Publications by authors named "Viren Swami"

176 Publications

Developing a model linking self-reported nature exposure and positive body image: A study protocol for the body image in nature survey (BINS).

Body Image 2021 Nov 26;40:50-57. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Cognition, Emotion, and Methods in Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Exposure to natural environments has been shown to be associated with more positive body image, but much of the existing research is limited to Western European nations and little is known about the robustness of these associations in other national contexts. In this protocol paper, we present a conceptual model of the direct and indirect associations (i.e., via self-compassion, connectedness to nature, and restorative experiences in nature) between nature exposure and body appreciation. This model brings together conceptualisations from existing research, but also extends it in a number of important ways. The model will be tested through the Body Image in Nature Survey (BINS), a researcher-crowdsourced project involving researchers in multiple nations worldwide. Data collection began in December 2020 and is expected to be completed in February 2022. Data will be analysed to examine the extent to which our conceptual model is robust across nations, as well as other sociodemographic characteristics. We will also determine the extent to which key variables included in our survey are invariant across nations and associated with cultural, socioeconomic, and gender-related factors. The BINS will likely have important implications for the development of nature-based interventions to promote healthier body appreciation in diverse national contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.11.002DOI Listing
November 2021

Nature Exposure and Positive Body Image: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining the Mediating Roles of Physical Activity, Autonomous Motivation, Connectedness to Nature, and Perceived Restorativeness.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 11 22;18(22). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK.

Research shows that nature exposure is directly and indirectly associated with more positive body image, which is an important facet of well-being more generally. In this study, we tested the mediating roles of physical activity in nature, perceived restoration in nature, autonomous motivation, and connectedness to nature in explaining the association between nature exposure and positive body image. An online sample of 924 Lithuanian adults (age M = 40.0 years, 73.6% women) completed a survey that included the Nature Exposure (NE) Scale, the Body Appreciation Scale-2, a measure of frequency of physical activity in nature (PAN), the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2, the Restoration Outcome Scale, and the Connectedness to Nature Scale. Path analysis was conducted to examine hypothesized direct and indirect effects. Results showed that both greater NE (B = 0.564, SE = 0.057, < 0.001) and autonomy in exercise motivation (B = 0.039, SE = 0.006, < 0.001) were associated with more frequent PAN. Direct effects from exercise autonomy to nature restorativeness (B = 0.017, SE = 0.006, = 0.004) and body appreciation (B = 0.041, SE = 0.004, < 0.001) were observed. Associations were also found between connectedness to nature and body appreciation (B = 0.166, SE = 0.040, < 0.001), nature restorativeness and body appreciation (B = 0.075, SE = 0.019, < 0.001), and frequency of PAN and body appreciation (B = 0.064, SE = 0.019, < 0.001). PAN mediated the relationship between NE and body appreciation. The final model was invariant across place of residence (urban vs. rural) and gender. Including self-determined physical activity in nature may increase the effectiveness of intervention programs aimed at promoting more positive body image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622969PMC
November 2021

Associations between body image, social physique anxiety, and dating anxiety in heterosexual emerging adults.

Body Image 2021 Dec 5;39:305-312. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.

Studies have suggested that body image is associated with dating anxiety, but are limited by small sample sizes, singular operationalisations of body image, and a lack of consideration of the concurrent effects of social physique anxiety. To overcome these gaps in the literature, we asked an online sample of 501 heterosexual emerging adults from the United Kingdom (age M = 21.16, 50.3% women) to complete measures of multidimensional body image, social physique anxiety, and dating anxiety. Correlational analyses indicated that more negative body image and social physique anxiety were both significantly associated with greater dating anxiety. However, in hierarchical regressions, the variance accounted for by body image variables was largely non-significant and weak after accounting for the effects of social physique anxiety. In exploratory analyses, we found that social physique anxiety mediated the relationship between the body image facet of appearance orientation and dating anxiety. These results highlight the importance of developing targeted interventions to reduce social physique anxiety and unhealthy appearance orientation in heterosocial dating contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.10.004DOI Listing
December 2021

Psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES): An assessment using exploratory structural equation modelling.

