Publications by authors named "Vivek Pandey"

118 Publications

Naringenin alleviates hyperglycemia-induced renal toxicity by regulating activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein mediated apoptosis.

J Cell Commun Signal 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Herbal Research Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Vishvigyan Bhavan, 31, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226001, India.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study aimed to investigate the novel role of Naringenin (a flavanone mainly found in citrus fruits) in modulating ER stress in hyperglycemic NRK 52E cells and STZ/nicotinamide induced diabetes in Wistar rats. The results demonstrated that Naringenin supplementation downregulated the expression of ER stress marker proteins, including p-PERK, p-eIF2α, XBP1s, ATF4 and CHOP during hyperglycemic renal toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Naringenin abrogated hyperglycemia-induced ultrastructural changes in ER, evidencing its anti-ER stress effects. Interestingly, treatment of Naringenin prevented nuclear translocation of ATF4 and CHOP in hyperglycemic renal cells and diabetic kidneys. Naringenin prevented apoptosis in hyperglycemic renal cells and diabetic kidney tissues by downregulating expression of apoptotic marker proteins. Further, photomicrographs of TEM confirmed anti-apoptotic potential of Naringenin as it prevented membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies in hyperglycemic renal cells. Naringenin improved glucose tolerance, restored serum insulin level and reduced serum glucose level in diabetic rats evidencing its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Histopathological examination of kidney tissues also confirmed prevention of damage after 28 days of Naringenin treatment in diabetic rats. Additionally, Naringenin diminished oxidative stress and improved antioxidant defense response during hyperglycemic renal toxicity. Taken together, our study revealed a novel role of Naringenin in ameliorating ER stress during hyperglycemic renal toxicity along with prevention of apoptosis, cellular and tissue damage. The findings suggest that prevention of ER stress can be exploited as a novel approach for the management of hyperglycemic nephrotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12079-021-00644-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Pharmacophore based drug design and synthesis of oxindole bearing hybrid as anticancer agents.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Nov 16;116:105358. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SPER, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Dual TK inhibitors have shown significant clinical effects against many tumors, but with unmanageable side effects. Design approach and selectivity of these inhibitors plays substantial role in their potency and side-effects. Understanding the homology of binding sites in targeted receptors, and involvement of signaling proteins after the inhibition might help in producing less toxic but effective inhibitors. Herein, we designed benzylideneindolon-2-one derivatives based on homology modeling in binding sites of VEGFR-2 and EGFR receptors as dual- inhibitor potent anticancer compounds with high selectivity. The benzylideneindolon-2-one derivatives were found to possess conformational switch in form of oxindole, substituted at 2-benzimidazole. Within synthesized compounds, 5b was found most active in in-vitro enzyme inhibition assay against VEGFR-2 and EGFR with highest IC value of 6.81 ± 2.55 and 13.04 ± 4.07 nM, respectively. Interestingly, cytotoxicity studies revealed selective toxicity of compound 5b against proliferation of A-431 cell lines (over expressed VEGFR-2 and EGFR) with GI value of 0.9 ± 0.66 µM. However, the compounds showed mild to moderate activity in all other cancer cell line in the range of 0.2-100 μM. Further mode of action studies by flow cytometry and western blot on A-431 indicated that they work via apoptosis at S- phase following Bcl/Bax pathway, and cell migration via MMP9. 5b not only suppressed tumor growth but also improved vandetanib associated with weight loss toxicity. Moreover, 5b was found safer than sunitinib and erlotinib with LD of 500 mg/kg body weight. These results propose 5b as potential anti-tumor drug with safer profile of conventional inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and EGFR for solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105358DOI Listing
November 2021

Carbon dots from an immunomodulatory plant for cancer cell imaging, free radical scavenging and metal sensing applications.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 10 17;16(23):2039-2059. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Phytomedicine Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering & Technology, IIT (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 221005, India.

This work aimed to develop stem-derived carbon dots (TCSCD) for cancer cell imaging, free radical scavenging and metal sensing applications. The TCSCDs were synthesized by a simple, one-step, and ecofriendly hydrothermal carbonization method and characterized for their optical properties, morphology, hydrodynamic size, surface functionality, crystallinity, stability, bacterial biocompatibility, cellular imaging, free radical scavenging and metal sensing ability. The TCSCDs exhibited excellent biocompatibility with dose-dependent bioimaging results in melanoma (B16F10) and cervical cancer (SiHa) cell lines. They exerted good free radical scavenging, Fe sensing, bacterial biocompatibility, photostability, colloidal dispersion stability and thermal stability. The results reflect the potential of TCSCDs for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2021-0190DOI Listing
October 2021

Anstudy of topological and transport properties of YAuPb.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 10;33(47). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand-175075, India.

In the last few decades, the study of topological materials has been carried out on an extensive scale. Half-Heusler alloys are well known for their topological behaviours. In this work, we present a detailed study of topological properties of a ternary half-Heusler alloy, YAuPb, using the tight-binding approach. We have calculated some important topological properties which includes-finding nodes and their chiralities, Berry curvature () and the surface-states. Five pairs of characteristic nodes with equal and opposite chiralities are obtained. Based on the study of these properties, we categorise the material as non-trivial topological semimetal. Besides the topological behaviours, we present a comparative study of temperature dependent transport properties corresponding to the chemical potential () of the Fermi level and the node points. The temperature range chosen for the study is 50-300 K. The results obtained from the calculations of electrical conductivity per unit relaxation time (/) and the electronic part of thermal conductivity per unit relaxation time () indicates the conducting nature of the material to both the heat and electricity. At the Fermi level, the value of Seebeck coefficient () is found to be ∼-9.07(-35.95) V Kat 50(300) K. The negative value ofindicates the n-type behaviour of the compound. The calculated value of electronic specific heat (Pauli magnetic susceptibility) corresponding to Fermi level is ∼0.03(0.18) × 10 J mol K(∼1.21(1.14) × 10 m mol) at 50(300) K. This work suggests that YAuPb is a promising candidate of non-trivial topological semimetals which can be employed in transmission of heat and electricity, and as n-type material within the temperature range of 50-300 K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac216dDOI Listing
September 2021

Five Year Follow up of Retrospective Cohort Comparing Structural and Functional Outcome of Arthroscopic Single-row ersus Double-row Suture Bridge Repair of Large Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tear in Patients Less than or Equal to 70 Years.

