Publications by authors named "Virpi Leppä"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Study protocol of comprehensive risk evaluation for anorexia nervosa in twins (CREAT): a study of discordant monozygotic twins with anorexia nervosa.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 10 14;20(1):507. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutetet, Nobels väg 12A, 17165, Stockholm, Solna, Sweden.

Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe disorder, for which genetic evidence suggests psychiatric as well as metabolic origins. AN has high somatic and psychiatric comorbidities, broad impact on quality of life, and elevated mortality. Risk factor studies of AN have focused on differences between acutely ill and recovered individuals. Such comparisons often yield ambiguous conclusions, as alterations could reflect different effects depending on the comparison. Whereas differences found in acutely ill patients could reflect state effects that are due to acute starvation or acute disease-specific factors, they could also reflect underlying traits. Observations in recovered individuals could reflect either an underlying trait or a "scar" due to lasting effects of sustained undernutrition and illness. The co-twin control design (i.e., monozygotic [MZ] twins who are discordant for AN and MZ concordant control twin pairs) affords at least partial disambiguation of these effects.

Methods: Comprehensive Risk Evaluation for Anorexia nervosa in Twins (CREAT) will be the largest and most comprehensive investigation of twins who are discordant for AN to date. CREAT utilizes a co-twin control design that includes endocrinological, neurocognitive, neuroimaging, genomic, and multi-omic approaches coupled with an experimental component that explores the impact of an overnight fast on most measured parameters.

Discussion: The multimodal longitudinal twin assessment of the CREAT study will help to disambiguate state, trait, and "scar" effects, and thereby enable a deeper understanding of the contribution of genetics, epigenetics, cognitive functions, brain structure and function, metabolism, endocrinology, microbiology, and immunology to the etiology and maintenance of AN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02903-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557028PMC
October 2020

Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies.