Body Image 2021 Dec 3;39:293-304. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES) measures self-conscious emotions in relation to the body and appearance. While scores have been shown to support a hypothesised 4-factor model consisting of facets of shame, guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride, previous studies are limited in their sole reliance on confirmatory factor analysis. Here, we assessed the psychometric properties of a novel Bahasa Malaysia translation of the BASES using an exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) framework. Malaysian adults (N = 1049) completed the BASES along with measures of body appreciation, psychological well-being, and secure non-striving. The results of exploratory factor analysis and ESEM in separate split-half subsamples supported a 2-dimensional model consisting of Shame-Guilt and Authentic-Hubristic Pride. This 2-dimensional model was broadly invariant across ethnicity, gender, and age, had adequate internal consistency, and evidenced adequate construct validity in relation to the Authenthic-Hubristic Pride subscale. We interpret our findings as consistent with the view that cultural factors shape the way in which body and appearance-related self-conscious emotions are manifested. Our results also highlight the importance of considering alternative conceptualisations of body and appearance-related self-conscious emotions, which previous studies may have obscured through their reliance on confirmatory factor analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.10.003DOI Listing
December 2021

Simulated nature and positive body image: A comparison of the impact of exposure to images of blue and green spaces.

Body Image 2021 Dec 7;39:151-155. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Previous research has shown that exposure to simulated natural environments, such as still images and film, promotes more positive state body image. However, this body of work has not distinguished between different types of natural environment, with the distinction between blue and green spaces being notable. Here, we asked a sample of 168 university students from the United Kingdom to complete a measure of state body appreciation before and after being randomly assigned to one of three groups in which they viewed images of blue spaces, green spaces, or built environments, respectively. A mixed analysis of variance showed that exposure to images of the natural environments, but not the built environments, significantly elevated state body appreciation. In addition, exposure to images of blue spaces had a stronger effect on state body appreciation than exposure to images of green spaces. These results replicate previous work showing that exposure to simulated natural environments promotes more positive state body image, but additionally shows that blue spaces may be more effective than green spaces. Implications of the present findings for the development of imagery-based interventions aimed at promoting healthier body image are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.08.004DOI Listing
December 2021

Weaker implicit interoception is associated with more negative body image: Evidence from gastric-alpha phase amplitude coupling and the heartbeat evoked potential.

Cortex 2021 10 2;143:254-266. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Interoception refers to the processing of internal bodily stimuli, while body image refers to appearance-related perceptions, affect, and cognitions. Previous research has found that body image is associated with self-reported and behavioural indices of interoception. Here, we extended this research by examining associations between measures of positive (i.e., body appreciation, functionality appreciation) and negative body image (i.e., body shame, weight preoccupation) and two electrophysiological indices of interoceptive processing, namely the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP) and gastric-alpha phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), in a sample of 36 adults. Significant negative associations were identified between the indices of negative body image and the interoception variables. Specifically, more negative HEP amplitude and lower gastric-alpha PAC were both associated with greater body shame and weight preoccupation. However, no significant associations were identified for the indices of positive body image. These findings extend previous work by demonstrating that there are significant associations between negative body image and previously unexplored components of cardiac and gastric interoception. This, in turn, could have important clinical applications, such as the HEP and gastric-alpha PAC both serving as biomarkers of negative body image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2021.07.006DOI Listing
October 2021

The intuitive eating scale-2: re-evaluating its factor structure using a bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling framework.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Purpose: Previous studies examining the appropriateness of the 4-factor model of intuitive eating scale-2 (IES-2) scores have returned equivocal results, which may reflect methodological limitations in the way IES-2 scores are modelled. Here, we applied a bifactor-exploratory structural equation modelling (B-ESEM) framework to better understand IES-2 multidimensionality.

Methods: A total of 603 participants from the United States completed the IES-2, alongside measures of body appreciation, body acceptance from others, and self-esteem. Our analyses compared the fit of various hypothesised models of IES-2 scores.

Results: Models of IES-2 scores based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) uniformly showed poor fit. ESEM models showed superior fit to CFA representations and a B-ESEM model showed improved fit over higher-order CFA and B-CFA representations of IES-2 scores. The optimal model was a B-ESEM model that accounted for, through correlated uniqueness (CU), the methodological artefact introduced by negatively-worded IES-2 items. This B-ESEM-CU model was fully invariant across gender and showed adequate construct validity.

Conclusion: The B-ESEM-CU framework appears well-suited to understand the multidimensionality of IES-2 scores. A model of IES-2 scores that yields a reliable latent indicator of global intuitive eating while allowing for simultaneous consideration of additional specific factors will likely provide more accurate accounting of the nature and outcomes of intuitive eating.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-021-01271-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Dimensionality and psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2): An assessment using a bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling framework.

