Publications by authors named "Vipin Suri"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Serine synthesis pathway inhibition cooperates with dietary serine and glycine limitation for cancer therapy.

Nat Commun 2021 01 14;12(1):366. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK.

Many tumour cells show dependence on exogenous serine and dietary serine and glycine starvation can inhibit the growth of these cancers and extend survival in mice. However, numerous mechanisms promote resistance to this therapeutic approach, including enhanced expression of the de novo serine synthesis pathway (SSP) enzymes or activation of oncogenes that drive enhanced serine synthesis. Here we show that inhibition of PHGDH, the first step in the SSP, cooperates with serine and glycine depletion to inhibit one-carbon metabolism and cancer growth. In vitro, inhibition of PHGDH combined with serine starvation leads to a defect in global protein synthesis, which blocks the activation of an ATF-4 response and more broadly impacts the protective stress response to amino acid depletion. In vivo, the combination of diet and inhibitor shows therapeutic efficacy against tumours that are resistant to diet or drug alone, with evidence of reduced one-carbon availability. However, the defect in ATF4-response seen in vitro following complete depletion of available serine is not seen in mice, where dietary serine and glycine depletion and treatment with the PHGDH inhibitor lower but do not eliminate serine. Our results indicate that inhibition of PHGDH will augment the therapeutic efficacy of a serine depleted diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20223-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809039PMC
January 2021

Limited Environmental Serine and Glycine Confer Brain Metastasis Sensitivity to PHGDH Inhibition.

Cancer Discov 2020 09 22;10(9):1352-1373. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Perlmutter Cancer Center and NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

A hallmark of metastasis is the adaptation of tumor cells to new environments. Metabolic constraints imposed by the serine and glycine-limited brain environment restrict metastatic tumor growth. How brain metastases overcome these growth-prohibitive conditions is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glucose-derived serine synthesis, is a major determinant of brain metastasis in multiple human cancer types and preclinical models. Enhanced serine synthesis proved important for nucleotide production and cell proliferation in highly aggressive brain metastatic cells. , genetic suppression and pharmacologic inhibition of PHGDH attenuated brain metastasis, but not extracranial tumor growth, and improved overall survival in mice. These results reveal that extracellular amino acid availability determines serine synthesis pathway dependence, and suggest that PHGDH inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of brain metastasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Using proteomics, metabolomics, and multiple brain metastasis models, we demonstrate that the nutrient-limited environment of the brain potentiates brain metastasis susceptibility to serine synthesis inhibition. These findings underscore the importance of studying cancer metabolism in physiologically relevant contexts, and provide a rationale for using PHGDH inhibitors to treat brain metastasis..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-1228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483776PMC
September 2020

Serine Metabolism Supports Macrophage IL-1β Production.

Cell Metab 2019 04 14;29(4):1003-1011.e4. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Serine is a substrate for nucleotide, NADPH, and glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Previous studies in cancer cells and lymphocytes have shown that serine-dependent one-carbon units are necessary for nucleotide production to support proliferation. Presently, it is unknown whether serine metabolism impacts the function of non-proliferative cells, such as inflammatory macrophages. We find that in macrophages, serine is required for optimal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction of IL-1β mRNA expression, but not inflammasome activation. The mechanism involves a requirement for glycine, which is made from serine, to support macrophage GSH synthesis. Cell-permeable GSH, but not the one-carbon donor formate, rescues IL-1β mRNA expression. Pharmacological inhibition of de novo serine synthesis in vivo decreased LPS induction of IL-1β levels and improved survival in an LPS-driven model of sepsis in mice. Our study reveals that serine metabolism is necessary for GSH synthesis to support IL-1β cytokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2019.01.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447453PMC
April 2019

Human SHMT inhibitors reveal defective glycine import as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 10 9;114(43):11404-11409. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544;

The enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferse (SHMT) converts serine into glycine and a tetrahydrofolate-bound one-carbon unit. Folate one-carbon units support purine and thymidine synthesis, and thus cell growth. Mammals have both cytosolic SHMT1 and mitochondrial SHMT2, with the mitochondrial isozyme strongly up-regulated in cancer. Here we show genetically that dual SHMT1/2 knockout blocks HCT-116 colon cancer tumor xenograft formation. Building from a pyrazolopyran scaffold that inhibits plant SHMT, we identify small-molecule dual inhibitors of human SHMT1/2 (biochemical IC ∼ 10 nM). Metabolomics and isotope tracer studies demonstrate effective cellular target engagement. A cancer cell-line screen revealed that B-cell lines are particularly sensitive to SHMT inhibition. The one-carbon donor formate generally rescues cells from SHMT inhibition, but paradoxically increases the inhibitor's cytotoxicity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We show that this effect is rooted in defective glycine uptake in DLBCL cell lines, rendering them uniquely dependent upon SHMT enzymatic activity to meet glycine demand. Thus, defective glycine import is a targetable metabolic deficiency of DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706617114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664509PMC
October 2017

Serine Is an Essential Metabolite for Effector T Cell Expansion.