Authors:
Melissa A Munn-Chernoff Emma C Johnson Yi-Ling Chou Jonathan R I Coleman Laura M Thornton Raymond K Walters Zeynep Yilmaz Jessica H Baker Christopher Hübel Scott Gordon Sarah E Medland Hunna J Watson Héléna A Gaspar Julien Bryois Anke Hinney Virpi M Leppä Manuel Mattheisen Stephan Ripke Shuyang Yao Paola Giusti-Rodríguez Ken B Hanscombe Roger A H Adan Lars Alfredsson Tetsuya Ando Ole A Andreassen Wade H Berrettini Ilka Boehm Claudette Boni Vesna Boraska Perica Katharina Buehren Roland Burghardt Matteo Cassina Sven Cichon Maurizio Clementi Roger D Cone Philippe Courtet Scott Crow James J Crowley Unna N Danner Oliver S P Davis Martina de Zwaan George Dedoussis Daniela Degortes Janiece E DeSocio Danielle M Dick Dimitris Dikeos Christian Dina Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz Elisa Docampo Laramie E Duncan Karin Egberts Stefan Ehrlich Geòrgia Escaramís Tõnu Esko Xavier Estivill Anne Farmer Angela Favaro Fernando Fernández-Aranda Manfred M Fichter Krista Fischer Manuel Föcker Lenka Foretova Andreas J Forstner Monica Forzan Christopher S Franklin Steven Gallinger Ina Giegling Johanna Giuranna Fragiskos Gonidakis Philip Gorwood Monica Gratacos Mayora Sébastien Guillaume Yiran Guo Hakon Hakonarson Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas Joanna Hauser Johannes Hebebrand Sietske G Helder Stefan Herms Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann Wolfgang Herzog Laura M Huckins James I Hudson Hartmut Imgart Hidetoshi Inoko Vladimir Janout Susana Jiménez-Murcia Antonio Julià Gursharan Kalsi Deborah Kaminská Leila Karhunen Andreas Karwautz Martien J H Kas James L Kennedy Anna Keski-Rahkonen Kirsty Kiezebrink Youl-Ri Kim Kelly L Klump Gun Peggy S Knudsen Maria C La Via Stephanie Le Hellard Robert D Levitan Dong Li Lisa Lilenfeld Bochao Danae Lin Jolanta Lissowska Jurjen Luykx Pierre J Magistretti Mario Maj Katrin Mannik Sara Marsal Christian R Marshall Morten Mattingsdal Sara McDevitt Peter McGuffin Andres Metspalu Ingrid Meulenbelt Nadia Micali Karen Mitchell Alessio Maria Monteleone Palmiero Monteleone Benedetta Nacmias Marie Navratilova Ioanna Ntalla Julie K O'Toole Roel A Ophoff Leonid Padyukov Aarno Palotie Jacques Pantel Hana Papezova Dalila Pinto Raquel Rabionet Anu Raevuori Nicolas Ramoz Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud Valdo Ricca Samuli Ripatti Franziska Ritschel Marion Roberts Alessandro Rotondo Dan Rujescu Filip Rybakowski Paolo Santonastaso André Scherag Stephen W Scherer Ulrike Schmidt Nicholas J Schork Alexandra Schosser Jochen Seitz Lenka Slachtova P Eline Slagboom Margarita C T Slof-Op't Landt Agnieszka Slopien Sandro Sorbi Beata Świątkowska Jin P Szatkiewicz Ioanna Tachmazidou Elena Tenconi Alfonso Tortorella Federica Tozzi Janet Treasure Artemis Tsitsika Marta Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor Konstantinos Tziouvas Annemarie A van Elburg Eric F van Furth Gudrun Wagner Esther Walton Elisabeth Widen Eleftheria Zeggini Stephanie Zerwas Stephan Zipfel Andrew W Bergen Joseph M Boden Harry Brandt Steven Crawford Katherine A Halmi L John Horwood Craig Johnson Allan S Kaplan Walter H Kaye James Mitchell Catherine M Olsen John F Pearson Nancy L Pedersen Michael Strober Thomas Werge David C Whiteman D Blake Woodside Jakob Grove Anjali K Henders Janne T Larsen Richard Parker Liselotte V Petersen Jennifer Jordan Martin A Kennedy Andreas Birgegård Paul Lichtenstein Claes Norring Mikael Landén Preben Bo Mortensen Renato Polimanti Jeanette N McClintick Amy E Adkins Fazil Aliev Silviu-Alin Bacanu Anthony Batzler Sarah Bertelsen Joanna M Biernacka Tim B Bigdeli Li-Shiun Chen Toni-Kim Clarke Franziska Degenhardt Anna R Docherty Alexis C Edwards Jerome C Foo Louis Fox Josef Frank Laura M Hack Annette M Hartmann Sarah M Hartz Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach Colin Hodgkinson Per Hoffmann Jouke-Jan Hottenga Bettina Konte Jari Lahti Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen Dongbing Lai Lannie Ligthart Anu Loukola Brion S Maher Hamdi Mbarek Andrew M McIntosh Matthew B McQueen Jacquelyn L Meyers Yuri Milaneschi Teemu Palviainen Roseann E Peterson Euijung Ryu Nancy L Saccone Jessica E Salvatore Sandra Sanchez-Roige Melanie Schwandt Richard Sherva Fabian Streit Jana Strohmaier Nathaniel Thomas Jen-Chyong Wang Bradley T Webb Robbee Wedow Leah Wetherill Amanda G Wills Hang Zhou Jason D Boardman Danfeng Chen Doo-Sup Choi William E Copeland Robert C Culverhouse Norbert Dahmen Louisa Degenhardt Benjamin W Domingue Mark A Frye Wolfgang Gäebel Caroline Hayward Marcus Ising Margaret Keyes Falk Kiefer Gabriele Koller John Kramer Samuel Kuperman Susanne Lucae Michael T Lynskey Wolfgang Maier Karl Mann Satu Männistö Bertram Müller-Myhsok Alison D Murray John I Nurnberger Ulrich Preuss Katri Räikkönen Maureen D Reynolds Monika Ridinger Norbert Scherbaum Marc A Schuckit Michael Soyka Jens Treutlein Stephanie H Witt Norbert Wodarz Peter Zill Daniel E Adkins Dorret I Boomsma Laura J Bierut Sandra A Brown Kathleen K Bucholz E Jane Costello Harriet de Wit Nancy Diazgranados Johan G Eriksson Lindsay A Farrer Tatiana M Foroud Nathan A Gillespie Alison M Goate David Goldman Richard A Grucza Dana B Hancock Kathleen Mullan Harris Victor Hesselbrock John K Hewitt Christian J Hopfer William G Iacono Eric O Johnson Victor M Karpyak Kenneth S Kendler Henry R Kranzler Kenneth Krauter Penelope A Lind Matt McGue James MacKillop Pamela A F Madden Hermine H Maes Patrik K E Magnusson Elliot C Nelson Markus M Nöthen Abraham A Palmer Brenda W J H Penninx Bernice Porjesz John P Rice Marcella Rietschel Brien P Riley Richard J Rose Pei-Hong Shen Judy Silberg Michael C Stallings Ralph E Tarter Michael M Vanyukov Scott Vrieze Tamara L Wall John B Whitfield Hongyu Zhao Benjamin M Neale Tracey D Wade Andrew C Heath Grant W Montgomery Nicholas G Martin Patrick F Sullivan Jaakko Kaprio Gerome Breen Joel Gelernter Howard J Edenberg Cynthia M Bulik Arpana Agrawal

Addict Biol 2021 01 16;26(1):e12880. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429266PMC
January 2021

Shared Molecular Neuropathology Across Major Psychiatric Disorders Parallels Polygenic Overlap.

Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ) 2019 Jan 7;17(1):66-72. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

(Gandal et al., "Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap" Science 09 Feb 2018:Vol. 359, Issue 6376, pp. 693-697 (DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6469). Reprinted with permission from AAAS).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.focus.17103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996074PMC
January 2019

Prolonged constipation and diarrhea in childhood and disordered eating in adolescence.

J Psychosom Res 2019 11 7;126:109797. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Gastrointestinal problems are common in all eating disorders; however, the extent to which these problems predate the onset of eating disorders is not clear. We explored longitudinal associations between childhood gastrointestinal problems and adolescent disordered eating, and assessed whether observed associations are potentially causal or due to familial confounding factors.