Appetite 2021 11 2;166:105588. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

The construct of intuitive eating is most often measured using the 23-item Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2), but previous studies have typically relied solely on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to understand IES-2 dimensionality. In contrast, a bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling (B-ESEM) framework offers a more realistic account of IES-2 multidimensionality. Here, we assessed the psychometric properties of a novel Italian translation using a combination of exploratory factor analysis and B-ESEM. A total of 950 adults completed the IES-2 alongside measures of positive body image, disordered eating, and psychological well-being. Results indicated that a 4-factor B-ESEM model had adequate fit to the data and that fit was improved when the correlated uniqueness of seven negatively worded IES-2 items was accounted for. This model of IES-2 scores showed adequate internal consistency and good test-retest reliability up to three weeks. Evidence of construct validity was good in terms of a global IES-2 factor, and broadly supported in terms of its specific-factors. These results highlight the utility of a B-ESEM framework for understanding the dimensionality of IES-2 scores and may help scholars better understand the extent to which the IES-2 adequately operationalises the construct of intuitive eating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2021.105588DOI Listing
November 2021

Associations between weight status, body satisfaction, ethnic identity and self-esteem in Oceanian adolescents.

Pediatr Obes 2021 Dec 29;16(12):e12824. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Research in Education, EA 7483, School of Education, University of New Caledonia, Nouméa, New Caledonia.

Background: Self-esteem has consistently been observed to be relatively low in adolescents with obesity. In the Pacific region, the prevalence of obesity in adolescence is high, but few studies have considered issues of self-esteem in this population.

Objective: To examine associations between weight status, body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in a sample of New Caledonian adolescents and to test for moderation effects of ethnicity on predictors of self-esteem.

Methods: Objective anthropometric measures (height, weight, waist circumference and thickness of skinfolds) were obtained in a multi-ethnic sample of New Caledonian adolescents. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio and the sum of four skinfolds thickness were used as proxies of weight status. Indices of ethnic identity, self-esteem, socio-demographic data (socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, urbanicity of residence) and body dissatisfaction were obtained using survey methods.

Results: Between-group analyses indicated that adolescents of European/white origin had significantly higher self-esteem than adolescents with Oceanian Non-European Non-Asian ancestry (ONENA). However, low self-esteem was significantly associated with weight status and body dissatisfactions in European/white adolescents but not ONENA adolescents. Ethnicity moderated the relationships of predictors (BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, age, urbanicity and ethnic identity) on self-esteem, and the strongest predictors of self-esteem were ethnicity and ethnic identity.

Conclusions: While self-esteem has important consequences for adolescent well-being and health outcomes, these results highlight the importance of applying different steps to develop and maintain healthy self-esteem in the Pacific region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12824DOI Listing
December 2021

The Body Acceptance by Others Scale-2 (BAOS-2): Psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation and an assessment of invariance across Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Body Image 2021 Sep 3;38:346-357. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

The Body Acceptance by Others Scale-2 (BAOS-2) is a 13-item instrument measuring generalised perceptions of body acceptance by others. Here, we first demonstrate that a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the BAOS-2 is psychometrically valid in a sample of 1,049 Malaysian adults (Study 1). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we extracted a unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores that retained all 13 items. BAOS-2 scores had adequate internal consistency and indices of validity (convergent, construct, concurrent, and incremental), and were scalar invariant across gender and ethnicity (Malaysian Malays vs. Chinese). Next, we assessed invariance of BAOS-2 scores across samples from Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States (total N = 2,575; Study 2). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that partial scalar invariance was achieved. Participants in the interdependent cultural context of Malaysia had significantly higher scores - with small effect sizes - than their counterparts in the independent contexts of the United Kingdom and United States. In addition, women had significantly higher scores than men, but the effect size was negligible. The present study indicates that the Malay BAOS-2 is a psychometrically valid instrument and presents the first comparison of BAOS-2 scores across interdependent and independent contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.05.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS).