Arch Bone Jt Surg 2021 Jul;9(4):391-398

Shoulder unit, Lairesse Kliniek, Valeriusplein, BG Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: High re-tear rates after repairing large-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears remain a significant concern which may affect the clinical outcome. The most optimal type of repair (single versus double-row suture bridge) suited for large size tear remains debatable.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study with a minimum of five years follow up, the structural and functional outcome of 103 patients with large size cuff tear repaired with single row (SR) or double row suture bridge (DRSB) were evaluated. The structural outcome was assessed with ultrasonography whereas functional outcome was evaluated with Constant Murley (CM) and American shoulder elbow score (ASES).

Results: There were 55 patients in the SR group and 48 patients in the DRSB group with a mean follow-up of 74.2 months (range, 60-96 months). While comparing the structural integrity in two groups, we found significantly lower re-tear rates in the DRSB group as compared to the SR group (10.4% vs. 32.7%; ). Also, there were more focal defects in the SR group (25.4%) than the DRSB group (8.3%). Overall, there was no significant difference in CM and ASES scores when the SR group was compared to DRSB. However, subgroup analysis between those with intact and retorn tendon revealed significant difference () in the clinical scores.

Conclusion: At a minimum of five years follow-up, the DRSB repair of large posterosuperior cuff tear resulted in superior structural healing over SR repair. Nevertheless, overall there was no significant functional difference between both the techniques. However, the functional outcome of the healed tendon subgroup was superior to retear tendon subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/abjs.2020.47883.2369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8359658PMC
July 2021

Evaluating impacts of biogenic silver nanoparticles and ethylenediurea on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) against ozone-induced damages.

Environ Res 2021 Aug 14;203:111857. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Plant Ecology and Climate Change Science, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226001, UP, India. Electronic address:

Tropospheric ozone (O) is a phytotoxic pollutant that leads to a reduction in crop yield. Nanotechnology offers promising solutions to stem such yield losses against abiotic stresses. Silver nanoparticles are major nanomaterials used in consumer products however, their impact on crops under abiotic stress is limited. In this study, we evaluated the anti-ozonant efficacy of biogenic silver nanoparticles (B-AgNPs) and compared them with a model anti-ozonant ethylenediurea (EDU) against ozone phyto-toxicity. Growth, physiology, antioxidant defense, and yield parameters in two wheat cultivars (HD-2967 & DBW-17), treated with B-AgNPs (25 mg/L and 50 mg/L) and EDU (150 mg/L and 300 mg/L), were studied at both vegetative and reproductive stages. During the experimental period, the average ambient ozone concentration and accumulated dose of ozone over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) (8 h day) were found to be 60 ppb and 6 ppm h, respectively, which were sufficient to cause ozone-induced phyto-toxicity in wheat. Growth and yield for B-AgNPs as well as EDU-treated plants were significantly higher in both the tested cultivars over control ones. However, 25 mg/L B-AgNPs treatment showed a more pronounced effect in terms of yield attributes and its lower accumulation in grains for both cultivars. DBW-17 cultivar responded better with B-AgNPs and EDU treatments as compared to HD-2967. Meanwhile, foliar exposure of B-AgNPs (dose; 25 mg/L) significantly enhanced grain weight plant, thousand-grain weight, and harvest index by 54.22 %, 29.46 %, and 14.21 %, respectively in DBW-17, when compared to control. B-AgNPs could enhance ozone tolerance in wheat by increasing biochemical and physiological responses. It is concluded that B-AgNPs at optimum concentrations were as effective as EDU, hence could be a promising ozone protectant for wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111857DOI Listing
August 2021

Detection and removal of poly and perfluoroalkyl polluting substances for sustainable environment.

J Environ Manage 2021 Nov 26;297:113336. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Chief Scientific Officer, BOSK Bioproducts, 399 Rue Jacquard, Suite 100, Quebec, Canada.

PFAs (poly and perfluoroalkyl compounds) are hazardous and bioaccumulative chemicals that do not readily biodegrade or neutralize under normal environmental conditions. They have various industrial, commercial, domestic and defence applications. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, there are around 4700 PFAs registered to date. They are present in every stream of life, and they are often emerging and are even difficult to be detected by the standard chemical methods. This review aims to focus on the sources of various PFAs and the toxicities they impose on the environment and especially on humankind. Drinking water, food packaging, industrial areas and commercial household products are the primary PFAs sources. Some of the well-known treatment methods for remediation of PFAs presented in the literature are activated carbon, filtration, reverse osmosis, nano filtration, oxidation processes etc. The crucial stage of handling the PFAs occurs in determining and analysing the type of PFA and its remedy. This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of determination & tools, and techniques for remediation of PFAs in the environment. Improving new treatment methodologies that are economical and sustainable are essential for excluding the PFAs from the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113336DOI Listing
November 2021

Intraepithelial Localizations of Opportunistic Pathogens, and , in Human Gingiva.