Methods: Data from a population-based Swedish twin sample were used to investigate associations between parent- and self-reported protracted constipation and diarrhea in childhood and adolescence, and later disordered eating, measured by the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI). Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations. Possible familial confounding was explored by using a within-twin pair analysis.

Results: We found that those who reported a history of constipation at age 15 scored 5.55 and 5.04 points higher, respectively, on the EDI total score at age 15 and 18, compared with those without constipation. Those reporting a history of diarrhea at age 15 scored 5.15 points higher, and the group reporting both problems scored 9.52 points higher on the EDI total score at age 15 than those reporting no problems. We observed that the association between constipation and disordered eating was attenuated in the within-twin pair analysis, but remained positive.

Conclusions: Gastrointestinal problems in childhood and adolescence are significantly associated with disordered eating. Associations were partly due to familial confounding, but might also be consistent with a causal interpretation. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of disordered eating when following children and adolescents who present with gastrointestinal problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2019.109797DOI Listing
November 2019

Inherited and De Novo Genetic Risk for Autism Impacts Shared Networks.

Cell 2019 08;178(4):850-866.e26

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Systems Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

We performed a comprehensive assessment of rare inherited variation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by analyzing whole-genome sequences of 2,308 individuals from families with multiple affected children. We implicate 69 genes in ASD risk, including 24 passing genome-wide Bonferroni correction and 16 new ASD risk genes, most supported by rare inherited variants, a substantial extension of previous findings. Biological pathways enriched for genes harboring inherited variants represent cytoskeletal organization and ion transport, which are distinct from pathways implicated in previous studies. Nevertheless, the de novo and inherited genes contribute to a common protein-protein interaction network. We also identified structural variants (SVs) affecting non-coding regions, implicating recurrent deletions in the promoters of DLG2 and NR3C2. Loss of nr3c2 function in zebrafish disrupts sleep and social function, overlapping with human ASD-related phenotypes. These data support the utility of studying multiplex families in ASD and are available through the Hartwell Autism Research and Technology portal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102900PMC
August 2019

Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa.

Authors:
Hunna J Watson Zeynep Yilmaz Laura M Thornton Christopher Hübel Jonathan R I Coleman Héléna A Gaspar Julien Bryois Anke Hinney Virpi M Leppä Manuel Mattheisen Sarah E Medland Stephan Ripke Shuyang Yao Paola Giusti-Rodríguez Ken B Hanscombe Kirstin L Purves Roger A H Adan Lars Alfredsson Tetsuya Ando Ole A Andreassen Jessica H Baker Wade H Berrettini Ilka Boehm Claudette Boni Vesna Boraska Perica Katharina Buehren Roland Burghardt Matteo Cassina Sven Cichon Maurizio Clementi Roger D Cone Philippe Courtet Scott Crow James J Crowley Unna N Danner Oliver S P Davis Martina de Zwaan George Dedoussis Daniela Degortes Janiece E DeSocio Danielle M Dick Dimitris Dikeos Christian Dina Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz Elisa Docampo Laramie E Duncan Karin Egberts Stefan Ehrlich Geòrgia Escaramís Tõnu Esko Xavier Estivill Anne Farmer Angela Favaro Fernando Fernández-Aranda Manfred M Fichter Krista Fischer Manuel Föcker Lenka Foretova Andreas J Forstner Monica Forzan Christopher S Franklin Steven Gallinger Ina Giegling Johanna Giuranna Fragiskos Gonidakis Philip Gorwood Monica Gratacos Mayora Sébastien Guillaume Yiran Guo Hakon Hakonarson Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas Joanna Hauser Johannes Hebebrand Sietske G Helder Stefan Herms Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann Wolfgang Herzog Laura M Huckins James I Hudson Hartmut Imgart Hidetoshi Inoko Vladimir Janout Susana Jiménez-Murcia Antonio Julià Gursharan Kalsi Deborah Kaminská Jaakko Kaprio Leila Karhunen Andreas Karwautz Martien J H Kas James L Kennedy Anna Keski-Rahkonen Kirsty Kiezebrink Youl-Ri Kim Lars Klareskog Kelly L Klump Gun Peggy S Knudsen Maria C La Via Stephanie Le Hellard Robert D Levitan Dong Li Lisa Lilenfeld Bochao Danae Lin Jolanta Lissowska Jurjen Luykx Pierre J Magistretti Mario Maj Katrin Mannik Sara Marsal Christian R Marshall Morten Mattingsdal Sara McDevitt Peter McGuffin Andres Metspalu Ingrid Meulenbelt Nadia Micali Karen Mitchell Alessio Maria Monteleone Palmiero Monteleone Melissa A Munn-Chernoff Benedetta Nacmias Marie Navratilova Ioanna Ntalla Julie K O'Toole Roel A Ophoff Leonid Padyukov Aarno Palotie Jacques Pantel Hana Papezova Dalila Pinto Raquel Rabionet Anu Raevuori Nicolas Ramoz Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud Valdo Ricca Samuli Ripatti Franziska Ritschel Marion Roberts Alessandro Rotondo Dan Rujescu Filip Rybakowski Paolo Santonastaso André Scherag Stephen W Scherer Ulrike Schmidt Nicholas J Schork Alexandra Schosser Jochen Seitz Lenka Slachtova P Eline Slagboom Margarita C T Slof-Op 't Landt Agnieszka Slopien Sandro Sorbi Beata Świątkowska Jin P Szatkiewicz Ioanna Tachmazidou Elena Tenconi Alfonso Tortorella Federica Tozzi Janet Treasure Artemis Tsitsika Marta Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor Konstantinos Tziouvas Annemarie A van Elburg Eric F van Furth Gudrun Wagner Esther Walton Elisabeth Widen Eleftheria Zeggini Stephanie Zerwas Stephan Zipfel Andrew W Bergen Joseph M Boden Harry Brandt Steven Crawford Katherine A Halmi L John Horwood Craig Johnson Allan S Kaplan Walter H Kaye James E Mitchell Catherine M Olsen John F Pearson Nancy L Pedersen Michael Strober Thomas Werge David C Whiteman D Blake Woodside Garret D Stuber Scott Gordon Jakob Grove Anjali K Henders Anders Juréus Katherine M Kirk Janne T Larsen Richard Parker Liselotte Petersen Jennifer Jordan Martin Kennedy Grant W Montgomery Tracey D Wade Andreas Birgegård Paul Lichtenstein Claes Norring Mikael Landén Nicholas G Martin Preben Bo Mortensen Patrick F Sullivan Gerome Breen Cynthia M Bulik

