Publications by authors named "Vipin Gupta"

126 Publications

The perceived need for evidence-based COVID-19 management and Tele-education in the North-East region of India: a cross-sectional survey.

J Community Health 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), 160012, Chandigarh, India.

Due to the sudden rise in the cases of COVID-19 in the North-Eastern region of India, this study was conducted to survey the felt needs of the medical professionals with regards to education on the evidence-based management of COVID-19. A total of 25 North-East leaders were recruited and a baseline survey was conducted through the digital medium. Out of 25 North-East leaders, 52% were undergoing training in evidence-based medicine in the capacity-building program for evidence-based child health. Participants (48%) strongly agreed and 40% agreed on the possibility of enhanced care by capacity building in the areas of COVID-19 management through discussing cases. Out of 25 North East leaders, 48% agreed to join both as a speaker as well as a participant. Various priority topics on COVID-19 management e.g. childhood, adult, ocular manifestation, ICU management, telemedicine, vaccines, lab protocols, psychological distress, and treatment strategy have emerged. We have presented the findings of the survey which will help guide the mentoring program focusing on evidence-based management of COVID-19 in remote areas through Tele-education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-022-01076-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9362112PMC
August 2022

Efficacy and Safety of LigaSure in Laparoscopic Sutureless Appendectomy.

Cureus 2022 May 5;14(5):e24764. Epub 2022 May 5.

Pediatric Surgery, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow, IND.

Background The closure of the appendiceal stump is a crucial step during an appendectomy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the LigaSure Vessel Sealing System in laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) for sealing and dividing the base of the appendix. Material and methods Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed using the 5-mm LigaSure Vessel Sealer in 53 patients, and the mesoappendix along with the base of the appendix was divided by LigaSure. Patient demographic details, operative time, return to oral feed, duration of hospital stay, and postoperative complications were recorded, and statistical analysis was done. Results Out of 53 patients (24 women and 29 men), no complications occur in 51 patients. The mean age and standard deviation (SD) were 26.50 ± 10.46 years. The mean operative time for 53 appendectomies by LigaSure was 27.8 ± 6.72 minutes. The mean duration of hospital stay after surgery was 3.3 ± 0.72 days. One patient developed mild subcutaneous emphysema over the abdomen (1.8%), and surgical site infection occurred in one patient (1.8%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that sealing and dividing the base of the appendix by the LigaSure Vessel Sealing System is safe and feasible. It is associated with low complication rate and may help in simplifying the operative procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.24764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9216166PMC
May 2022

Prospective validation of AIIMS index as a predictor of steroid failure in patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2022 Jun 26;41(3):273-283. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110 029, India.

Background: Optimal outcomes in acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) are related to time-bound management based upon early prediction of response to intravenous (IV) steroids. In an earlier study, we described the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) index (baseline Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity [UCEIS] ≥ 7 and day 3 fecal calprotectin [FCP] > 1000 μg/g) for predicting failure of IV steroids. The current study is designed to validate this index in a prospective cohort.

Methods: IV steroid-naïve patients with ASUC, satisfying Truelove and Witts' criteria, hospitalized from August 2018 to July 2019 were included. Patients' assessment included baseline sigmoidoscopy, day 1 and 3 FCP, hemogram, biochemistry and day 3 C-reactive protein. All patients received IV steroids, and the primary outcome was steroid failure, defined as the need for colectomy or rescue therapy with cyclosporine (CYC)/infliximab (IFX) during admission.

Results: Of the 47 patients, eight were excluded (four received steroids outside, two were directly taken for surgery/infliximab therapy, one had toxic megacolon, and one had infectious colitis), and 39 patients were included (mean age: 36.1 ± 12.6 years, male: 31%). Fifteen patients (38%) failed IV steroid and required rescue therapy (IFX: 9, CYC: 2, Colectomy: 3, IFX followed by colectomy: 1). On univariate analysis, UCEIS ≥ 7 at baseline (p = 0.006), day 1 FCP (p = 0.03), day 3 FCP > 1000 μg/g (p = 0.001), Oxford criteria (p = 0.04) and AIIMS index (p < 0.001) were significantly different between steroid responders and steroid failures. On multivariate analysis, day 3 FCP > 1000 μg/g (odds ratio (odds ratio (OR)= 6.4;(95% CI =2.2-196.1) and baseline UCEIS ≥ 7 (OR) = 10.1;(95% CI = 2.1-80.2) were independent predictors. The AIIMS index predicted steroid failure with a better specificity (100% vs. 83%, p = 0.04) and positive predictive value (100% vs. 64%, p = 0.03) than Oxford criteria.