Cell Metab 2017 02 19;25(2):345-357. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Goodman Cancer Research Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 1A3, Canada; Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada. Electronic address:

During immune challenge, T lymphocytes engage pathways of anabolic metabolism to support clonal expansion and the development of effector functions. Here we report a critical role for the non-essential amino acid serine in effector T cell responses. Upon activation, T cells upregulate enzymes of the serine, glycine, one-carbon (SGOC) metabolic network, and rapidly increase processing of serine into one-carbon metabolism. We show that extracellular serine is required for optimal T cell expansion even in glucose concentrations sufficient to support T cell activation, bioenergetics, and effector function. Restricting dietary serine impairs pathogen-driven expansion of T cells in vivo, without affecting overall immune cell homeostasis. Mechanistically, serine supplies glycine and one-carbon units for de novo nucleotide biosynthesis in proliferating T cells, and one-carbon units from formate can rescue T cells from serine deprivation. Our data implicate serine as a key immunometabolite that directly modulates adaptive immunity by controlling T cell proliferative capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2016.12.011DOI Listing
February 2017

PHARMACOLOGICAL SIRT1 ACTIVATION IMPROVES MORTALITY AND MARKEDLY ALTERS TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILES THAT ACCOMPANY EXPERIMENTAL SEPSIS.

Shock 2016 Apr;45(4):411-8

*Infectious Disease Division, Memorial Hospital of RI, Pawtucket †The Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island ‡Sirtris, A GSK company, Cambridge, Massachusetts §GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, Pennsylvania ||GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina ¶Pathology Department, Memorial Hospital of RI, Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

The sirtuin family consists of seven NAD+-dependent enzymes affecting a broad array of regulatory protein networks by primarily catalyzing the deacetylation of key lysine residues in regulatory proteins. The enzymatic activity of SIRT1 can be enhanced by small molecule activators known as SIRT1 activator compounds (STACs). We tested the therapeutic potential of the STAC SRT3025 in two preclinical models of severe infection, the murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to induce peritonitis and intratracheal installation of Streptococcus pneumoniae to induce severe bacterial pneumonia. SRT3025 provided significant survival benefits over vehicle control in both the peritonitis and pneumococcal pneumonia models when administered with appropriate antimicrobial agents. The survival benefit of SRT3025 in the CLP model was absent in SIRT1 knockout showing the SIRT1 dependency of SRT3025's effects. SRT3025 administration promoted bacterial clearance and significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines from the lungs of animals challenged with S. pneumoniae. SRT3025 treatment was also accompanied by striking changes in the transcription profiles in multiple inflammatory and metabolic pathways in liver, spleen, small bowel, and lung tissue. Remarkably, these organ-specific changes in the transcriptome analyses were similar following CLP or pneumococcal challenge despite different sets of pathogens at disparate sites of infection. Pharmacologic activation of SIRT1 modulates the innate host response and could represent a novel treatment strategy for severe infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000000528DOI Listing
April 2016

Sirtuin 1 activator SRT2104 protects Huntington's disease mice.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2014 Dec 31;1(12):1047-52. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Division of Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland, 21287 ; Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland, 21287 ; Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland, 21287.

Sirtuin 1 is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase which regulates longevity and improves metabolism. Activation of Sirtuin 1 confers beneficial effects in models of neurodegenerative diseases. We and others have provided convincing evidence that overexpression of Sirtuin 1 plays a neuroprotective role in mouse models of Huntington's disease. In this study, we report that SRT2104, a small molecule Sirtuin 1 activator, penetrated the blood-brain barrier, attenuated brain atrophy, improved motor function, and extended survival in a mouse model of Huntington's disease. These findings imply a novel therapeutic strategy for Huntington's disease by targeting Sirtuin 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4284130PMC
December 2014

The Sirt1 activator SRT3025 provides atheroprotection in Apoe-/- mice by reducing hepatic Pcsk9 secretion and enhancing Ldlr expression.