Nat Genet 2019 08 15;51(8):1207-1214. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders, and outcomes are unacceptably poor. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI) and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0439-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779477PMC
August 2019

The Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI): Overview and methods.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 11 1;74:61-69. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, PO Box 281, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Genetic factors contribute to anorexia nervosa (AN); and the first genome-wide significant locus has been identified. We describe methods and procedures for the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), an international collaboration designed to rapidly recruit 13,000 individuals with AN and ancestrally matched controls. We present sample characteristics and the utility of an online eating disorder diagnostic questionnaire suitable for large-scale genetic and population research.

Methods: ANGI recruited from the United States (US), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Sweden (SE), and Denmark (DK). Recruitment was via national registers (SE, DK); treatment centers (US, ANZ, SE, DK); and social and traditional media (US, ANZ, SE). All cases had a lifetime AN diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria (excluding amenorrhea). Recruited controls had no lifetime history of disordered eating behaviors. To assess the positive and negative predictive validity of the online eating disorder questionnaire (ED100K-v1), 109 women also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Module H.

Results: Blood samples and clinical information were collected from 13,363 individuals with lifetime AN and from controls. Online diagnostic phenotyping was effective and efficient; the validity of the questionnaire was acceptable.

Conclusions: Our multi-pronged recruitment approach was highly effective for rapid recruitment and can be used as a model for efforts by other groups. High online presence of individuals with AN rendered the Internet/social media a remarkably effective recruitment tool in some countries. ANGI has substantially augmented Psychiatric Genomics Consortium AN sample collection. ANGI is a registered clinical trial: clinicaltrials.govNCT01916538; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01916538?cond=Anorexia+Nervosa&draw=1&rank=3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2018.09.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338222PMC
November 2018

Rigor and reproducibility in genetic research on eating disorders.

Int J Eat Disord 2018 07 8;51(7):593-607. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: We explored both within-method and between-method rigor and reproducibility in the field of eating disorders genetics.

Method: We present critical evaluation and commentary on component methods of genetic research (family studies, twin studies, molecular genetic studies) and discuss both successful and unsuccessful efforts in the field.

Results: Eating disorders genetics has had a number of robust results that converge across component methodologies. Familial aggregation of eating disorders, twin-based heritability estimates of eating disorders, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) all point toward a substantial role for genetics in eating disorders etiology and support the premise that genes do not act alone. Candidate gene and linkage studies have been less informative historically.

Discussion: The eating disorders field has entered the GWAS era with studies of anorexia nervosa. Continued growth of sample sizes is essential for rigorous discovery of actionable variation. Molecular genetic studies of bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and other eating disorders are virtually nonexistent and lag seriously behind other major psychiatric disorders. Expanded efforts are necessary to reveal the fundamental biology of eating disorders, inform clinical practice, and deliver new therapeutic targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.22896DOI Listing
July 2018

Author Correction: Genome-wide changes in lncRNA, splicing, and regional gene expression patterns in autism.

Nature 2018 08;560(7718):E30

Center for Autism Research and Treatment and Program in Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, 90095, USA.

Change history: In this Letter, the labels for splicing events A3SS and A5SS were swapped in column D of Supplementary Table 3a and b. This has been corrected online.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0295-8DOI Listing
August 2018

Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap.