Body Image 2021 Sep 4;38:210-218. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS; Alleva et al., 2017) is a widely used instrument for the measurement of individual's appreciation of their body for what it can do and is capable of doing (i.e., functionality appreciation). Here, we examined the psychometric properties of a novel Italian translation of the FAS. A sample of 950 Italian adults completed the FAS, as well as previously validated measures of body image (body appreciation, body esteem, body surveillance), disordered eating symptoms, and psychological well-being (self-esteem, general distress). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 1-dimensional model of FAS scores, with all 7 items retained. Scores achieved scalar invariance across gender, and the gender difference in latent FAS scores was not significant. FAS scores were found to have adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability up to three weeks, and convergent and criterion-related validity through significant correlations with all additional constructs. However, evidence of incremental validity was weak, and likely reflected high nomological and conceptual similarity between functionality and body appreciation in this national context. Overall, these results provide strong evidence that scores on the Italian FAS are psychometrically valid, which may aid future development of interventions to promote more positive body image in Italian-speaking samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.04.007DOI Listing
September 2021

COVID-19-Related Stress and Anxiety, Body Mass Index, Eating Disorder Symptomatology, and Body Image in Women from Poland: A Cluster Analysis Approach.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Pedagogy, University of Bielsko-Biala, Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biala, Poland.

To limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), many countries have introduced mandated lockdown or social distancing measures. Although these measures may be successful against COVID-19 transmission, the pandemic and attendant restrictions are a source of chronic and severe stress and anxiety which may contribute to the emergence or worsening of symptoms of eating disorders and the development of negative body image. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to: (1) classify different conditions associated with COVID-19-related stress, COVID-19-related anxiety, and weight status; and (2) analyze and compare the severity of dimensions typically related to eating disorders symptomatology and body image in individuals with different COVID-19-related stress, COVID-19-related anxiety, and weight status. Polish women ( = 671, = 32.50 ± 11.38) completed measures of COVID-19-related stress and anxiety along with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia symptomatology subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory, and the appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, and body areas satisfaction subscales of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. The following four clusters were identified through cluster analysis: (a) Cluster 1 ( = 269), healthy body weight and low COVID-related stress ( = 3.06) and anxiety ( = 2.96); (b) Cluster 2 ( = 154), healthy body weight and high COVID-related stress ( = 5.43) and anxiety ( = 5.29); (c) Cluster 3 ( = 127), excess body weight and high COVID-related stress ( = 5.23) and anxiety ( = 5.35); (d) Cluster 4 ( = 121), excess body weight and low COVID-related stress ( = 2.69) and anxiety ( = 2.83). Our results showed that Clusters 3 and 4 had significantly greater body dissatisfaction and lower appearance evaluation and body areas satisfaction than Clusters 1 and 2. Cluster 3 also had a significantly higher level of drive for thinness, bulimia, and overweight preoccupation than Clusters 1 and 2. These preliminary findings may mean that the COVID-19 pandemic and attendant anxiety and stress caused by the pandemic are exacerbating symptoms of eating disorders and negative body image, with women with excess weight particularly at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073902PMC
April 2021

Science mapping research on body image: A bibliometric review of publications in Body Image, 2004-2020.

Body Image 2021 Sep 7;38:106-119. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Science mapping is a methodology that combines quantitative analysis, classification, and visualisation to identify the composition and inter-relationships between bibliographic objects. Here, we used bibliometric science mapping to identify the overarching structure, evolution of research themes and research fronts, and geographic spread of body image research. We examined 2,783 keywords in 1,107 articles published in Body Image between 2004 and 2020, selected as being representative of body image research during this period. Co-occurrence analysis of the keywords enabled us to identify five general themes in the literature: "clinical and weight-related issues", "body image and disordered eating", "positive body image and objectification", "media effects", and "ethnicity/race". Burst analysis allowed us to identify research fronts in this research, with work on social media and positive body image in particular being identified as emergent. Finally, co-author analysis indicated that body image research networks are heavily focused on a small handful of nations, although there is evidence of a recent shift toward greater geographic spread. Our results, and the provision of interactive maps and extensive tables, should allow readers to examine connections between research clusters and areas, generate novel research ideas, and more fully understand the evolution and future trajectories of body image research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.03.015DOI Listing
September 2021

Translation and validation of body image instruments: An addendum to Swami and Barron (2019) in the form of frequently asked questions.

