pembrolizumab in Patients with Advanced Metastatic Germ Cell Tumors.

Oncologist 2021 07 12;26(7):558-e1098. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Lessons Learned: Advanced germ cell tumors are aggressive and associated with poor prognosis. Pembrolizumab was overall well tolerated in 12 heavily pretreated patients. Three patients had radiographic stable disease that lasted for 10.9 months, 5.5 months, and 4.5 months, respectively. Published data of immunotherapeutic agents in patients with advanced germ cell tumors are confirmed. The limited antitumor activity of immunotherapy in germ cell tumors is, at least partially, attributed to tumor biology (low tumor mutational burden; low PD-1 expression) and other poor-risk features. Tumor profiling to understand the mechanisms of resistance to pembrolizumab and innovative clinical trials that may include immunotherapy are warranted.

Background: Advanced germ cell tumors are associated with poor prognosis. We investigated the role of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced germ cell tumors.

Methods: We analyzed a prespecified cohort of an open-label, phase II clinical trial in which patients with advanced germ cell tumors were treated with pembrolizumab (200 mg) intravenously every 21 days. The endpoints of the study were the non-progression rate (NPR) at 27 weeks, safety, and tolerability. An NPR >20% was considered successful and worthy of further pursuit.

Results: From August 2016 to February 2018, 12 patients (10 men, 2 women) were treated (median age, 35 years [range, 22-63 years]; median number of prior systemic therapies, 3.5 [range, 2-7]; median number of metastatic sites, 3 [range, 2-8]). Overall, pembrolizumab was well tolerated. One patient experienced both grade 1 immune-related skin rash and grade 3 immune-related pneumonitis. No patient died from toxicity. Three patients had radiographic stable disease that lasted for 10.9 months, 5.5 months, and 4.5 months, respectively. No objective response was noted. The median progression-free survival was 2.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-4.5 months), and the median overall survival was 10.6 months (95% CI, 4.6-27.1 months). The 27-week NPR was 9.0% (95% CI, 0.23-41.2%).

Conclusion: Overall, pembrolizumab was safe and had limited antitumor activity in these patients. In the advanced, metastatic setting, tumor profiling to understand the mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy and innovative clinical trials to identify efficacious combination regimens rather than off-label use of pembrolizumab are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265349PMC
July 2021

The clinical efficacy and safety of single-agent pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: a case series from a phase II basket trial.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Jun 7;39(3):829-835. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Holcombe Blvd., FC8.2026, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background Treatment of recurrent, unresectable granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary can be challenging. Given the rarity of the tumor, alternative therapies have been difficult to evaluate in large prospective clinical trials. Currently, to our knowledge, there are no reports of the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in GCT patients. Here, we present a case series of GCT patients treated with pembrolizumab who were enrolled in a phase II basket trial in advanced, rare solid tumors (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02721732). Cases We identified 5 patients with recurrent GCT (4 adult and 1 juvenile type); they had an extensive history of systemic therapy at study enrollment (range, 3-10), with most regimens resulting in less than 12 months of disease control. Pembrolizumab was administered in these patients, as per trial protocol. Although there were no objective responses according to the irRECIST guidelines, 2 patients with adult-type GCT experienced disease control for ≥ 12 months (565 and 453 days). In one, pembrolizumab represented the longest duration of disease control compared to prior lines of systemic therapy (565 days vs. 13 months). In the other, pembrolizumab was the second longest systemic therapy associated with disease control (453 days vs. 22 months) compared to prior lines of therapy. In this patient, pembrolizumab was discontinued following withdrawal of consent. PD-L1 expression was not observed in any baseline tumor samples. Pembrolizumab was well tolerated, with no grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions Although our results do not support the routine use of pembrolizumab monotherapy in unselected GCT patients, some patients with adult-type GCT may derive a clinical benefit, with a low risk of toxicity. Future studies should investigate the role of immunotherapy and predictors of clinical benefit in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-01043-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076052PMC
June 2021

Current update on gallbladder carcinoma.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 06 2;46(6):2474-2489. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Abdominal Radiology, Unit 1473, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX, 77030-4009, USA.

Gallbladder (GB) carcinoma is a relatively rare malignancy and is associated with poor prognosis. Numerous risk factors have been associated with the development of GB carcinoma. GB carcinomas may present as mass lesions replacing the GB, focal or diffuse thickening of the GB wall, and intraluminal mass in the GB. Various benign conditions can mimic GB carcinoma. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathology, clinical findings, imaging features, and management of GB carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-020-02871-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular Profiling of Metastatic Bladder Cancer Early-Phase Clinical Trial Participants Predicts Patient Outcomes.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 03 15;19(3):395-402. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Prognosis for patients with metastatic bladder carcinoma (mBC) remains limited and in need of novel therapies. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 43 patients with platinum-refractory metastatic bladder cancer (mBC) who participated in one or more phase I trials of various investigational therapies. Patients' tumors or circulating tumor DNA were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. The median progression-free survival was 4.2 months, the median overall survival was 9.6 months, and the overall response rate was 17.5%. , and alterations were detected in 66%, 29%, 27%, 24%, and 22% of all patients, respectively. Alterations in were almost mutually exclusive of . More than half (64%) of patients with an alt received an FGFR inhibitor, 67% of which achieved disease control. Among patients with urothelial carcinoma histology, those harboring a alteration had a shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) compared with those whose tumors carry wild-type . The reverse relationship was observed in patients harboring an alteration. IMPLICATIONS: Patients with platinum-refractory mBC derive clinical benefit from participating in early-phase clinical trials and their survival outcomes correlate with the genetic profile of the tumor. VISUAL OVERVIEW: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/19/3/395/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0751DOI Listing
March 2021

Validation of prognostic scoring systems for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma enrolled in phase I clinical trials.