Conclusion: AIIMS index has been validated in 39 prospective ASUC patients as an effective early predictor of steroid failure (sensitivity = 53%, specificity = 100%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12664-021-01217-0DOI Listing
June 2022

sp. nov., isolated from glacial habitats of maritime Antarctica.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2022 Apr;72(4)

Department of Experimental Biology, Czech Collection of Microorganisms, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Strains P8930 and 478 were isolated from Antarctic glaciers located on James Ross Island and King George Island, respectively. They comprised Gram-stain-negative short rod-shaped cells forming pink pigmented colonies and exhibited identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and highly similar MALDI TOF mass spectra, and hence were assigned as representatives of the same species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned both isolates to the genus and showed and to be their closest phylogenetic neighbours, with 97.4 and 97.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. These low similarity values were below the threshold similarity value of 98.7%, confirming the delineation of a new bacterial species. Further genomic characterization included whole-genome sequencing accompanied by average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization calculations, and characterization of the genome features. The ANI values between P8930 and RP-3-11 and DSM 17933 were 79.7 and 77.6 %, respectively, and the value between RP-3-11 and DSM 17933 was 77.7 %, clearly demonstrating the phylogenetic distance and the novelty of strain P8930. Further characterization included analysis of cellular fatty acids, quinones and polar lipids, and comprehensive biotyping. All the obtained results proved the separation of strains P8930 and 478 from the other validly named species, and confirmed that they represent a new species for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P8930 (=CCM 8938=LMG 32098).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.005309DOI Listing
April 2022

To assess the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of preoperative ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes in patients of breast carcinoma.

J Family Med Prim Care 2022 Jan 31;11(1):133-138. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Surgery, Integral Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Metastasis of the lymph node is one of the most significant prognostic factors for breast cancer (BC).

Aim: To predict positivity of the lymph node in BC patients with help of USG and USG-guided FNAC and thus to prevent unnecessary morbidity.

Methods: 50 patients of incisional/true cut biopsy-proven BC patients were included. All were subjected to mammography, USG and FNAC of the lump breast. USG-guided FNAC of the axillary lymph node was done in 25 of these patients. These findings were assessed by histological examination following dissection of the axillary lymph node.

Results: Axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis was present in 42 patients on histopathology; 21 patients suspicious of malignancy on preoperative USG were confirmed by HPE. Out of 88 confirmed lymph nodes evaluated on ultrasonography, 4 were benign, 18 were indeterminate and 66 were suspicious. The most promising features were tumour length/depth ratio of <1.5 in 81, absent fatty hilum in 73% and hypoechoic cortex in 74%. Assessment of axilla with USG had a sensitivity of 50%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100%, an NPV of 27.59% and a diagnostic accuracy of 58%. Preoperative USG-guided FNAC had a sensitivity of 91.67%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100%, an NPV of 33.33% and a diagnostic accuracy of 92%.

Conclusion: USG can detect non-palpable axillary lymph nodes and FNAC can increase the sensitivity and specificity of this technique, which makes this procedure very promising in detecting axillary metastases in BC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2521_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8930130PMC
January 2022

Disseminated cysticercosis: a case report and review of treatment protocols.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 18;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of and is a significant health problem. Disseminated cysticercosis is an infrequent manifestation of the same. A woman in her 30s presented to us with a history of seizures, outward protrusion of both eyes and multiple soft-tissue swellings over the face and tongue for 3 years. Imaging studies revealed multiple cystic lesions in the brain parenchyma, extraocular muscles, subcutaneous tissue, muscles of mastication and tongue. A high index of suspicion and a planned therapeutic approach is required in such cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-248603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8935178PMC
March 2022

Acute Variceal Bleed in Cirrhosis is Associated With Reversible Changes in Tight Junction Protein Expression in the Intestine: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2022 Jan-Feb;12(1):89-100. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition Unit, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Background: Tight junction proteins (TJPs) play an important role in gut-barrier dysfunction in cirrhosis and its complications such as acute variceal bleed (AVB). However, the dynamics of TJPs expression after AVB, its relation to bacterial translocation, and impact on clinical outcome is largely unknown.