Body Image 2021 Jun 13;37:214-224. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Test adaptation - the translation and validation of source instruments for use in new social identity groups - plays a vital role in body image research. Previously, Swami and Barron (2019) developed a set of good practice recommendations and reporting guidelines for the test adaptation of body image instruments. However, a number of issues in that article were not covered in depth and new issues have emerged as a result of developments in theory and practice. Here, we offer an addendum to Swami and Barron in the form of frequently asked questions. Issues discussed in this article include various methods for achieving good translations, the appropriateness of revising instrument components prior to empirical analyses, determining the number of factors to extract in exploratory factor analyses (EFA), and the usefulness of EFA versus confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in determining factorial validity. We also cover methods of analyses that have been infrequently utilised by body image scholars, including exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM), bifactor model analyses, and various methods for establish measurement invariance. When read as an addendum to Swami and Barron, we hope this article helps to clarify issues of importance for body image researchers interested in conducting test adaptation work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.03.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Psychometric properties of a Romanian translation of the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS).

Body Image 2021 Jun 3;37:138-147. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Psychology, West University of Timișoara, Timișoara, Romania.

The Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS; Alleva et al., 2017) is a 7-item measure of an individual's appreciation of their body for what it can do and is capable of doing. Although the instrument is increasingly used in interventionist studies, its psychometric properties have been infrequently investigated outside Anglophone populations. Here, we examined psychometric properties of a novel Romanian translation of the FAS. An online sample of 959 Romanian adults (18-73 years old) completed the Romanian FAS, and validated measures of positive body image (body appreciation), negative body image (weight discrepancy in women, drive for muscularity in men), eating disorder symptomatology, and psychological well-being (self-esteem, gratitude). Exploratory factor analyses led to the extraction of a 1-dimensional model of FAS scores, which we confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. FAS scores achieved scalar invariance across sex, but the sex difference in latent FAS scores did not reach significance (d = 0.15). FAS scores had adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability up to four weeks, and further analyses provided evidence of convergent, construct, and incremental validity. These results support the psychometric properties of the Romanian FAS and present evidence of the importance of functionality appreciation in relation to healthier body image and psychological well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.02.010DOI Listing
June 2021

Emotional Well-Being Under Conditions of Lockdown: An Experience Sampling Study in Austria During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Happiness Stud 2021 Jan 2:1-18. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and attendant lockdown measures present serious threats to emotional well-being worldwide. Here, we examined the extent to which being outdoors (vs. indoors), the experience of loneliness, and screen-time are associated with emotional well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic using an experiencing sampling method. In April 2020, Austrian adults ( = 286, age  = 31.0 years) completed a 21-day experience sampling phase in which they reported their emotional well-being (i.e., happiness), whether they were indoors or outdoors, and loneliness at three random time-points each day, as well as their daily screen-time. Results indicated that being outdoors was associated with higher emotional well-being, whereas greater loneliness and greater daily screen-time were associated with poorer well-being. Additionally, the impact of loneliness on well-being was weaker when participants were outdoors than indoors. These results have health policy implications for the promotion of population well-being during pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-020-00337-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778412PMC
January 2021

Body acceptance by others: Refinement of the construct, and development and psychometric evaluation of a revised measure - The Body Acceptance by Others Scale-2.

Body Image 2021 Mar 30;36:238-253. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

The Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS) measures the degree to which individuals perceive body acceptance by others, but its factor structure is questionable. Here, we developed a revision of the BAOS (i.e., the BAOS-2) by designing novel items reflective of generalised perceptions of body acceptance by others. In three studies, we examined the psychometrics of the 13-item BAOS-2. Study 1, with United Kingdom adults (N = 601), led to the extraction of a unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores and provided evidence of 4-week test-retest reliability. Study 2, with United Kingdom adults (N = 423), indicated that the unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores had adequate fit and that scores were invariant across gender. Study 2 also provided evidence of convergent, construct, criterion, discriminant, and incremental validity. Study 3 cross-validated the fit of the unidimensional model in adults from the United State (N = 503) and provided evidence of invariance across gender and national group. Internal consistency coefficients of BAOS-2 scores were adequate across all three studies. There were no significant gender differences in BAOS-2 scores and a significant national difference had a negligible effect size. Thus, the BAOS-2 is a psychometrically-sound measure that can be utilised in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.11.007DOI Listing
March 2021

The Romanian version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2: Assessment of its psychometric properties and gender invariance in Romanian adults.