Science 2018 02;359(6376):693-697

The predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease involves a complex, polygenic, and pleiotropic genetic architecture. However, little is known about how genetic variants impart brain dysfunction or pathology. We used transcriptomic profiling as a quantitative readout of molecular brain-based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders-autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism-compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions. The degree of sharing of transcriptional dysregulation is related to polygenic (single-nucleotide polymorphism-based) overlap across disorders, suggesting a substantial causal genetic component. This comprehensive systems-level view of the neurobiological architecture of major neuropsychiatric illness demonstrates pathways of molecular convergence and specificity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad6469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5898828PMC
February 2018

Genome-wide changes in lncRNA, splicing, and regional gene expression patterns in autism.

Nature 2016 12 5;540(7633):423-427. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Center for Autism Research and Treatment and Program in Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves substantial genetic contributions. These contributions are profoundly heterogeneous but may converge on common pathways that are not yet well understood. Here, through post-mortem genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the largest cohort of samples analysed so far, to our knowledge, we interrogate the noncoding transcriptome, alternative splicing, and upstream molecular regulators to broaden our understanding of molecular convergence in ASD. Our analysis reveals ASD-associated dysregulation of primate-specific long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), downregulation of the alternative splicing of activity-dependent neuron-specific exons, and attenuation of normal differences in gene expression between the frontal and temporal lobes. Our data suggest that SOX5, a transcription factor involved in neuron fate specification, contributes to this reduction in regional differences. We further demonstrate that a genetically defined subtype of ASD, chromosome 15q11.2-13.1 duplication syndrome (dup15q), shares the core transcriptomic signature observed in idiopathic ASD. Co-expression network analysis reveals that individuals with ASD show age-related changes in the trajectory of microglial and synaptic function over the first two decades, and suggests that genetic risk for ASD may influence changes in regional cortical gene expression. Our findings illustrate how diverse genetic perturbations can lead to phenotypic convergence at multiple biological levels in a complex neuropsychiatric disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature20612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102905PMC
December 2016

The road to precision psychiatry: translating genetics into disease mechanisms.

Nat Neurosci 2016 10;19(11):1397-1407

Program in Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Hundreds of genetic loci increasing risk for neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been identified. This success, perhaps paradoxically, has posed challenges for therapeutic development, which are amplified by the highly polygenic and pleiotropic nature of these genetic contributions. Success requires understanding the biological impact of single genetic variants and predicting their effects within an individual. Comprehensive functional genomic annotation of risk loci provides a framework for interpretation of neurobiological impact, requiring experimental validation with in vivo or in vitro model systems. Systems-level, integrative pathway analyses are beginning to elucidate the additive, polygenic contributions of risk variants on specific cellular, molecular, developmental, or circuit-level processes. Although most neuropsychiatric disease modeling has focused on genes disrupted by rare, large-effect-size mutations, common smaller-effect-size variants may also provide solid therapeutic targets to inform precision medicine approaches. Here we enumerate the promise and challenges of a genomics-driven approach to uncovering neuropsychiatric disease mechanisms and facilitating therapeutic development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.4409DOI Listing
October 2016

Rare Inherited and De Novo CNVs Reveal Complex Contributions to ASD Risk in Multiplex Families.

Am J Hum Genet 2016 09 25;99(3):540-554. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Center for Autism Research and Treatment and Program in Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Human Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Rare mutations, including copy-number variants (CNVs), contribute significantly to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Although their importance has been established in families with only one affected child (simplex families), the contribution of both de novo and inherited CNVs to ASD in families with multiple affected individuals (multiplex families) is less well understood. We analyzed 1,532 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) to assess the impact of de novo and rare CNVs on ASD risk in multiplex families. We observed a higher burden of large, rare CNVs, including inherited events, in individuals with ASD than in their unaffected siblings (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7), but the rate of de novo events was significantly lower than in simplex families. In previously characterized ASD risk loci, we identified 49 CNVs, comprising 24 inherited events, 19 de novo events, and 6 events of unknown inheritance, a significant enrichment in affected versus control individuals (OR = 3.3). In 21 of the 30 families (71%) in whom at least one affected sibling harbored an established ASD major risk CNV, including five families harboring inherited CNVs, the CNV was not shared by all affected siblings, indicating that other risk factors are contributing. We also identified a rare risk locus for ASD and language delay at chromosomal region 2q24 (implicating NR4A2) and another lower-penetrance locus involving inherited deletions and duplications of WWOX. The genetic architecture in multiplex families differs from that in simplex families and is complex, warranting more complete genetic characterization of larger multiplex ASD cohorts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.06.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5011063PMC
September 2016

Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis.