Aims: The aim of this study was to study the expression of TJPs in cirrhosis and assess its dynamic changes in AVB. In addition, the relation of TJP expression to endotoxemia and clinical outcomes was assessed.

Methods: In this prospective pilot study, 17 patients of cirrhosis with AVB, 59 patients of cirrhosis without AVB (non-AVB cirrhosis), and 20 controls were assessed for claudin-2 and claudin-4 expression in the duodenal biopsy. In the AVB-cirrhosis group, additional biopsies were obtained after 3 weeks. Endotoxemia was assessed by measuring IgG anti-endotoxin antibody levels. Claudin expression was correlated with a 6-month survival.

Results: Claudin-2 expression was downregulated in patients with AVB and non-AVB cirrhosis in villi ( < 0.001 and 0.013) and crypts ( < 0.001 and 0.012), respectively, compared with the controls. Claudin-4 expression was similar in villi ( = 0.079), but lower in crypts ( = 0.007) in patients with cirrhosis. Claudin-2 expression was upregulated on serial biopsies in both villi and crypts ( = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively) in AVB-cirrhosis with postbleed expression comparable with those with non-AVB cirrhosis. IgG anti-endotoxin antibody levels were elevated in cirrhosis with no correlation with claudin-2/4 expression. Claudin-2 expression independently predicted survival at 6 months.

Conclusion: Both claudin-2 and claudin-4 expression are downregulated in cirrhosis. AVB is associated with dynamic changes in TJPs expression. Gut-barrier dysfunction might predict outcomes independent of bacterial endotoxemia in cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2021.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8766542PMC
April 2021

Spectrum of height in patients with celiac disease.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2021 Dec 18;40(6):604-612. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110 029, India.

Background: Growth retardation is an important feature of celiac disease (CeD) that can lead to the failure of attainment of potential adult height. There is lack of data on the spectrum of height in treatment-naïve patients with CeD, with normal expected height at one end and short stature at the other.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database at our center, including a total of 583 treatment-naïve patients with CeD: 419 adults (183 [43.7%] males) and 164 adolescents (12-18 years) (72 [43.9%] males). The details extracted from the database included demographic details, height, weight, body mass index, clinical symptoms, biochemical parameters, anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody anti-tTG Ab) titer, and the severity of villous abnormalities (as per modified Marsh grade). The data from Indian National Family Health Survey-4 were used as comparators.

Results: Overall, 19.6% of adults and 57.9% of adolescents with CeD had short stature. While mean height of men with CeD was similar, women were taller than population controls. While a higher proportion of men with CeD had short stature as compared to the controls (32.2% vs. 20%, p<0.001), a lower proportion of women with CeD had short stature (9.7% vs. 18.9%, p<0.001). Higher proportion of adolescents with CeD had short stature compared to adults (57.9% vs. 19.6%, p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, adulthood was found to be associated with a lower prevalence of short stature.

Conclusions: Overall, 19.6% of adults and 57.9% of adolescents with CeD had short stature. While the mean height of adult men with CeD was not significantly different from the population controls, women were taller. Adolescents with CeD were significantly shorter than their peers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12664-021-01173-9DOI Listing
December 2021

Impact of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index on maternal, fetal and neonatal adverse outcomes in the worldwide populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2021 Nov-Dec;15(6):536-545. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Objective: Systematic review and meta-analysis conducted to investigate the effect of stratified pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index on twenty maternal and fetal/neonatal adverse outcomes.

Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, Web of Science databases were searched from inception till July 11, 2020. Cohort studies were included. The pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was reported considering the random effect and the quality effect model. The sub-group analysis and meta-regression were conducted for BMI cut-offs, geographical region, source of BMI, and sample size.