Curr Res Microb Sci 2020 Sep 15;1:7-17. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Oral Health Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, 29425, USA.

and are fastidious oral pathogens and etiological agents associated with chronic periodontitis. Although previous studies showed increased levels of the two obligate anaerobic species in periodontitis patients, methodologies for this knowledge were primarily limited to sampling subgingival plaque, saliva, or gingival crevicular fluid. To evaluate the extent to which and may invade the periodontal tissues, an cross-sectional study was comparatively conducted on the gingival biopsy specimens of patients diagnosed with periodontal health or chronic periodontitis. Immunostained tissue sections for each organism were imaged by Super-Resolution Confocal Scanning Microscopy to determine the relative presence and localization of target bacterial species. Fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) coupled with species specific 16S rRNA method was utilized to confirm whether detected bacteria were live within the tissue. In periodontitis, and revealed similarly concentrated localization near the basement membrane or external basal lamina of the gingival epithelium. The presence of both bacteria was significantly increased in periodontitis vs. healthy tissue. However, was still detected to an extent in health tissue, while only minimal levels of were spotted in health. Additionally, the micrographic analyses displayed heightened formation of epithelial microvasculature containing significantly co-localized and metabolically active dual species within periodontitis tissue. Thus, this study demonstrates, for the first-time, spatial arrangements of and in both single and co-localized forms within the complex fabric of human gingiva during health and disease. It also exhibits critical visualizations of co-invaded microvascularized epithelial layer of the tissue by metabolically active and from patients with severe periodontitis. These findings collectively uncover novel visual evidence of a potential starting point for systemic spread of opportunistic bacteria during their chronic colonization in gingival epithelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crmicr.2020.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294339PMC
September 2020

Chickpea glutaredoxin () gene mitigates drought and salinity stress by modulating the physiological performance and antioxidant defense mechanisms.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 May 6;27(5):923-944. Epub 2021 May 6.

Plant Transgenic Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are short, cysteine-rich glutathione (GSH)-mediated oxidoreductases. In this study, a chickpea ( L.) [ ()] gene has been selected based on screening experiments with two contrasting varieties of chickpea, PUSA-362 (drought-tolerant) and ICC-1882 (drought-sensitive) under drought and salinity. The tolerant variety showed higher gene expression, as compared to less in the sensitive variety, under both the stresses. The gene was then over-expressed in and were exposed to drought and salinity. The over-expression of elevated the activity of glutaredoxin, which induced antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase; GR, glutathione peroxidase; GPX, catalase; CAT, ascorbate peroxidase; APX, glutathione-S-transferase; GST, superoxide dismutase; SOD, monodehydroascorbate reductase; MDHAR, and dehydroascorbate reductase; DHAR), antioxidants (GSH and ascorbate) and stress-responsive amino acids (cysteine and proline). Enhancement in the antioxidant defense system possibly administered tolerance in transgenics against both stresses. reduced stress markers (HO, TBARS, and electrolyte leakage) and enhanced root growth, seed germination, and survival against both stresses. The physiological parameters (net photosynthesis; , water use efficiency; WUE, stomatal conductance; , transpiration; , electron transport rate; ETR, and photochemical quenching; P), chlorophylls and carotenoids, were improved in the transgenics during both stresses, that maintained the photosynthetic apparatus and protected the plants from damage. The enhanced activity of the cysteine biosynthesis enzyme, o-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL), increased the cysteine level in the transgenics, which elevated glutathione biosynthesis to maintain the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under both stresses. This investigation verified that the gene provides tolerance against salinity and drought, maintaining physiological and morphological performances, and could be exploited for genetic engineering approaches to overcome both the stresses in various crops.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-021-00999-z.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-021-00999-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140008PMC
May 2021

PHLPP1/Nrf2-Mdm2 axis induces renal apoptosis via influencing nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of FoxO1 during diabetic nephropathy.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Oct 31;476(10):3681-3699. Epub 2021 May 31.

Herbal Research Laboratory, Food, Drug & Chemical Toxicology Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Vishvigyan Bhawan 31, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Impaired PI3K/Akt signaling (insulin resistance) and poor glycemic control (hyperglycemia) are the major risk factors involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study was designed to identify factors influencing cell survival during DN. We found that high glucose exposure in renal proximal tubular cells (NRK52E) upregulated PHLPP1, an Akt phosphatase (Ser473), causing suppression in Akt and IGF1β phosphorylation leading to inhibition in insulin signaling pathway. Results demonstrate that sustained activation of PHLPP1 promoted nuclear retention of FoxO1 by preventing its ubiquitination via Mdm2, an Akt/ Nrf2-dependent E3 ligase. Thus, enhanced FoxO1 nuclear stability caused aberration in renal gluconeogenesis and activated apoptotic cascade. Conversely, gene silencing of PHLPP1-enhanced Nrf2 expression and attenuated FoxO1 regulated apoptosis compared to hyperglycemic cells. Mechanistic aspects of PHLPP1-Nrf2/FoxO1 signaling were further validated in STZ-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. Importantly, we observed via immunoblotting and dual immunocytochemical studies that treatment of Morin (2',3,4',5,7-Pentahydroxyflavone) during diabetes significantly augmented FoxO1 nuclear exclusion, resulting in its ubiquitination via Akt-Nrf2/Mdm2 pathway. Furthermore, lowering of PHLPP1 expression by Morin also prevented FoxO1/Mst1-mediated apoptotic signaling in vitro and in vivo. Morin treatment under the experimental conditions, effectively decreased blood glucose levels, ameliorated insulin resistance, alleviated oxidative stress and attenuated renal apoptosis in diabetic rats comparable to metformin thereby exhibiting tremendous potential against renal complications of diabetes. These novel results further acclaim that inhibition of PHLPP1/FoxO1-Mdm2 axis is critical in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04177-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Management Guidelines for Infection After ACL Reconstruction: Expert Opinion Statement Based on the Modified Delphi Survey of Indian Arthroscopy Surgeons.

Indian J Orthop 2021 Apr 1;55(2):342-351. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Orthopaedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, 110002 India.

Aim: Infection after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, though rare, is a potentially devastating complication and the evidence-based recommendation on the various topics in its management is limited. The purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for the prevention and management of infections in ACL reconstruction surgery by performing a structured expert consensus survey using Delphi methodology.

Materials And Methods: 22 topics of relevance in the prevention and management of infection following ACL reconstruction were chosen from an extensive literature review. 30 panelists were requested to respond to a three-round survey, with feedback, to develop a consensus statement on the topics.