Authors:
Ashley H Beecham Nikolaos A Patsopoulos Dionysia K Xifara Mary F Davis Anu Kemppinen Chris Cotsapas Tejas S Shah Chris Spencer David Booth An Goris Annette Oturai Janna Saarela Bertrand Fontaine Bernhard Hemmer Claes Martin Frauke Zipp Sandra D'Alfonso Filippo Martinelli-Boneschi Bruce Taylor Hanne F Harbo Ingrid Kockum Jan Hillert Tomas Olsson Maria Ban Jorge R Oksenberg Rogier Hintzen Lisa F Barcellos Cristina Agliardi Lars Alfredsson Mehdi Alizadeh Carl Anderson Robert Andrews Helle Bach Søndergaard Amie Baker Gavin Band Sergio E Baranzini Nadia Barizzone Jeffrey Barrett Céline Bellenguez Laura Bergamaschi Luisa Bernardinelli Achim Berthele Viola Biberacher Thomas M C Binder Hannah Blackburn Izaura L Bomfim Paola Brambilla Simon Broadley Bruno Brochet Lou Brundin Dorothea Buck Helmut Butzkueven Stacy J Caillier William Camu Wassila Carpentier Paola Cavalla Elisabeth G Celius Irène Coman Giancarlo Comi Lucia Corrado Leentje Cosemans Isabelle Cournu-Rebeix Bruce A C Cree Daniele Cusi Vincent Damotte Gilles Defer Silvia R Delgado Panos Deloukas Alessia di Sapio Alexander T Dilthey Peter Donnelly Bénédicte Dubois Martin Duddy Sarah Edkins Irina Elovaara Federica Esposito Nikos Evangelou Barnaby Fiddes Judith Field Andre Franke Colin Freeman Irene Y Frohlich Daniela Galimberti Christian Gieger Pierre-Antoine Gourraud Christiane Graetz Andrew Graham Verena Grummel Clara Guaschino Athena Hadjixenofontos Hakon Hakonarson Christopher Halfpenny Gillian Hall Per Hall Anders Hamsten James Harley Timothy Harrower Clive Hawkins Garrett Hellenthal Charles Hillier Jeremy Hobart Muni Hoshi Sarah E Hunt Maja Jagodic Ilijas Jelčić Angela Jochim Brian Kendall Allan Kermode Trevor Kilpatrick Keijo Koivisto Ioanna Konidari Thomas Korn Helena Kronsbein Cordelia Langford Malin Larsson Mark Lathrop Christine Lebrun-Frenay Jeannette Lechner-Scott Michelle H Lee Maurizio A Leone Virpi Leppä Giuseppe Liberatore Benedicte A Lie Christina M Lill Magdalena Lindén Jenny Link Felix Luessi Jan Lycke Fabio Macciardi Satu Männistö Clara P Manrique Roland Martin Vittorio Martinelli Deborah Mason Gordon Mazibrada Cristin McCabe Inger-Lise Mero Julia Mescheriakova Loukas Moutsianas Kjell-Morten Myhr Guy Nagels Richard Nicholas Petra Nilsson Fredrik Piehl Matti Pirinen Siân E Price Hong Quach Mauri Reunanen Wim Robberecht Neil P Robertson Mariaemma Rodegher David Rog Marco Salvetti Nathalie C Schnetz-Boutaud Finn Sellebjerg Rebecca C Selter Catherine Schaefer Sandip Shaunak Ling Shen Simon Shields Volker Siffrin Mark Slee Per Soelberg Sorensen Melissa Sorosina Mireia Sospedra Anne Spurkland Amy Strange Emilie Sundqvist Vincent Thijs John Thorpe Anna Ticca Pentti Tienari Cornelia van Duijn Elizabeth M Visser Steve Vucic Helga Westerlind James S Wiley Alastair Wilkins James F Wilson Juliane Winkelmann John Zajicek Eva Zindler Jonathan L Haines Margaret A Pericak-Vance Adrian J Ivinson Graeme Stewart David Hafler Stephen L Hauser Alastair Compston Gil McVean Philip De Jager Stephen J Sawcer Jacob L McCauley

Nat Genet 2013 Nov 29;45(11):1353-60. Epub 2013 Sep 29.

1] John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. [2].

Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)), 3 of which we found after conditioning on previously identified variants. Thus, there are now 110 established multiple sclerosis risk variants at 103 discrete loci outside of the major histocompatibility complex. With high-resolution Bayesian fine mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalog of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3832895PMC
November 2013

Deletion of TOP3β, a component of FMRP-containing mRNPs, contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders.

Nat Neurosci 2013 Sep 4;16(9):1228-1237. Epub 2013 Aug 4.

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

Implicating particular genes in the generation of complex brain and behavior phenotypes requires multiple lines of evidence. The rarity of most high-impact genetic variants typically precludes the possibility of accruing statistical evidence that they are associated with a given trait. We found that the enrichment of a rare chromosome 22q11.22 deletion in a recently expanded Northern Finnish sub-isolate enabled the detection of association between TOP3B and both schizophrenia and cognitive impairment. Biochemical analysis of TOP3β revealed that this topoisomerase was a component of cytosolic messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) and was catalytically active on RNA. The recruitment of TOP3β to mRNPs was independent of RNA cis-elements and was coupled to the co-recruitment of FMRP, the disease gene product in fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Our results indicate a previously unknown role for TOP3β in mRNA metabolism and suggest that it is involved in neurodevelopmental disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.3484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3986889PMC
September 2013

Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Nat Genet 2013 Jun 21;45(6):670-5. Epub 2013 Apr 21.