Results: Overall, 86 studies representing 20,328,777 pregnant women were included in this meta-analysis. Our study reveals that overweight and obese mothers are at increased odds of cesarean delivery, elective cesarean delivery, emergency cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, induction of labor, postpartum hemorrhage, pre-eclampsia, pre-term premature rupture of membrane, and the fetuses/neonates of overweight and obese mothers are at increased risk of admission in the newborn intensive care unit, APGAR scores less than 7 at 5 min, large for gestational age, macrosomia, extreme pre-term birth in pregnant mothers compared with standard BMI mothers. However, the underweight mothers showed increased odds for small for gestational age infant and pre-term birth, whereas obese mothers were at higher risk for post-term birth and stillbirths. The subgroup and meta-regression analyses have shown the impact of BMI cut-offs, geographical region, source of BMI, and sample size on several maternal, fetal/neonatal adverse outcomes.

Conclusion: The meta-analysis confirmed the association of elevated pre-pregnancy maternal BMI with higher odds of adverse maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2021.10.005DOI Listing
December 2021

The rising dominance of microbiology: what to expect in the next 15 years?

Microb Biotechnol 2022 01 29;15(1):110-128. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, 110003, India.

What microbiology beholds after a decade and a half in the future requires a vision based on the facts and ongoing trends in research and technological advancements. While the latter, assisted by microbial dark matter, presents a greater potential of creating an upsurge in in-situ and ex-situ rapid microbial detection techniques, this anticipated change will also set forth a revolution in microbial cultivation and diversity analyses. The availability of a microbial genetic toolbox at the expanse will help complement the current understanding of the microbiome and assist in real-time monitoring of the dynamics for detecting the health status of the host with utmost precision. Alongside, in light of the emerging infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and social demands for safer and better health care alternatives, microbiology laboratories are prospected to drift in terms of the volume and nature of research and outcomes. With today's microbiological lens, one can predict with certainty that in the years to come, microbes will play a significant role in therapeutic treatment and the designing of novel diagnostic techniques. Another area where the scope of microbial application seems to be promising is the use of novel probiotics as a method to offer health benefits whilst promoting metabolic outputs specific for microbiome replenishment. Nonetheless, the evolution of extraterrestrial microbes or the adaptation of earth microbes as extraterrestrial residents are also yet another prominent microbial event one may witness in the upcoming years. But like the two sides of the coin, there is also an urgent need to dampen the bloom of urbanization, overpopulation and global trade and adopting sustainable approaches to control the recurrence of epidemics and pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8719816PMC
January 2022

Soil from a Hexachlorocyclohexane Contaminated Field Site Inoculates Wheat in a Pot Experiment to Facilitate the Microbial Transformation of β-Hexachlorocyclohexane Examined by Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 10 5;55(20):13812-13821. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) is a remnant from former HCH pesticide production. Its removal from the environment gained attention in the last few years since it is the most stable HCH isomer. However, knowledge about the transformation of β-HCH in soil-plant systems is still limited. Therefore, experiments with a contaminated field soil were conducted to investigate the transformation of β-HCH in soil-plant systems by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA). The results showed that the δC and δCl values of β-HCH in the soil of the planted control remained stable, revealing no transformation due to a low bioavailability. Remarkably, an increase of the δC and δCl values in soil and plant tissues of the spiked treatments were observed, indicating the transformation of β-HCH in both the soil and the plant. This was surprising as previously it was shown that wheat is unable to transform β-HCH when growing in hydroponic culture or garden soil. Thus, results of this work indicate for the first time that a microbial community of the soil inoculated the wheat and then facilitated the transformation of β-HCH in the wheat, which may have implications for the development of phytoremediation concepts. A high abundance of HCH degraders belonging to sp., sp., and others was detected in the β-HCH-treated bulk and rhizosphere soil, potentially supporting the biotransformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03322DOI Listing
October 2021

A Combinatorial Approach of High-Throughput Genomics and Mass Proteomics for Understanding the Regulation and Expression of Secondary Metabolite Production in Actinobacteria.

mSystems 2021 Aug 24;6(4):e0086221. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

PhiXgen Pvt. Ltd., Gurugram, India.