Eur Heart J 2015 Jan 6;36(1):51-9. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich and University Heart Center, Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland Zurich Center of Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Aims: The deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) exerts beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, but its roles in plasma LDL-cholesterol regulation and atherosclerosis are controversial. Thus, we applied the pharmacological Sirt1 activator SRT3025 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis and in hepatocyte culture.

Methods And Results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet (1.25% w/w) supplemented with SRT3025 (3.18 g kg(-1) diet) for 12 weeks. In vitro, the drug activated wild-type Sirt1 protein, but not the activation-resistant Sirt1 mutant; in vivo, it increased deacetylation of hepatic p65 and skeletal muscle Foxo1. SRT3025 treatment decreased plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol and reduced atherosclerosis. Drug treatment did not change mRNA expression of hepatic LDL receptor (Ldlr) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (Pcsk9), but increased their protein expression indicating post-translational effects. Consistent with hepatocyte Ldlr and Pcsk9 accumulation, we found reduced plasma levels of Pcsk9 after pharmacological Sirt1 activation. In vitro administration of SRT3025 to cultured AML12 hepatocytes attenuated Pcsk9 secretion and its binding to Ldlr, thereby reducing Pcsk9-mediated Ldlr degradation and increasing Ldlr expression and LDL uptake. Co-administration of exogenous Pcsk9 with SRT3025 blunted these effects. Sirt1 activation with SRT3025 in Ldlr(-/-) mice reduced neither plasma Pcsk9, nor LDL-cholesterol levels, nor atherosclerosis.

Conclusion: We identify reduction in Pcsk9 secretion as a novel effect of Sirt1 activity and uncover Ldlr as a prerequisite for Sirt1-mediated atheroprotection in mice. Pharmacological activation of Sirt1 appears promising to be tested in patients for its effects on plasma Pcsk9, LDL-cholesterol, and atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4286317PMC
January 2015

Discovery of HSD-621 as a Potential Agent for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2013 Jan 23;4(1):118-23. Epub 2012 Nov 23.

Worldwide Research and Development, Pfizer Inc. , 200 Cambridge Park Drive, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, United States.

11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoid cortisone to its active form, cortisol. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathway has been linked to the pathophysiology of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Herein, the structure-activity relationship of a series of piperazine sulfonamide-based 11β-HSD1 inhibitors is described. (R)-3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-(5-(((R)-4-(4-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-hydroxypropanamide 18a (HSD-621) was identified as a potent and selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor and was ultimately selected as a clinical development candidate. HSD-621 has an attractive overall pharmaceutical profile and demonstrates good oral bioavailability in mouse, rat, and dog. When orally dosed in C57/BL6 diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice, HSD-621 was efficacious and showed a significant reduction in both fed and fasting glucose and insulin levels. Furthermore, HSD-621 was well tolerated in drug safety assessment studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ml300352xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4027441PMC
January 2013

SIRT1 activators suppress inflammatory responses through promotion of p65 deacetylation and inhibition of NF-κB activity.

PLoS One 2012 28;7(9):e46364. Epub 2012 Sep 28.

Sirtris, a GSK Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Chronic inflammation is a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of many age-associated diseases. One central protein that regulates inflammation is NF-κB, the activity of which is modulated by post-translational modifications as well as by association with co-activator and co-repressor proteins. SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, has been shown to suppress NF-κB signaling through deacetylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB resulting in the reduction of the inflammatory responses mediated by this transcription factor. The role of SIRT1 in the regulation of NF-κB provides the necessary validation for the development of pharmacological strategies for activating SIRT1 as an approach for the development of a new class of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. We report herein the development of a quantitative assay to assess compound effects on acetylated p65 protein in the cell. We demonstrate that small molecule activators of SIRT1 (STACs) enhance deacetylation of cellular p65 protein, which results in the suppression of TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activation and reduction of LPS-stimulated TNFα secretion in a SIRT1-dependent manner. In an acute mouse model of LPS-induced inflammation, the STAC SRTCX1003 decreased the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-12. Our studies indicate that increasing SIRT1-mediated NF-κB deacetylation using small molecule activating compounds is a novel approach to the development of a new class of therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0046364PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3460821PMC
February 2013

Targeting Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) with small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

J Biol Chem 2011 Dec 11;286(48):41838-41851. Epub 2011 Oct 11.