Results: Consensus statements could be prepared in eleven out of twenty-two topics including: the graft is retained at the first arthroscopic debridement, the graft is removed when repeated debridement are needed, and revision ACL reconstruction is needed only if the patient develops instability. Concurrence could be obtained in the topics including: longer duration of antibiotics is needed in immunocompromised patients, soaking graft in antibiotic solution reduces infection risk, and knee swelling without warmth does not suggest infection.

Conclusions: A proper skin preparation, a longer course of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients, and soaking the graft in antibiotics reduces the risk of infection. In case of infection, a healthy-looking graft must be retained at the first debridement and if the graft must be removed, revision ACL reconstruction is advised only if the patient develops instability.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43465-021-00363-z.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-021-00363-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046894PMC
April 2021

Clinical Guidelines in the Management of Frozen Shoulder: An Update!

Indian J Orthop 2021 Apr 1;55(2):299-309. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Orthopaedics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Udupi, 576104 India.

Among all the prevalent painful conditions of the shoulder, frozen shoulder remains one of the most debated and ill-understood conditions. It is a condition often associated with diabetes and thyroid dysfunction, and which should always be investigated in patients with a primary stiff shoulder. Though the duration of 'traditional clinicopathological staging' of frozen shoulder is not constant and varies with the intervention(s), the classification certainly helps the clinician in planning the treatment of frozen shoulder at various stages. Most patients respond very well to combination of conservative treatment resulting in gradual resolution of symptoms in 12-18 months. However, the most effective treatment in isolation is uncertain. Currently, resistant cases that do not respond to conservative treatment for 6-9 months could be offered surgical treatment as either arthroscopic capsular release or manipulation under anaesthesia. Though both invasive options are not clinically superior to another, but manipulation could result in unwarranted complications like fractures of humerus or rotator cuff tear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-021-00351-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046676PMC
April 2021

Impact of chronic elevated ozone exposure on photosynthetic traits and anti-oxidative defense responses of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit tree under field conditions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 6;782:146907. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Plant Ecology and Climate Change Science Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226001, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India. Electronic address:

In this study, the impact of long term exposure of elevated ozone (+20 ppb above ambient) on photosynthetic traits and anti-oxidative defense system of Leucaena leucocephala, a tree of great economic importance, was studied in a Free Air Ozone Concentration Enrichment (O-FACE) facility at different time intervals (6, 12, 18, and 24 months). Results showed that net photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments and lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced after 6, 12 and 24 months of exposure to elevated ozone (eO) whereas stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were significantly decreased after 12 months of exposure to eO. Antioxidant enzymatic activities (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were significantly increased after 12 months of exposure to eO Ascorbate was increased significantly after 6 and 12 months of exposure to eO while reduced glutathione content declined significantly after 6 and 24 months of exposure to eO. The study showed that there were several negative long lasting physiological and biochemical responses in Leucaena. The results provide evidence that Leucaena exhibited greater sensitivity to O during initial exposure (up to 12 months) but showed moderate tolerance by the end of the 2nd year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146907DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes Following Arthroscopic Dual Tibial Tunnel Double Sutures Knot-bump Fixation Technique for Acute Displaced Posterior Cruciate Ligament Avulsion Fractures.

Arch Bone Jt Surg 2021 Jan;9(1):50-57

Department of Orthopaedics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India.

Background: Many fixation options (Open and arthroscopic) are described for Posterior Cruciate Ligament avulsion (PCL) fractures. In this retrospective series, we evaluated functional and radiographic outcomes following arthroscopic dual tunnel double sutures knot bump technique for acute PCL tibial end avulsion fractures.

Methods: 23 patients with acute PCL avulsion fractures who were operated between 2009 and 2016 by Arthroscopic dual tunnel double sutures technique at a minimum of two years of follow-up were included in the study. Clinical outcomes were measured by Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. The radiographic assessment included union status of fracture, the grade of osteoarthritis, and knee laxity.

Results: The mean age of patients was 34.43 years (range, 18-54 years) with a mean follow up of 52.8 months (36-94 months). At the final follow-up, mean subjective IKDC and Lysholm scores were 82.71 (range, 65.5-100) and 95.82 (range, 81-100), respectively. On the IKDC objective scale, ten patients (43.47%) were graded as A, 11 patients [47.82%] as grade B, and two patients as grade C [8.7%]. On kneeling stress view, knee laxity in 21 patients (91.3%) was graded 0, and the remaining two as grade I and II. The fracture had united in all cases by the end of 12 weeks except one which had non-union. 21 patients had no evidence of osteoarthritis at the final follow up.

Conclusion: Arthroscopic dual tibial tunnel double suture knot bump technique for acute PCL avulsion fractures is a safe and reliable technique that restores the stability and function of the knee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/abjs.2020.47089.2300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957110PMC
January 2021

Effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on apoplast and chloroplast proteome in two wheat varieties under high ambient ozone: an approach to investigate EDU's mode of action.

Protoplasma 2021 Sep 28;258(5):1009-1028. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Plant Ecology and Climate Change Science Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226 001, India.

Rising tropospheric ozone (O) is a serious threat to plants and animals in the present climate change scenario. High tropospheric O has the capability to disrupt cellular organelles leading to impaired photosynthesis and significant yield reduction. Apoplast and chloroplast are two important cellular components in a plant system. Their proteomic response with ethylenediurea (EDU) treatment under tropospheric O has not been explored till date. EDU (an organic compound) protects plants exclusively against harmful O effects through activation of antioxidant defense mechanism. The present study investigated the mode of action of EDU (hereafter MAE) by identifying proteins involved in apoplast and chloroplast pathways. Two wheat varieties viz. Kundan and PBW 343 (hereafter K and P respectively) and three EDU treatments (0= control, 200, and 300 ppm) have been used for the study. In apoplast isolates, proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), amino methyltransferase, catalase, and Germin-like protein have shown active role by maintaining antioxidant defense system under EDU treatment. Differential expression of these proteins leads to enhanced antioxidative defense mechanisms inside and outside the cell. Chloroplast proteins such as Rubisco, Ferredoxin NADP- reductase (FNR), fructose,1-6 bis phosphatase (FBPase), ATP synthase, vacuolar proton ATPase, and chaperonin have regulated their abundance to minimize ozone stress under EDU treatment. After analyzing apoplast and chloroplast protein abundance, we have drawn a schematic representation of the MAE working mechanism. The present study showed that plants can be capable of O tolerance, which could be improved by optimizing the apoplast ROS pool under EDU treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-021-01617-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Does application of abduction brace after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair improve blood flow around posterosuperior rotator cuff and repair site, affecting pain levels and clinical and structural outcomes? A pilot randomized controlled trial.