Secondary metabolites produced by are an important source of antibiotics, drugs, and antimicrobial peptides. However, the large genome size of actinobacteria with high gene coding density makes it difficult to understand the complex regulation of biosynthesis of such critically and economically important products. In the last few decades, apart from genomics sequences, high-throughput proteomics has proven beneficial to understand the key players regulating the expression pattern of secondary metabolite and antibiotic production in different experimental set-ups. In the past, we have been analyzing the genomics data and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to predict the regulation dynamics and crucial regulatory hubs in . The multidirectional regulation and expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the production of important metabolite take their cue from the other primary metabolism pathways with which they show intricate interactions in the interactome. The regulation occurs by not only the action and expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster but also the role of transcription factors and primary metabolic pathways. Using the key players of these interactomes, we can regulate the synthesis/production of these valuable peptides/metabolites. Simultaneously, the multi-omics approach has now opened new gateways in investigation, screening, and identification of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides from actinobacteria which are beneficial for humans and also provide economic and industrial benefits to humankind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00862-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407205PMC
August 2021

A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study to evaluate the causal role of reduced blood vitamin D levels with type 2 diabetes risk in South Asians and Europeans.

Nutr J 2021 07 27;20(1):71. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 940 Stanton L. Young Blvd., Rm 317 BMSB, OK, 73104, OK City, USA.

Context: Multiple observational studies have reported an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the results of short- and long-term interventional trials concerning the relationship between 25(OH)D and T2D risk have been inconsistent.

Objectives And Methods: To evaluate the causal role of reduced blood 25(OH)D in T2D, here we have performed a bidirectional Mendelian randomization study using 59,890 individuals (5,862 T2D cases and 54,028 controls) from European and Asian Indian ancestries. We used six known SNPs, including three T2D SNPs and three vitamin D pathway SNPs, as a genetic instrument to evaluate the causality and direction of the association between T2D and circulating 25(OH)D concentration.

Results: Results of the combined meta-analysis of eight participating studies showed that a composite score of three T2D SNPs would significantly increase T2D risk by an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24, p = 1.82 × 10; Z score 11.86, which, however, had no significant association with 25(OH)D status (Beta -0.02nmol/L ± SE 0.01nmol/L; p = 0.83; Z score -0.21). Likewise, the genetically instrumented composite score of 25(OH)D lowering alleles significantly decreased 25(OH)D concentrations (-2.1nmol/L ± SE 0.1nmol/L, p = 7.92 × 10; Z score -18.68) but was not associated with increased risk for T2D (OR 1.00, p = 0.12; Z score 1.54). However, using 25(OH)D synthesis SNP (DHCR7; rs12785878) as an individual genetic instrument, a per allele reduction of 25(OH)D concentration (-4.2nmol/L ± SE 0.3nmol/L) was predicted to increase T2D risk by 5%, p = 0.004; Z score 2.84. This effect, however, was not seen in other 25(OH)D SNPs (GC rs2282679, CYP2R1 rs12794714) when used as an individual instrument.

Conclusion: Our new data on this bidirectional Mendelian randomization study suggests that genetically instrumented T2D risk does not cause changes in 25(OH)D levels. However, genetically regulated 25(OH)D deficiency due to vitamin D synthesis gene (DHCR7) may influence the risk of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00725-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314596PMC
July 2021

Genomics of body fat distribution.

J Genet 2021 ;100

Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India.

Central obesity and body fat distribution measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist hip ratio (WHR) are good predictors of cardio metabolic adversities independent of overall adiposity. There are substantial evidence that body fat distribution is controlled by genetic factors. Even after accounting for body mass index (BMI), individual variation in body fat distribution is heritable, with estimates ranging from 31-76%. Individuals genetically predisposed to store more fat in visceral depots are at higher risk of developing metabolic complications. Several linkage and genomewide association studies (GWAS) for measures of body fat distribution uncovered numerous loci harbouring genes potentially regulating body fat distribution. Additionally, genes with fat depot specific expression patterns (especially, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)) have provided plausible candidate genes involved in body fat regulation. Further, sexual dimorphism have revealed a remarkable heterogeneity in the genetic regulation of body fat distribution. More than hundred loci have been identified through GWAS, displaying more pronounced effect in females than males, suggesting that both sexes share potentially different biological architecture in traits related to body fat distribution. Moreover, the handful of genes identified by GWAS have been validated in different population groups. This article aims at reviewing the current knowledge of genomic basis of body fat distribution.
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September 2021