Biocorrection Research Unit, Pfizer, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140. Electronic address:

Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is one of two known DGAT enzymes that catalyze the final step in triglyceride synthesis. Findings from genetically modified mice as well as pharmacological studies suggest that inhibition of DGAT1 is a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we characterize a tool DGAT1 inhibitor compound, T863. We found that T863 is a potent inhibitor for both human and mouse DGAT1 in vitro, which acts on the acyl-CoA binding site of DGAT1 and inhibits DGAT1-mediated triacylglycerol formation in cells. In an acute lipid challenge model, oral administration of T863 significantly delayed fat absorption and resulted in lipid accumulation in the distal small intestine of mice, mimicking the effects of genetic ablation of DGAT1. In diet-induced obese mice, oral administration of T863 for 2 weeks caused weight loss, reduction in serum and liver triglycerides, and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition to the expected triglyceride-lowering activity, T863 also lowered serum cholesterol. Hepatic IRS2 protein was dramatically up-regulated in mice treated with T863, possibly contributing to improved insulin sensitivity. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, T863 enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, suggesting a possible role for adipocytes to improve insulin sensitivity upon DGAT1 inhibition. These results reveal novel mechanistic insights into the insulin-sensitizing effects of DGAT1 inhibition in mouse models. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive evaluation of a small molecule inhibitor for DGAT1 and suggests that pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 holds promise in treating diverse metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.245456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3308890PMC
December 2011

Comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies in lean and diet- induced obese mice: an animal efficacy model for 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors.

Drug Metab Lett 2011 Jan;5(1):55-63

Discovery Pharmacokinetics, Drug Safety and Metabolism, Wyeth Research, Andover, MA 01810, USA.

Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice have been commonly used as an animal model in the efficacy assessment for new drug candidates. Although high-fat feeding has been reported to cause profound physiological changes, including the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, limited studies have been reported regarding the effect of obesity/diabetes on pharmacokinetics (PK) in animals. In this study, we investigated PK profiles of three 11 -HSD-1 inhibitors in the DIO mice and compared them to the normal lean mice. After oral administration, the in vivo exposure (AUC) of all three compounds was higher in DIO mice, which was consistent with the observed lower systemic clearance (CL) in DIO mice compared to lean mice. As illustrated by Compound E, a compound metabolized predominantly by CYP3A and 2C, the metabolic profiles for Compound E were qualitatively similar between DIO and lean mice, but quantitatively lower in the DIO mice. Indeed, P-450 activities for CYP3A and 2C as well as 2D were found to be lower in liver microsomes prepared from DIO mice. The calculated hepatic clearance (CLH) from in vitro studies with liver microsomes correlated well with the observed in vivo clearance for both DIO and lean mice. The calculated oral bioavailability (F%) based on intrinsic hepatic clearance (C(LH, int)) predicted ~3 fold increase in F% for the DIO mice, which was comparable to the observed value. Collectively, these data suggest that the higher F% is most likely due to the lower first-pass effect in DIO mice. This study highlights the needs to take caution when extrapolating PK and exposure data from healthy animals to diseased animals in designing pharmacological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187231211794455280DOI Listing
January 2011

Efficacious 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I inhibitors in the diet-induced obesity mouse model.

J Med Chem 2009 Sep;52(17):5449-61

Chemical Sciences, Wyeth Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA.

Cortisol and the glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway have been implicated in the development of diabetes and obesity. The reduction of cortisone to cortisol is catalyzed by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (11beta-HSD1). 2,4-Disubsituted benzenesulfonamides were identified as potent inhibitors of both the human and mouse enzymes. The lead compounds displayed good pharmacokinetics and ex vivo inhibition of the target in mice. Cocrystal structures of compounds 1 and 20 bound to human 11beta-HSD1 were obtained. Compound 20 was found to achieve high concentrations in target tissues, resulting in 95% inhibition in the ex vivo assay when dosed with a food mix (0.5 mg of drug per g of food) after 4 days. Compound 20 was efficacious in a mouse diet-induced obesity model and significantly reduced fed glucose and fasted insulin levels. Our findings suggest that 11beta-HSD1 inhibition may be a valid target for the treatment of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm900639uDOI Listing
September 2009

H6PDH interacts directly with 11beta-HSD1: implications for determining the directionality of glucocorticoid catalysis.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2009 Mar 24;483(1):45-54. Epub 2008 Dec 24.

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Wyeth Research, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA.