Body Image 2020 Dec 3;35:225-236. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Serdang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The construct of intuitive eating is most often measured using the 23-item Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2). Here, we examined the psychometrics of a Romanian translation of the IES-2. Eight-hundred-and-thirty Romanian adults completed the IES-2 along with measures of positive body image, symptoms of disordered eating, and psychological well-being. Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) with a split-half subsample (n = 420) indicated that IES-2 scores reduced to three factors in women and four in men, both of which diverged from the parent model. Confirmatory factor analysis with a second split-half sample (n = 410) indicated that the parent model had poor fit indices, whereas fit of the EFA-derived models were acceptable but not uniformly ideal. Scores on the 3-factor model - which had comparatively better fit of the models tested - had adequate internal consistency and evidenced scalar invariance across gender. However, evidence of test-retest reliability after four weeks (n = 205) was poor and evidence of construct validity, assessed through correlations with additional measures included in the survey, was weak at best. Based on these results, we question the degree to which the construct of intuitive eating can be applied to nations undergoing nutrition transitions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.09.009DOI Listing
December 2020

COVID-19-related stress and anxiety are associated with negative body image in adults from the United Kingdom.

Pers Individ Dif 2021 Feb 7;170:110426. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.

The stress and anxiety caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic presents a serious threat to psychological well-being in populations worldwide and may also extend to body image outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study in which an online sample of adults from the United Kingdom ( = 506, age  = 34.25 years) were asked to complete measures of perceived stress, stressful life events, trait anxiety, COVID-19-related stress and anxiety, and negative body image (body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in women, body fat and muscularity dissatisfaction in men). The results of hierarchical regressions indicated that COVID-19-related stress and anxiety explained significant incremental variance in body image outcomes (Adj. Δ  = .02 to .10), over-and-above demographics (age and body mass index) and perceived stress, trait anxiety, and stressful life events. These findings suggest that COVID-19-related stress and anxiety may shape body image outcomes under conditions of physical and social distancing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539826PMC
February 2021

The Body Acceptance by Others Scale: An assessment of its factorial validity in adults from the United Kingdom.

Body Image 2020 Dec 16;35:71-74. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The construct of body acceptance by others (i.e., the degree to which an individual perceives acceptance for their appearance by others) is central to conceptual models of positive body image and adaptive eating styles. It is typically measured using the 10-item Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS; Avalos & Tylka, 2006), but emerging research has suggested that a unidimensional model of BAOS scores may be unstable. Here, we examined the factor structure of BAOS scores in a sample of adults from the United Kingdom (N = 1148). Exploratory factor analyses indicated that BAOS scores reduced to two dimensions in women, of which only a primary 6-item factor was stable. In men, all 10 items loaded onto a primary factor. However, the results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both models of BAOS scores had poor fit. Although both the unidimensional 10-item and 6-item models had adequate internal consistency, our results are suggestive of factor structure instability. We conclude by suggesting ways in which future research could revise the BAOS to improve its factorial stability and validity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.08.006DOI Listing
December 2020

The impact of nature exposure on body image and happiness: an experience sampling study.

Int J Environ Health Res 2020 Aug 10:1-15. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Exposure to nature is associated with improved psychological well-being and positive body image. Here, we examined whether everyday exposure to natural environments is associated with state body image outcomes (and, for comparative reasons, state happiness) using an experience sampling method. One-hundred-and-seven participants completed a 30-day experience sampling phase in which they reported their state body image (body weight, body shape, and physical appearance satisfaction), state happiness, and features of the surrounding environment (total = 6,025 responses) at three random time-points each day. Results indicated that being outdoors was associated with significantly higher state body image on all three indicators, but effect sizes were lower compared to effects on state happiness. Specific environment type was also important, with blue-spaces and wood- and grasslands, respectively, having stronger effects than other environments. These results provide evidence that everyday exposure to natural environments is associated with more positive state body image and greater happiness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2020.1803805DOI Listing
August 2020

An examination of the factor structure and preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of a Hebrew translation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2).

Body Image 2020 Sep 13;34:145-154. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Division of Psychology, School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Serdang, Malaysia.