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a severe liver disease of unknown etiology leading to fibrotic destruction of the bile ducts and ultimately to the need for liver transplantation. We compared 3,789 PSC cases of European ancestry to 25,079 population controls across 130,422 SNPs genotyped using the Immunochip. We identified 12 genome-wide significant associations outside the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, 9 of which were new, increasing the number of known PSC risk loci to 16. Despite comorbidity with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 72% of the cases, 6 of the 12 loci showed significantly stronger association with PSC than with IBD, suggesting overlapping yet distinct genetic architectures for these two diseases. We incorporated association statistics from 7 diseases clinically occurring with PSC in the analysis and found suggestive evidence for 33 additional pleiotropic PSC risk loci. Together with network analyses, these findings add to the genetic risk map of PSC and expand on the relationship between PSC and other immune-mediated diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3667736PMC
June 2013

Interaction of early environment, gender and genes of monoamine neurotransmission in the aetiology of depression in a large population-based Finnish birth cohort.

BMJ Open 2011 Aug 27;1(1):e000087. Epub 2011 Aug 27.

Public Health Genomics Unit, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki and National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives Depression is a worldwide leading cause of morbidity and disability. Genetic studies have recently begun to elucidate its molecular aetiology. The authors investigated candidate genes of monoamine neurotransmission and early environmental risk factors for depressiveness in the genetically isolated population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (12 058 live births). Design The authors ascertained and subdivided the study sample (n=5225) based on measures of early development and of social environment, and examined candidate genes of monoamine neurotransmission, many of which have shown prior evidence of a gene-environment interaction for affective disorders, namely SLC6A4, TPH2, COMT, MAOA and the dopamine receptor genes DRD1-DRD5. Results and conclusion The authors observed no major genetic effects of the analysed variants on depressiveness. However, when measures of early development and of social environment were considered, some evidence of interaction was observed. Allelic variants of COMT interacted with high early developmental risk (p=0.005 for rs2239393 and p=0.02 for rs4680) so that the association with depression was detected only in individuals at high developmental risk group (p=0.0046 and β=0.056 for rs5993883-rs2239393-rs4680 risk haplotype CGG including Val158), particularly in males (p=0.0053 and β=0.083 for the haplotype CGG). Rs4274224 from DRD2 interacted with gender (p=0.017) showing a significant association with depressiveness in males (p=0.0006 and β=0.0023; p=0.00005 and β=0.069 for rs4648318-rs4274224 haplotype GG). The results support the role of genes of monoamine neurotransmission in the aetiology of depression conditional on environmental risk and sex, but not direct major effects of monoaminergic genes in this unselected population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3191433PMC
August 2011

Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.

Authors:
Stephen Sawcer Garrett Hellenthal Matti Pirinen Chris C A Spencer Nikolaos A Patsopoulos Loukas Moutsianas Alexander Dilthey Zhan Su Colin Freeman Sarah E Hunt Sarah Edkins Emma Gray David R Booth Simon C Potter An Goris Gavin Band Annette Bang Oturai Amy Strange Janna Saarela Céline Bellenguez Bertrand Fontaine Matthew Gillman Bernhard Hemmer Rhian Gwilliam Frauke Zipp Alagurevathi Jayakumar Roland Martin Stephen Leslie Stanley Hawkins Eleni Giannoulatou Sandra D'alfonso Hannah Blackburn Filippo Martinelli Boneschi Jennifer Liddle Hanne F Harbo Marc L Perez Anne Spurkland Matthew J Waller Marcin P Mycko Michelle Ricketts Manuel Comabella Naomi Hammond Ingrid Kockum Owen T McCann Maria Ban Pamela Whittaker Anu Kemppinen Paul Weston Clive Hawkins Sara Widaa John Zajicek Serge Dronov Neil Robertson Suzannah J Bumpstead Lisa F Barcellos Rathi Ravindrarajah Roby Abraham Lars Alfredsson Kristin Ardlie Cristin Aubin Amie Baker Katharine Baker Sergio E Baranzini Laura Bergamaschi Roberto Bergamaschi Allan Bernstein Achim Berthele Mike Boggild Jonathan P Bradfield David Brassat Simon A Broadley Dorothea Buck Helmut Butzkueven Ruggero Capra William M Carroll Paola Cavalla Elisabeth G Celius Sabine Cepok Rosetta Chiavacci Françoise Clerget-Darpoux Katleen Clysters Giancarlo Comi Mark Cossburn Isabelle Cournu-Rebeix Mathew B Cox Wendy Cozen Bruce A C Cree Anne H Cross Daniele Cusi Mark J Daly Emma Davis Paul I W de Bakker Marc Debouverie Marie Beatrice D'hooghe Katherine Dixon Rita Dobosi Bénédicte Dubois David Ellinghaus Irina Elovaara Federica Esposito Claire Fontenille Simon Foote Andre Franke Daniela Galimberti Angelo Ghezzi Joseph Glessner Refujia Gomez Olivier Gout Colin Graham Struan F A Grant Franca Rosa Guerini Hakon Hakonarson Per Hall Anders Hamsten Hans-Peter Hartung Rob N Heard Simon Heath Jeremy Hobart Muna Hoshi Carmen Infante-Duarte Gillian Ingram Wendy Ingram Talat Islam Maja Jagodic Michael Kabesch Allan G Kermode Trevor J Kilpatrick Cecilia Kim Norman Klopp Keijo Koivisto Malin Larsson Mark Lathrop Jeannette S Lechner-Scott Maurizio A Leone Virpi Leppä Ulrika Liljedahl Izaura Lima Bomfim Robin R Lincoln Jenny Link Jianjun Liu Aslaug R Lorentzen Sara Lupoli Fabio Macciardi Thomas Mack Mark Marriott Vittorio Martinelli Deborah Mason Jacob L McCauley Frank Mentch Inger-Lise Mero Tania Mihalova Xavier Montalban John Mottershead Kjell-Morten Myhr Paola Naldi William Ollier Alison Page Aarno Palotie Jean Pelletier Laura Piccio Trevor Pickersgill Fredrik Piehl Susan Pobywajlo Hong L Quach Patricia P Ramsay Mauri Reunanen Richard Reynolds John D Rioux Mariaemma Rodegher Sabine Roesner Justin P Rubio Ina-Maria Rückert Marco Salvetti Erika Salvi Adam Santaniello Catherine A Schaefer Stefan Schreiber Christian Schulze Rodney J Scott Finn Sellebjerg Krzysztof W Selmaj David Sexton Ling Shen Brigid Simms-Acuna Sheila Skidmore Patrick M A Sleiman Cathrine Smestad Per Soelberg Sørensen Helle Bach Søndergaard Jim Stankovich Richard C Strange Anna-Maija Sulonen Emilie Sundqvist Ann-Christine Syvänen Francesca Taddeo Bruce Taylor Jenefer M Blackwell Pentti Tienari Elvira Bramon Ayman Tourbah Matthew A Brown Ewa Tronczynska Juan P Casas Niall Tubridy Aiden Corvin Jane Vickery Janusz Jankowski Pablo Villoslada Hugh S Markus Kai Wang Christopher G Mathew James Wason Colin N A Palmer H-Erich Wichmann Robert Plomin Ernest Willoughby Anna Rautanen Juliane Winkelmann Michael Wittig Richard C Trembath Jacqueline Yaouanq Ananth C Viswanathan Haitao Zhang Nicholas W Wood Rebecca Zuvich Panos Deloukas Cordelia Langford Audrey Duncanson Jorge R Oksenberg Margaret A Pericak-Vance Jonathan L Haines Tomas Olsson Jan Hillert Adrian J Ivinson Philip L De Jager Leena Peltonen Graeme J Stewart David A Hafler Stephen L Hauser Gil McVean Peter Donnelly Alastair Compston

