Publications by authors named "Vishal Ratanpaul"

2 Publications

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Interplay between grain digestion and fibre in relation to gastro-small-intestinal passage rate and feed intake in pigs.

Eur J Nutr 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Purpose: The combined effects of grain digestibility and dietary fibre on digesta passage rate and satiety in humans are poorly understood. Satiety can be increased through gastric distention, reduced gastric emptying rate and when partially digested nutrients reach the terminal ileum to stimulate peptide release through the ileal/colonic brakes to slow the rate of digesta passage. This study determined the effects of grain digestibility and insoluble fibre on mean retention time (MRT) of digesta from mouth-to-ileum, feed intake (FI), starch digestion to the terminal ileum and faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in a pig model.

Method: Twelve grain-based [milled sorghum (MS), steam-flaked-sorghum, milled wheat, and steam-flaked-wheat (SFW)] diets with different intrinsic rates of starch digestion, assessed by apparent amylase diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fibre from oat hulls (OH) at 0, 5 and 20% of the diet were fed to ileal-cannulated pigs.

Result: MRT was affected by grain-type/processing (P < 0.05) and fibre amount (P < 0.05). An approximate tenfold increase in ADC showed a limited decline in MRT (P = 0.18). OH at 20% increased MRT (P < 0.05) and reduced FI (P < 0.05). Ileal digestibility of starch increased and faecal SCFA concentration decreased with ADC; values for MS being lower (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.05), respectively, than for SFW.

Conclusions: Lower ileal digestibility of starch, higher faecal SCFA concentration and longer MRT of MS than SFW, suggest the ileal/colonic brakes may be operating. FI appeared to decrease with increasing MRT. MRT increased and intake decreased with grain-based foods/feeds that have low starch digestibility and substantial amounts of insoluble fibre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02567-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Wheat bran and oat hulls have dose-dependent effects on ad-libitum feed intake in pigs related to digesta hydration and colonic fermentation.

Food Funct 2019 Dec;10(12):8298-8308

Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Undigested nutrients and fermentable fibre in the distal ileum and colon stimulate intestinal brakes, which reduce gastric-emptying and digesta-passage-rate, and subsequently limit feed/food-intake. Fibre can also stimulate passage rate potentially increasing feed intake (FI). In order to experimentally determine the relationships between these two hypothesised actions of fibre, five levels of wheat-bran (WB) or oat-hulls (OH) were added to a highly digestible starch-based diet fed to pigs ad-libitum for three weeks. Average-daily-feed-intake (ADFI), faecal short-chain-fatty-acids (SCFA) and related parameters were determined at 7, 14 and 21d. A linear mixed model was fitted to FI and fermentation parameters. Overall, WB diets showed 8-11% lower ADFI (7-14d: p < 0.05; 7-21 & 0-21d: p = 0.053) than OH diets. WB diets produced over 20% more (21d: p < 0.01) SCFA than OH or Control diets. WB at 25% produced 22% more (7d: p < 0.05) SCFA than any other diet. Diets with WB at 25 and 35%, showed higher hydration capacity than any other diet (p < 0.001). OH at 10% had an unusually low FI and a markedly higher hydration capacity. With increasing levels of OH, intake of base diet was 7% more than control at 5% OH, but 8% less than control at 20% OH. With increasing WB content, intake of base diet decreased. From these results, we propose that three mechanisms control the effects of fibre on FI: initial increase in passage rate and feed intake at low concentrations of non-swelling fibres; a depression in FI from high fibre bulk; and reduced feed intake from stimulation of ileal and colonic brakes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo02496kDOI Listing
December 2019
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