The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely-used, 10-item measure of a core facet of positive body image. To extend its use internationally, we examined the factor structure and conducted a preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of a novel Hebrew translation of the BAS-2. A sample of 613 Israeli adults (362 women, 251 men; age M = 29.52, SD = 9.47) completed the BAS-2 alongside demographic items and previously-validated measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, self-compassion, and body investment. Exploratory factor analyses with a semi-random split-half subsample (n = 377) indicated that BAS-2 scores reduced to a single dimension with all 10 items. This factor structure was equivalent across women and men. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with a second split-half subsample (n = 235) showed the 1-dimensional factor structure had adequate fit following one modification and multi-group CFA showed that the model was invariant across sex. Men had significantly higher BAS-2 scores than women, but the effect size was small (d = 0.22). Evidence of construct validity was demonstrated through positive associations with indices of life satisfaction, self-esteem, self-compassion, and body investment. The availability of a validated BAS-2 Hebrew translation should advance future research of body appreciation in Israel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.05.013DOI Listing
September 2020

Nature exposure and positive body image: (Re-)examining the mediating roles of connectedness to nature and trait mindfulness.

Body Image 2020 Sep 27;34:201-208. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.

Previous studies have reported a significant association between nature exposure and positive body image, but understandings of the mechanisms that help to explain this link remain nascent. Here, we considered the extent to which trait mindfulness and connectedness to nature, respectively, mediate the aforementioned relationship both in parallel and serially. An online sample of 398 participants (199 women, 196 men, 3 other; age M = 28.1 years) from the United Kingdom completed measures of self-reported nature exposure, mindful awareness and acceptance, connectedness to nature, and body appreciation. Results indicated that inter-correlations between scores on all measures were significant and positive. Following the elimination of non-significant pathways, path analysis resulted in an adequately-fitting model in which the direct relationship between nature exposure and body appreciation was significant. In addition, connectedness to nature - but not trait mindfulness - significantly mediated the direct relationship. Finally, we also found evidence of a serial mediation, where the association between nature exposure and body appreciation was mediated by mindful awareness followed by connectedness to nature. The implications of these results for scholarly and practitioner understanding of the impact of nature exposure on positive body image are discussed in conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320863PMC
September 2020

Taking it apart and putting it back together again: Using Item Pool Visualisation to summarise complex data patterns in (positive) body image research.

Body Image 2020 Sep 25;34:155-166. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology and Psychodynamics, Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Krems an der Donau, Austria.

Issues of construct commonality and distinguishability in body image research are typically addressed using structural equal models, but such methods can sometimes present problems of interpretation when data patterns are complex. One recent-developed tool that could help in summarising complex data patterns is Item Pool Visualisation (IPV), an illustrative method that locates item pools from within the same dataset and illustrates these in the form of single or nested radar charts. Here, we demonstrate the utility of IPV in visualising data patterns vis-à-vis positive body image. Five-hundred-and-one adults from the United Kingdom completed seven widely-used measures of positive body image and data were subjected IPV. Results demonstrated that, of the included measures, the Body Appreciation Scale-2 provided the closest and most precise measurement of a core positive body image construct. The Functionality Appreciation Scale and the Authentic Pride subscale of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale tapped more distal aspects. Our results also highlight possible limitations with the use of several other instruments as measures of positive body image. We discuss implications for research aimed at better understanding the nature of positive body image and interpreting complex data patterns in body image research more generally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.05.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Greater gastric interoception is associated with more positive body image: Evidence from adults in Malaysia and the United Kingdom.

Body Image 2020 Sep 5;34:101-111. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Serdang, Malaysia.

Gastric interoception refers to the processing of sensory stimuli originating in the gut. Previous research has found that gastric interoception (measured using a water load task) is associated with drive for thinness in young Western women. However, associations with broader facets of body image and in diverse national groups have not been previously investigated. To address these issues, we asked samples of adults in the United Kingdom (UK; N = 91, women n = 54) and Malaysia (N = 100, women n = 50) to complete a 2-stage water load task (WLT) and measures of positive body image (i.e., body appreciation, functionality appreciation). The results indicated that a greater change in the intensity of self-reported WLT-related sensations was associated with significantly higher body appreciation and functionality appreciation after accounting for gender identity, body mass index, and national group. Behavioural performance on the WLT was significantly associated with body appreciation and functionality appreciation for the Malaysian sample, but not the UK adults, after accounting for gender identity and body mass index. These findings extend previous research by demonstrating that there are significant associations between facets of gastric interoception and previously unexplored facets of body image in both Western and non-Western settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.05.011DOI Listing
September 2020

Assessing the measurement invariance of two positive body image instruments in adults from Malaysia and the United Kingdom.

Body Image 2020 Sep 4;34:112-116. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Serdang, Malaysia.