JSES Int 2020 Dec 9;4(4):848-859. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Shoulder Unit, Lairesse Kliniek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: As per some cadaveric studies, blood flow in posterosuperior rotator cuff tendons improves in the abducted shoulder position compared with the neutral position. In a clinical post-rotator cuff repair scenario, the impact of abduction on altered blood flow in and around the posterosuperior rotator cuff tendons is unknown in terms of clinical outcomes and structural healing.

Materials And Methods: This study included 42 eligible patients aged between 40 and 70 years with clinically diagnosed and radiologically confirmed rotator cuff tears undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patients were randomly allocated to undergo application of either an abduction brace (group 1) or an arm pouch (group 2). On postoperative day 1, power Doppler scanning was performed on the index shoulder in adduction and 30° of abduction in each patient; the allocated treatment (abduction brace or arm pouch) was then applied. Power Doppler scanning was repeated at 6 weeks in the immobilization position assigned to the patient (abduction or adduction). The vascular flow in 6 regions was noted as per the criteria of Fealy et al. A visual analog scale score was assessed preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 56 weeks postoperatively. Clinical assessment was performed with the Constant-Murley score at 1 year, and structural healing of the cuff was assessed using ultrasonography at 3 and 12 months.

Result: On the first postoperative day, blood flow was significantly higher in all 6 areas of the shoulder in group 1 than in group 2. The mean total vascular score was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 on postoperative day 1 ( = .0001) and remained so at 6 weeks ( = .0001). However, significantly higher vascular flow was noted only in the peribursal region at 6 weeks in group 1 ( = .04). No significant difference in the visual analog scale score was noted between the 2 groups at any given point of follow-up. Furthermore, no clinical and structural healing differences were noted between the 2 groups at final follow-up.

Conclusion: Higher blood flow in and around the posterosuperior rotator cuff owing to an abducted shoulder position with an abduction brace in the first 6 weeks postoperatively fails to offer any advantage in terms of lower pain levels, better clinical scores, or superior cuff healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.07.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738580PMC
December 2020

VEGFA Promoter Polymorphisms rs699947 and rs35569394 Are Associated With the Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures Among Indian Athletes: A Cross-sectional Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Dec 9;8(12):2325967120964472. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Centre for Genomics, Molecular & Human Genetics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India.

Background: Associations of genetic variants within certain fibril-forming genes have previously been observed with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Evidence suggests a significant role of angiogenesis-associated cytokines in remodeling the ligament fibril matrix after mechanical loading and maintaining structural and functional integrity of the ligament. Functional polymorphisms within the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) gene have emerged as plausible candidates owing to their role in the regulation of angiogenic responses.

Hypothesis: VEGFA promoter polymorphisms rs699947 and rs35569394 are associated with ACL injury risk among athletes.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: A total of 90 Indian athletes with radiologically confirmed or surgically proven isolated ACL tears and 76 matched-control athletes were selected for the present cross-sectional genetic association study. Oral mouthwash samples were collected from all the case and control athletes and genotyped for VEGFA rs699947 and rs35569394 using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method.

Results: The A allele (rs699947) was significantly overrepresented in the ACL group (C vs A allele: odds ratio [OR], 1.68 [95% CI, 1.08-2.60]; = .021) (CC vs CA + AA: OR, 2.69 [95% CI, 1.37-5.26]; = .004). There was a greater frequency of the AA genotype in the ACL group in comparison with the control group (OR, 3.38 [95% CI, 1.23-9.28]; = .016) when only male athletes were compared. Likewise, there was a greater frequency of the I allele (rs35569394) in the ACL group (D vs I allele: OR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.06-2.55]; = .025) (DD vs ID + II: OR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.31-5.21]; = .006). The A-I haplotype was overrepresented in the ACL group compared with the control group (OR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.08-2.60]; χ = 5.320; = .021), and both the polymorphisms were found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium ( = 0.929; logarithm of the odds score = 63.74; D' = 1.0). Female athletes did not show any difference in genotype or allele frequency.

Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the association of VEGFA promoter polymorphisms in ACL tears among Indian athletes. Increased frequencies of the A allele (rs699947) and I allele (rs35569394) were observed in the ACL group. These results suggest that sequence variants in the VEGF gene are associated with ACL injury risk among athletes. Further research with long-term follow-ups measuring VEGF expression levels during recovery is warranted to establish its role in ACL injuries and healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120964472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731703PMC
December 2020

Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on air quality in Chandigarh, India: Understanding the emission sources during controlled anthropogenic activities.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 18;263:127978. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, 160012, India. Electronic address:

The variation in ambient air quality during COVID-19 lockdown was studied in Chandigarh, located in the Indo-Gangetic plain of India. Total 14 air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM, PM), trace gases (NO, NO, NO, SO, O, NH, CO) and VOC's (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m,p-xylene, ethylbenzene) were examined along with meteorological parameters. The study duration was divided into four parts, i.e., a) 21 days of before lockdown b) 21 days of the first phase of lockdown c) 19 days of the second phase of lockdown d) 14 days of the third phase of lockdown. The results showed significant reductions during the first and second phases for all pollutants. However, concentrations increased during the third phase. The concentrations of SO, O and m,p-xylene kept on increasing throughout the study period, except for benzene, which continuously decreased. The percentage decrease in the concentrations during consecutive periods of lockdown were 28.8%, 23.4% and 1.1% for PM and 36.8%, 22.8% and 2.4% for PM respectively. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and characteristic ratios identified vehicular pollution as a primary source during different phases of lockdown. During the lockdown, residential sources showed a significant adverse impact on the air quality of the city. Regional atmospheric transfer of pollutants from coal-burning and stubble burning were identified as secondary sources of air pollution. The findings of the study offer the potential to plan air pollution reduction strategies in the extreme pollution episodes such as during crop residue burning period over Indo-Gangetic plain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434328PMC
January 2021