Genome based reclassification of as a heterotypic synonym of .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Jul;71(7)

PhiXGen Private Limited, Gurugram, Haryana-122001, India.

species are widely studied due to their utility in bioremediation of sites contaminated with radioactive elements. In the present study, we re-evaluated the taxonomic placement of two species of the genus namely DY59 and ATCC 19172 based on whole genome analyses. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed a 99.58% sequence similarity between this species pair that is above the recommended threshold value for species delineation. These two species also clustered together in both the 16S rRNA gene and core genome based phylogenies depicting their close relatedness. Furthermore, more than 98% of genes were shared between s DY59 and ATCC 19172. Interestingly, DY59 and ATCC 19172 shared high genome similarity in different genomic indices. They displayed an average nucleotide identity value of 97.63%, an average amino acid identity value of 97% and a digital DNA-DNA hybridization value equal to 79.50%, all of which are well above the cut-off for species delineation. Altogether, based on these evidences, DY59 and ATCC 19172 constitute a single species. Hence, as per the priority of publication, we propose that Lee 2015 should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004879DOI Listing
July 2021

Draft genome sequence and potential identification of a biosurfactant from strain LS14 an isolate from fresh water Loktak Lake.

3 Biotech 2021 Jul 11;11(7):326. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology-KIIT (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751024 India.

This study reports the whole-genome sequencing and sequence analysis of a bacterial isolate strain LS14, isolated from Loktak Lake, Imphal, India. The de novo assembled genome reported in this paper featured a size of 3,809,532 bp, has GC content of 68% and contains 3602 genomic features, including 3551 protein-coding genes, 46 tRNA and 5rRNA. A biosurfactant biosynthesis gene cluster in the genome of the isolated strain was identified using AntiSMASH online tool V3.0.5 and KAAS (KEGG Automatic Annotation Server). The presence of biosurfactant was demonstrated by drop collapse, oil displacement and emulsification index. Subsequent chemical characterization using FTIR and LC-MS analyses revealed surfactin and terpene containing biosurfactant moieties. Also, the presence of genes involved in terpenoid synthesis pathway in the genome sequence may account for biosurfactant terpenoid backbone, but genes for later-stage conversion of terpenoid to biosurfactant were not ascertained.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02867-9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02867-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196162PMC
July 2021

Association of MC4R (rs17782313) gene polymorphism with obesity measures in Western India.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 May-Jun;15(3):661-665. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The association of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) gene with adiposity measures is widely studied in European populations. Only six studies have investigated the role of MC4R gene with adiposity measures among Indian populations. We have evaluated the role of MC4R (rs17782313) gene polymorphism in influencing adiposity measures in India among children and adults.

Materials And Methods: The present population based cross sectional study was conducted among 303 individuals (208 children and 95 adults) of age group 10-30 years, belonging to Rajasthan. Somatometric measurements (standing height, weight, and waist and hip girths) and blood samples were taken after obtaining written informed consent. Genotyping of MC4R rs17782313 single nucleotide polymorphism was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism method for polymerase chain reaction amplified fragments. We examined association between rs17782313 and different adiposity measures (height, weight, BMI, WHR, and waist and hip girths) using linear regression models.

Results: The MC4R variant (rs17782313) predicted increased body weight (0.15 kg, S.E ± 0.076, P = 0.043) among children. In combined population, the rs17782313 variant was moderately associated with body weight (0.13 kg, S.E ± 0.070, P = 0.057). This variant was not found to be associated with any other adiposity measure.