Nature 2011 Aug 10;476(7359):214-9. Epub 2011 Aug 10.

Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531PMC
August 2011

Genome-wide association study in a high-risk isolate for multiple sclerosis reveals associated variants in STAT3 gene.

Am J Hum Genet 2010 Feb;86(2):285-91

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Genetic risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to involve both common and rare risk alleles. Recent GWAS and subsequent meta-analysis have established the critical role of the HLA locus and identified new common variants associated to MS. These variants have small odds ratios (ORs) and explain only a fraction of the genetic risk. To expose potentially rare, high-impact alleles, we conducted a GWAS of 68 distantly related cases and 136 controls from a high-risk internal isolate of Finland with increased prevalence and familial occurrence of MS. The top 27 loci with p < 10(-4) were tested in 711 cases and 1029 controls from Finland, and the top two findings were validated in 3859 cases and 9110 controls from more heterogeneous populations. SNP (rs744166) within the STAT3 gene was associated to MS (p = 2.75 x 10(-10), OR 0.87, confidence interval 0.83-0.91). The protective haplotype for MS in STAT3 is a risk allele for Crohn disease, implying that STAT3 represents a shared risk locus for at least two autoimmune diseases. This study also demonstrates the potential of special isolated populations in search for variants contributing to complex traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.01.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820168PMC
February 2010

The role of the CD58 locus in multiple sclerosis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Mar 23;106(13):5264-9. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Division of Molecular Immunology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system associated with demyelination and axonal loss. A whole genome association scan suggested that allelic variants in the CD58 gene region, encoding the costimulatory molecule LFA-3, are associated with risk of developing MS. We now report additional genetic evidence, as well as resequencing and fine mapping of the CD58 locus in patients with MS and control subjects. These efforts identify a CD58 variant that provides further evidence of association with MS (P = 1.1 x 10(-6), OR 0.82) and the single protective effect within the CD58 locus is captured by the rs2300747(G) allele. This protective rs2300747(G) allele is associated with a dose-dependent increase in CD58 mRNA expression in lymphoblastic cell lines (P = 1.1 x 10(-10)) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MS subjects (P = 0.0037). This protective effect of enhanced CD58 expression on circulating mononuclear cells in patients with MS is supported by finding that CD58 mRNA expression is higher in MS subjects during clinical remission. Functional investigations suggest a potential mechanism whereby increases in CD58 expression, mediated by the protective allele, up-regulate the expression of transcription factor FoxP3 through engagement of the CD58 receptor, CD2, leading to the enhanced function of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells that are defective in subjects with MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0813310106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664005PMC
March 2009