Deoxyelephantopin, a novel naturally occurring phytochemical impairs growth, induces G2/M arrest, ROS-mediated apoptosis and modulates lncRNA expression against uterine leiomyoma.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Nov 20;131:110751. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Centre for Genetic Disorders, Institute of Science, Varanasi, 221005, India. Electronic address:

Deoxyelephantopin (DOE), a phytochemical, extracted and purified from Elephantopus scaber, has been shown to exhibit antitumor activities. Objective of the present study was to investigate anti-tumor and apoptosis-inducing properties of DOE against uterine leiomyoma (UL) and to explore their molecular mechanisms. Primary cell cultures from fresh UL tissue were established and maintained up to 12 passages. The cells exhibited continuous proliferation with 24 -h doubling time until 12 passages and was then subjected to molecular characterization. The growth inhibitory effect of DOE on UL cells was confirmed by colony formation, cellular senescence, AO/PI and DAPI staining. Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) assay for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest analysis revealed that DOE significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the UL cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis via ROS production by lowering mitochondrial membrane potential. Subsequently, the DOE induced ROS was markedly attenuated by co-treatment of N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC). Our quantitative RT-PCR and western blot results showed up-regulation of Bax, Caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl, P, αSMA, COL4A2, VEGF, PCNA, Cyclin B1 and oncogenic lncRNAs (H19, HOTAIR, BANCR and ROR) in DOE treated UL cells which further strengthen our findings. In conclusion, DOE inhibits growth of UL cells via cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, induces ROS-dependent caspase-3-mediated mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway and down-regulation of oncogenic lncRNA in UL cells. Our findings suggest that DOE deserves for further systematic investigation in the uterine leiomyoma animal model as a novel apoptosis inducer for potential applications in the prevention or treatment of uterine leiomyoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110751DOI Listing
November 2020

Nano-fibrous scaffold with curcumin for anti-scar wound healing.

Int J Pharm 2020 Nov 7;589:119858. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India.

Open deep cuts and wounds often take a long time to heal and may cause infection and scar formation. A simple biomimetic electrospun nano-fibrous antimicrobial dressing material loaded with dual anti-oxidants has been developed to address this problem. A composite nano-fibrous material (PVP-Ce-Cur NF) comprising polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO)·6HO) and curcumin was developed using the electrospinning technique. The surface characteristics of nanofibers were examined using standard analytical techniques. The antimicrobial activity was tested against Escherichia coli (gram -ve) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram +ve) bacterial species. The MTT assay using 3T6-Swiss albino fibroblast indicated that the nano-fibrous dressing material was hemocompatible and devoid of cytotoxicity. Direct application of the PVP-Ce-Cur NF dressing material on full-thickness circular excision wound in model wistar rats displayed complete healing and re-epithelialisation without any scar within 20 days. A well-regulated level of hydroxyproline, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in granulation tissues indicated PVP-Ce-Cur NF as a potential wound dressing material with the anti-scar property.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119858DOI Listing
November 2020

COLIA1 + 1245 G > T Sp1 Binding Site Polymorphism is Not Associated with ACL Injury Risks Among Indian Athletes.

Indian J Orthop 2020 Sep 28;54(5):647-654. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Centre for Genomics, Molecular and Human Genetics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011 India.

Objective: Type I collagen polypeptides contribute significantly to the structural composition of ligament tissue matrix. Since anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears account for roughly 50% of all knee injuries in sports, the objective of the study was to investigate association of Sp1-transcription factor binding site polymorphism COLIA1 Sp1 + 1245 G > T with ACL injury risk among Indian athletes.

Methods: A total of 166 athletes (90 with ACL tears and 76 as control) were recruited and were genotyped for COLIA1 Sp1 + 1245 G > T polymorphism using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) method.

Result: Both the groups were matched for nature of sports, training regimen, and other demographic characteristics. We observed no significant difference between ACL cases and control group in GT or TT genotype frequency distribution ( = 0.967) and T-allele frequency distribution ( = 0.861) for COLIA1 Sp1 + 1245 G > T polymorphism. Also, the three models of inheritance of minor allele failed to show any statistical significance in the present study.

Conclusion: COLIA1 Sp1 + 1245 G > T polymorphism has been studied in relation to many connective tissue pathologies. This is probably the first study to investigate the association of collagen protein genes with ACL injury risk on Indian athletes. Further studies with more SNPs in genes encoding fibril-forming collagen and large sample sizes are necessary to fully understand the genetic link to ACL injuries among athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-020-00119-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429625PMC
September 2020

Effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on regulatory proteins in two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties under high tropospheric ozone phytotoxicity.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Sep 18;154:675-688. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Plant Ecology and Climate Change Science Div., CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226 001, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201 002, India. Electronic address:

Rising tropospheric ozone is a major threat to the crops in the present climate change scenario. To investigate the EDU induced changes in proteins, two varieties of maize, the SHM3031 and the PEHM5, (hereafter S and P respectively) were treated with three EDU applications (0= control, 50 and 200 ppm) (hereafter 0= A, 1 and 2 respectively) (SA, S1, S2, PA, P1, P2 cultivar X treatments). Data on the morpho-physiology, enzymatic activity, and protein expression (for the first time) were collected at the vegetative (V, 45 DAG) and flowering (F, 75 DAG) developmental stages. The tropospheric ozone was around 53 ppb enough to cause phytotoxic effects. Protective effects of EDU were recorded in morpho-physiologically and biochemically. SOD, CAT and APX together with GR performed better under EDU protection in SHM3031 variety than PEHM5. The protein expression patterns in SHM3031 at the vegetative stage (28% proteins were increased, 7% were decreased), and at the flowering stage (17% increased, 8% decreased) were found. In PEHM5, a 14% increase and an 18% decrease (vegetative stage) whereas a 16% increase and a 20% decrease (flowering stage) were recorded in protein expression. Some protein functional categories, for instance, photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, energy metabolism, and defense were influenced by EDU. Rubisco expression was increased in SHM3031 whereas differentially expressed in PEHM5. Germin like protein, APX, SOD, and harpin binding proteins have enhanced defense regulatory mechanisms under EDU treatment during prevailing high tropospheric O. The present study showed EDU protective roles in C4 plants as proven in C3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.05.037DOI Listing
September 2020

Novel 3,4-diarylpyrazole as prospective anti-cancerous agents.