ESMO Open 2020 11;5(6):e001073

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Background: For patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who progress on standard-of-care therapies, there is an unmet need for novel treatments. Phase I clinical trials are designed to test the safety, toxicity and optimal dosing of novel agents. Herein, we analysed the outcomes of patients with mRCC enrolled in phase I trials and assess the utility of prognostic scores.

Methods: Patients with all histologies of mRCC were included if they received treatment on a phase I clinical trial at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). Survival outcomes were calculated using Cox proportional hazard model. Prognostic value of the International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC), Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and MDACC scores was assessed using the likelihood ratio (LR) χ test and the c-index.

Results: Among 82 patients with mRCC who received treatment, 21 patients participated in more than one trial, resulting in 106 trial participants (TP). Median prior therapies was two. For all TPs, median overall survival (OS) was 31.2 months, progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.9 months and objective response rate was 22%. Median OS and PFS were significantly shorter with increasing IMDC, RMH and MDACC scores. The RMH and MDACC scores outperformed the IMDC score for predicting OS (RMH LR χ=8.64; MDACC LR χ=7.74; IMDC LR χ=2.36) and PFS (RMH LR χ=17.5; MDACC LR χ=20.3; IMDC LR χ=4.28).

Conclusions: The RMH and MDACC prognostic scores can be used to predict OS for patients with mRCC in phase I trials and may guide patient selection. Patients with mRCC should be considered for phase I trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2020-001073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684827PMC
November 2020

Neoadjuvant selpercatinib for advanced medullary thyroid cancer.

Head Neck 2021 01 9;43(1):E7-E12. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Targeted kinase inhibitors have been increasingly utilized in the treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) over the last decade. Recently, highly potent next generation selective RET inhibitors have been clinically validated, and selpercatinib was recently Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for advanced MTC. The advent of highly selective, potent RET inhibitors is broadening the treatment options for patients with RET-mutated cancers.

Methods: We report the first published case of neoadjuvant selpercatinib followed by surgery for a patient with initially unresectable, widely metastatic, RET-mutated MTC who was treated on a single patient protocol.

Results: After greater than 50% RECIST response, the patient underwent complete surgical resection followed by selpercatinib resumption. He remains locoregionally disease-free 21 months after starting therapy with stable metastatic disease (after initial partial response); and calcitonin/CEA continue to decline.

Conclusion: This novel treatment strategy for locoregionally advanced RET-mutated MTC warrants further study in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756223PMC
January 2021

Patient-Centered, Physician-Investigator Friendly Pragmatic Phase Trial Designs-The 4P Model.

Mayo Clin Proc 2020 11;95(11):2566-2568

The University of Texas MD, Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.09.009DOI Listing
November 2020

Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with BRAF-mutated biliary tract cancer - Authors' reply.

Lancet Oncol 2020 11;21(11):e516

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30625-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Phase I Study of Everolimus, Letrozole, and Trastuzumab in Patients with Hormone Receptor-positive Metastatic Breast Cancer or Other Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 28;27(5):1247-1255. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Division of Cancer Medicine, Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (Phase I Clinical Trials Program), The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: Doublets of everolimus with letrozole or trastuzumab have demonstrated activity against HER2-positive breast cancer, suggesting that the triple combination can have synergistic anticancer activity.

Patients And Methods: This first-in-human dose-escalation study (NCT02152943) enrolled patients with hormone receptor- positive, HER2-positive (defined by amplification, overexpression, or mutation) treatment-refractory advanced cancers to receive escalating doses (3+3 design) of daily oral letrozole (days 1-21), daily oral everolimus (days 1-21), and intravenous trastuzumab (day 1) every 21 days to determine dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and MTD or recommended phase II dose (RP2D).

Results: A total of 32 patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive (amplification, = 27; overexpression, = 1; and mutation, = 4) advanced breast cancer ( = 26) or other cancers ( = 6) were enrolled. The most frequent grade ≥3 adverse events included hyperglycemia ( = 4), anemia ( = 3), thrombocytopenia ( = 2), and mucositis ( = 2). DLTs included grade 3 mucositis and grade 4 neutropenia, and trastuzumab given as an 8 mg/kg loading dose on day 1 of cycle 1 followed by a 6 mg/kg maintenance dose on day 1 of subsequent cycles plus 10 mg everolimus daily and 2.5 mg letrozole daily every 21 days was declared as RP2D. Five patients with breast cancer (four with amplification and one with mutation) had partial responses. amplification in circulating cell-free DNA at baseline was associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival durations ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Everolimus, letrozole, and trastuzumab have a favorable safety profile and elicit encouraging signals of anticancer activity in patients with heavily pretreated hormone receptor- and HER2-positive advanced cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2878DOI Listing
March 2021
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