Despite the growth of positive body image research in recent years, our understanding of the construct across different national contexts remains limited. Here, we investigated measurement invariance of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) and the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS) across ethnically homogenous groups of adults from Malaysia (n = 815, women n = 403) and the United Kingdom (UK; n = 596, women n = 416). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, partial scalar invariance was supported for scores on both measures after fixing the intercepts for BAS-2 Items 6 and 8, and FAS Item 4. Next, we examined differences in latent scores across nationality and gender. The results of an analysis of covariance (with age and body mass index as covariates) indicated a significant nationality by gender interaction: Malaysian women had higher scores than Malaysian men on both the BAS-2 and FAS, but UK men had higher scores than UK women. There were also significant main effects of nationality (Malaysian participants had significantly higher body appreciation and functionality appreciation than UK participants) and gender (men had significantly higher body appreciation than women). These findings are discussed in terms of cross-national and gendered understandings of positive body image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.05.009DOI Listing
September 2020

Translation and validation of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) version of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA).

PLoS One 2020 1;15(4):e0231048. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Objectives: The 32-item Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) is a widely-used measure of multidimensional interoception. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the MAIA.

Methods: An online sample of 815 Malaysian Malays (women n = 403) completed a novel translation of the MAIA. Validated measures of trait mindfulness and self-esteem were also completed to facilitate a preliminary assessment of convergent validity.

Results: Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the MAIA items reduced to a 19-item, 3-factor model. The 3-factor model was further tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) alongside the parent 8-factor model. Both models had good fit on some indices, but less-than-ideal fit on other indices. The 3-factor model evidenced comparatively better fit, with fit indices being adequate following modification. Multi-group CFA indicated both the 3-factor model and the 8-factor model had full strict invariance across sex. However, evidence for construct and convergent validity was mixed.

Conclusions: Overall the 3-dimensional Malay MAIA was demonstrated to be both internally consistent and invariant across sex, but further evidence of construct and convergent validity is required. Issues that affect the dimensionality of MAIA scores in the present and extant work are discussed in conclusion.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231048PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112205PMC
July 2020

The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS): Breast size dissatisfaction and its antecedents and outcomes in women from 40 nations.

Body Image 2020 Mar 4;32:199-217. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS) was established to assess women's breast size dissatisfaction and breasted experiences from a cross-national perspective. A total of 18,541 women were recruited from 61 research sites across 40 nations and completed measures of current-ideal breast size discrepancy, as well as measures of theorised antecedents (personality, Western and local media exposure, and proxies of socioeconomic status) and outcomes (weight and appearance dissatisfaction, breast awareness, and psychological well-being). In the total dataset, 47.5 % of women wanted larger breasts than they currently had, 23.2 % wanted smaller breasts, and 29.3 % were satisfied with their current breast size. There were significant cross-national differences in mean ideal breast size and absolute breast size dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small (η = .02-.03). The results of multilevel modelling showed that greater Neuroticism, lower Conscientiousness, lower Western media exposure, greater local media exposure, lower financial security, and younger age were associated with greater breast size dissatisfaction across nations. In addition, greater absolute breast size dissatisfaction was associated with greater weight and appearance dissatisfaction, poorer breast awareness, and poorer psychological well-being across nations. These results indicate that breast size dissatisfaction is a global public health concern linked to women's psychological and physical well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.01.006DOI Listing
March 2020

Dimensional structure, psychometric properties, and sex and ethnic invariance of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2).

Body Image 2020 Mar 22;32:167-179. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Serdang, Malaysia.

The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2; Tylka & Kroon Van Diest, 2013) is a widely-used measure of facets of intuitive eating. We examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the IES-2 in a sample of Malaysian Malay and Chinese adults (N = 921). Participants completed a Malay translation of the IES-2 along with demographic items and measures of psychological well-being, positive and negative body image, and internalisation of appearance ideals. Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) with Malay subsamples indicated that IES-2 scores reduced to 4 factors in women and 3 in men, both of which diverged from the parent model. Confirmatory factor analysis failed to confirm the parent 4-factor model, and indices for the EFA-derived models were acceptable but not ideal. Of the models tested, the EFA-derived 3-factor model had the best fit indices. Scores on this model had adequate internal consistency and were invariant across sex and ethnicity, but between-group differences in subscale scores were non-significant or negligible. Evidence of the construct validity of Malay IES-2 scores was mixed, particularly in men. These results lead us to question the degree to which intuitive eating as a construct is applicable to Malaysian populations specifically and non-Western populations generally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.01.003DOI Listing
March 2020
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