Heliyon 2020 Jul 14;6(7):e04397. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Centre for Genetic Disorder, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P., India.

Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. Despite therapeutic advancements the mortality rate of cancer is continuously increasing. Thus, it is important to identify and design potential therapeutic agents which can specifically bind with most common targets of cancer and inhibit tumor progression. The present work discloses the potential therapeutic application of the novel 3,4-diaryl 1-pyrazoles as prospective anti-cancerous agent. The molecular docking studies performed with 3,4-disubstituted pyrazoles as ligand with targets including DNA, BCL-2 and F1-ATP Synthase revealed strong binding affinity with DNA (-7.5 kcal/mol), BCL-2 (-8.1 kcal/mol) and F1-ATP Synthase (-7.2 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the finding was validated with the cytotoxicity assay with human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). MDA-MB-231 cells treated with 3,4-diarylpyrazole resulted in an increase in annexin-V positive cells, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. Taken together, this study demonstrate that a novel synthesized 3,4-diarylpyrazoles, showed strong binding affinity against DNA, anti-proliferative activity and executed apoptosis through ROS-dependent caspase-3-mediated mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway against MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism (s) by which 3,4-diarylpyrazoles can exert their anticancer activity and may contribute towards development of novel therapeutic agent against breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364028PMC
July 2020

Growth, physiological and proteomic responses in field grown wheat varieties exposed to elevated CO under high ambient ozone.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2020 Jul 6;26(7):1437-1461. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Plant Ecology and Climate Change Science Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, 226001 India.

The present study investigated growth, biochemical, physiological, yield and proteomic changes in 3 wheat varieties exposed to elevated CO (515 ppm) in a background of high ambient ozone in field. Ethylenediurea (EDU) was used as antiozonant. Average ozone concentration was 59 ppb and was sufficient enough to exert phytotoxic effects. Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO) and EDU application individually or in combination negated the adverse effects of ozone by modulating antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes. Differential leaf proteomics revealed that at vegetative stage major changes in protein abundance were due to EDU treatment (47, 52 and 41 proteins in PBW-343, LOK1 and HD-2967, respectively). Combined treatment of eCO and EDU was more responsible for changes in 37 proteins during flowering stage of PBW-343 and LOK1. Functional categorization revealed more than 60% differentially abundant protein collectively belonging to carbon metabolism, protein synthesis assembly and degradation and photosynthesis. At both the growth stages, LOK1 was more responsive to eCO and combined treatment (eCO + EDU). HD-2967 was more positively responsive to EDU and combined treatment. eCO in combination of EDU protected these varieties against high ambient O.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-020-00828-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326879PMC
July 2020

Air pollution trend in Chandigarh city situated in Indo-Gangetic Plains: Understanding seasonality and impact of mitigation strategies.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 17;729:138717. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India.

The long-term trend of air pollutants was studied in Chandigarh, located in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. The SPM, PM, NO and SO depict site-specific variation having different anthropogenic activities. The results indicate that PM levels in Chandigarh remain higher than the prescribed annual ambient air quality standards (60 μg m) of India. Seasonal Kendall test indicates a declining trend of PM for the year 2003 to 2018 at an industrial and commercial site (1996-2016). There is a significant increase in NOx levels at all locations except at commercial sites. The results of the linear regression model and Theil-Sen slope show that SPM is declining at all locations, but results are not statistically significant. Interestingly, PM levels at the industrial site display a significant declining trend (1.3% year). Similarly, NOx levels are increasing at all sites but having a statistically significant trend at a rural location (8.9% year) and residential site (15.2% year). Air pollutants show strong seasonal variability having a higher concentration in post-monsoon and winter season, which found to be linked with regional anthropogenic activities such as crop residue burning and use of solid biomass fuel for cooking and other purposes. Lowest PM levels were observed during the monsoon and having a decline of 47.4-66.4% as compared to winter levels. Site-specific variations in air pollutants were found to be associated with air quality improvement policies such as shifting of an interstate bus terminal, ban on diesel autos, including strict implementation of air quality norms on industries. As the relative contribution of various pollution sources is still unknown, the seasonal pattern of pollutants will help in knowing the background concentration of pollutants and could help to formulate evidence-based policies to mitigate air pollution under National Clean Air Programme (NCAP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138717DOI Listing
August 2020

Overexpression of rice glutaredoxin genes LOC_Os02g40500 and LOC_Os01g27140 regulate plant responses to drought stress.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Sep 25;200:110721. Epub 2020 May 25.

CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, 226001, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, 201002, India. Electronic address:

Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small (10-15 kDa) glutathione (GSH) - dependent redox proteins. The role of Grxs are well documented in tolerance to heavy metal stress in prokaryotic and mammalian systems and a few plant genera, but is poorly understood in plants against drought. In the present study, two rice glutaredoxin (Osgrx) genes (LOC_Os02g40500 and LOC_Os01g27140) responsible for tolerance against heavy metal stress have been studied for investigating their role against drought. Each glutaredoxin gene was over-expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to reveal their role in drought stress. The relative expression of both Osgrx genes was higher in the transgenic lines. Transgenic lines of both Osgrxs showed longer roots, higher seed germination, and survival efficiency during drought stress. The physiological parameters (P, g, E, WUE, qP, NPQ and ETR), antioxidant enzymes (GRX, GR, GPX, GST, APX, POD, SOD, CAT, DHAR, and MDHAR), antioxidant molecules (ascorbate and GSH) and stress-responsive amino acids (cysteine and proline) levels were additionally increased in transgenic lines of both Osgrxs to provide drought tolerance. The outcomes from this study strongly determined that each Osgrx gene participated in the moderation of drought and might be utilized in biological engineering strategies to overcome drought conditions in different crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110721DOI Listing
September 2020

Antimicrobial biodegradable chitosan-based composite Nano-layers for food packaging.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Aug 24;157:212-219. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India.

Stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of size 80 ± 11 nm produced by chitosan (CH) mediated green synthesis were blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form electrospun fibrous composite nano-layers (FCNLs). The chitosan acted as the stabilising as well as an antimicrobial agent in combination with the AgNPs which were characterised using UV-visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallinity and chemical nature of the electrospun composite was characterised by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively, and its hydrophobicity was characterised by measuring the water contact angle. The electrospun composite showed effective antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (gram +ve) and Escherichia coli (gram -ve) bacterial species. The electrospun composite, when tested as packaging material for meat, showed bio-activity and extended the meat shelf-life by one week. The electrospun nanocomposite is able to inhibit microbial degradation of packaged food and extend its keeping quality in an eco-friendly manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.04.149DOI Listing
August 2020

Proteomic changes may lead to yield alteration in maize under carbon dioxide enriched condition.

3 Biotech 2020 May 15;10(5):203. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

1Plant Ecology and Climate Change Science Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

In the present study, the effect of elevated CO on growth, physiology, yield and proteome was studied on two maize ( L.) varieties grown under Free-air CO enrichment. Growth in high CO (530 ppm) did not affect either photosynthesis or pigment contents in both varieties. Reduced MDA content, antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes levels were observed in both varieties in response to high CO. PEHM-5 accumulated more biomass than SMH-3031 under eCO. PEHM-5 also had more seed starch and total soluble sugar than SMH-3031. However, SMH-3031 had increased number of seed per cob than PEHM-5. Interestingly, thousand seed weight was significantly increased in PEHM-5 only, while it was decreased in SMH-3031 under eCO. We observed increased seed size in PEHM-5, while the size of the SMH-3031 seeds remained unaltered. Leaf proteomics revealed more abundance of proteins related to Calvin cycle, protein synthesis assembly and degradation, defense and redox homeostasis in PEHM-5 that contributed to better growth and yield in elevated CO. While in SMH-3031 leaf, proteins related to Calvin cycle, defense and redox homeostasis were less abundant in elevated CO resulting in average growth and yield. The results showed a differential response of two maize varieties to eCO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02189-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160224PMC
May 2020

Effect of rhizospheric inoculation of isolated arsenic (As) tolerant strains on growth, As-uptake and bacterial communities in association with Adiantum capillus-veneris.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jun 2;196:110498. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Plant Ecology and Climate Change Science, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226001, UP, India. Electronic address:

Two arsenic (As) hyper-tolerant bacterial strains NM01 Paracoccus versutus and NM04 Aeromonas caviae were isolated from As polluted site of West Bengal, India. The strains not only possess the potential to tolerate up to 20,000 mgl As(V) and 10,000 mgl As(III) but also possess plant growth promoting (PGP) traits like phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, IAA production. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the effect of rhizospheric inoculation of both the strains individually and in consortia in As accumulation by Adiantum capillus-veneries. It was observed that the microbial inoculation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the synthesis of thiolic compounds and thus, enhanced As accumulation with translocation factor (TF) > 1. The strains regulated endogenous phytohormone up to 90% and 77.9% increase in auxin of consortia inoculated root and shoot, respectively. Interestingly, inoculation of the isolated strains augmented rhizospheric microbial diversity which was negatively affected by heavy metal. The results of high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing technique to observe the composition of the bacterial community revealed 11,536 unique bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from As + S (non-inoculated), whereas 11,884 from Consortia As + S (inoculated) rhizospheric soil samples. Inoculated soil displayed higher bacterial diversity indices (ACE and Chao 1) with the dominant bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Our results highlight the innate PGP abilities of the strains and its potential to facilitate phytoextraction by enhancing As accumulation in the shoot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110498DOI Listing
June 2020

Revealing the complexity of protein abundance in chickpea root under drought-stress using a comparative proteomics approach.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Jun 6;151:88-102. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Microbial Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI), Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226001, India. Electronic address:

Global warming has reached an alarming situation, which led to a dangerous climatic condition. The irregular rainfalls and land degradation are the significant consequences of these climatic changes causing a decrease in crop productivity. The effect of drought and its tolerance mechanism, a comparative roots proteomic analysis of chickpea seedlings grown under hydroponic conditions for three weeks, performed at different time points using 2-Dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After PD-Quest analysis, 110 differentially expressed spots subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF and 75 spots identified with a significant score. These identified proteins classified into eight categories based on their functional annotation. Proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism comprised 23% of total identified proteins include mainly glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, transaldolase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Proteins related to stress response (heat-shock protein, CS domain protein, and chitinase 2-like) contributed 16% of total protein spots followed by 13% involved in protein metabolism (adenosine kinase 2, and protein disulfide isomerase). ROS metabolism contributed 13% (glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, and thioredoxin), and 9% for signal transduction (actin-101, and 14-3-3-like protein B). Five percent protein identified for secondary metabolism (cinnamoyl-CoA reductase-1 and chalcone-flavononeisomerase 2) and 7% for nitrogen (N) and amino acid metabolism (glutamine synthetase and homocysteine methyltransferase). The abundance of some proteins validated by using Western blotting and Real-Time-PCR. The detailed information for drought-responsive root protein(s) through comparative proteomics analysis can be utilized in the future for genetic improvement programs to develop drought-tolerant chickpea lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.03.005DOI Listing
June 2020
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