Tissue specific amplification of glucocorticoid action through NADPH-dependent reduction of inactive glucocorticoid precursors by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD1) contributes to the development of visceral obesity, insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) is believed to supply NADPH for the reductase activity of 11beta-HSD1 in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the two enzymes are co-localized. We report here expression and purification of full-length and truncated N-terminal domain (NTD) of H6PDH in a mammalian expression system. Interestingly, both full-length H6PDH and the truncated NTD are secreted into the culture medium in the absence of 11beta-HSD1. Purified full-length H6PDH is a bi-functional enzyme with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity as well as 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL) activity. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments with purified H6PDH and 11beta-HSD1, and with cell lysates expressing H6PDH and 11beta-HSD1, we observe direct physical interaction between the two enzymes. We also show the modulation of 11beta-HSD1 directionality by H6PDH using overexpression and siRNA knockdown systems. The NTD retains the ability to interact with 11beta-HSD1 physically as well as modulate 11beta-HSD1 directionality indicating that the NTD of H6PDH is sufficient for the regulation of the 11beta-HSD1 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2008.12.004DOI Listing
March 2009

Piperazine sulfonamides as potent, selective, and orally available 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors with efficacy in the rat cortisone-induced hyperinsulinemia model.

J Med Chem 2008 Jul 26;51(14):4068-71. Epub 2008 Jun 26.

Chemical and Screening Sciences, Wyeth Research, 200 CambridgePark Drive, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA.

11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) is the enzyme that converts cortisone to cortisol. Evidence suggests that selective inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 could treat diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Presented herein are the synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and in vivo evaluation of piperazine sulfonamides as 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors. Through modification of our initial lead 5a, we have identified potent and selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors such as 13q and 13u with good pharmacokinetic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm8004948DOI Listing
July 2008

beta-Keto sulfones as inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I and the mechanism of action.

Bioorg Med Chem 2007 Jul 25;15(13):4396-405. Epub 2007 Apr 25.

Chemical and Screening Sciences, Wyeth Research, 200 Cambridge Park Drive, MA 02140, USA.

The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of beta-keto sulfones as 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors and the mechanism of inhibition are described here. This class of compounds is not active against 11beta-HSD2 and therefore may have therapeutic potential for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2007.04.035DOI Listing
July 2007

Molecular activation of PPARgamma by angiotensin II type 1-receptor antagonists.

Vascul Pharmacol 2006 Sep 16;45(3):154-62. Epub 2006 May 16.

Wyeth Research, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA.

Objective And Design: Elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance are strongly associated in patients. We explored the potential for the anti-hypertensive angiotensin II type 1-receptor (ATR(1)) antagonists to improve insulin sensitivity through modulation of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma, in vitro and in vivo compared to the potent insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone.

Methods: PPARgamma modulation by ATR(1) antagonists was measured first by direct recruitment of PGC-1, followed by trans-activation reporter assays in cells, and promotion of adipogenesis in fibroblast and pre-adipocyte cell lines. Improvement of insulin sensitivity was measured as changes in levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin in ob/ob mice.

Results: Telmisartan, candesartan, irbesartan, and losartan (but not valsartan or olmesartan) each served as bona fide PPARgamma ligands in vitro, with EC(50) values between 3 and 5 micro mol/l. However, only telmisartan, and to a lesser extent candesartan, resulted in significant PPARgamma agonism in cells. In vivo, although rosiglitazone significantly lowered both glucose (33%, p<0.01) and insulin (61%, p<0.01) levels and increased expression of adiponectin (74%, p<0.001), sartan treatment had no effect.

Conclusions: Many members of the sartan family of ATR(1) antagonists are PPARgamma ligands in cell-free assays but their modulation of PPARgamma in cells is relatively weak. Furthermore, none appear to improve insulin sensitivity in a rodent model under conditions where other insulin sensitizers, including rosiglitazone, do. These results question whether reported effects of sartans on insulin sensitivity may be through other means, and should guide further efforts to develop dual agents to treat hypertension and insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2006.05.002DOI Listing
September 2006

Synthesis and biological evaluation of sulfonamidooxazoles and beta-keto sulfones: selective inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005 Jun;15(11):2865-9

Chemical and Screening Sciences, Wyeth Research, MA 02140, USA.

The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of arylsulfonamidooxazoles as 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors and the serendipitous discovery of beta-keto sulfones as potent 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors are described here. These two classes of compounds are not active against 11beta-HSD2 and therefore may have significant therapeutic potential for metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.03.093DOI Listing
June 2005