Conclusion: Further studies are needed to evaluate the association of MC4R variants through sequencing and functional genomics with different adiposity measures in Indian populations for understanding the genetic underpinnings of adiposity in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2021.03.013DOI Listing
December 2021

Differential mass spectrometry-based proteome analyses unveil major regulatory hubs in rifamycin B production in Amycolatopsis mediterranei.

J Proteomics 2021 05 2;239:104168. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. Electronic address:

Rifamycin B is produced by Amycolatopsis mediterranei S699 as a secondary metabolite. Its semi-synthetic derivatives have been used for curing tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But the emergence of rifampicin-resistant strains required analogs of rifamycin B to be developed by rifamycin biosynthetic gene cluster manipulation. In 2014 genetic engineering of the rifamycin polyketide synthase gene cluster in S699 led to a mutant, A. mediterranei DCO#34, that produced 24-desmethylrifamycin B. Unfortunately, the productivity was strongly reduced to 20 mgL as compared to 50 mgL of rifamycin B. To understand the mechanisms leading to reduced productivity and rifamycin biosynthesis by A. mediterranei S699 during the early and late growth phase we performed a proteome study for wild type strain S699, mutant DCO#34, and the non-producer strain SCO2-2. Proteins identification and relative label-free quantification were performed by nLC-MS/MS. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD016416. Also, in-silico protein-protein interaction approach was used to determine the relationship between different structural and regulatory proteins involved in rifamycin biosynthesis. Our studies revealed RifA, RifK, RifL, Rif-Orf19 as the major regulatory hubs. Relative abundance expression values revealed that genes encoding RifC-RifI and the transporter RifP, down-regulated in DCO#34 and genes encoding RifR, RifZ, other regulatory proteins up-regulated. SIGNIFICANCE: The study is designed mainly to understand the underlying mechanisms of rifamycin biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis mediterranei. This resulted in the identification of regulatory hubs which play a crucial role in regulating secondary metabolism. It elucidates the complex mechanism of secondary metabolite biosynthesis and their conversion and extracellular transportation in temporal correlation with the different growth phases. The study also elucidated the mechanisms leading to reduced production of analog, 24-desmethylrifamycin B by the genetically modified strain DCO#34, derivatives of which have been found effective against rifampicin-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These results can be useful while carrying out genetic manipulations to improve the strains of Amycolatopsis to produce better analogs/drugs and promote the eradication of TB. Thus, this study is contributing significantly to the growing knowledge in the field of the crucial drug, rifamycin B biosynthesis by an economically important bacterium Amycolatopsis mediterranei.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104168DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative Genomics and Integrated Network Approach Unveiled Undirected Phylogeny Patterns, Co-mutational Hot Spots, Functional Cross Talk, and Regulatory Interactions in SARS-CoV-2.

mSystems 2021 Feb 23;6(1). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in 92 million cases in a span of 1 year. The study focuses on understanding population-specific variations attributing its high rate of infections in specific geographical regions particularly in the United States. Rigorous phylogenomic network analysis of complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes (245) inferred five central clades named a (ancestral), b, c, d, and e (subtypes e1 and e2). Clade d and subclade e2 were found exclusively comprised of U.S. strains. Clades were distinguished by 10 co-mutational combinations in Nsp3, ORF8, Nsp13, S, Nsp12, Nsp2, and Nsp6. Our analysis revealed that only 67.46% of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations were at the amino acid level. T1103P mutation in Nsp3 was predicted to increase protein stability in 238 strains except for 6 strains which were marked as ancestral type, whereas co-mutation (P409L and Y446C) in Nsp13 were found in 64 genomes from the United States highlighting its 100% co-occurrence. Docking highlighted mutation (D614G) caused reduction in binding of spike proteins with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), but it also showed better interaction with the TMPRSS2 receptor contributing to high transmissibility among U.S. strains. We also found host proteins, MYO5A, MYO5B, and MYO5C, that had maximum interaction with viral proteins (nucleocapsid [N], spike [S], and membrane [M] proteins). Thus, blocking the internalization pathway by inhibiting MYO5 proteins which could be an effective target for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. The functional annotations of the host-pathogen interaction (HPI) network were found to be closely associated with hypoxia and thrombotic conditions, confirming the vulnerability and severity of infection. We also screened CpG islands in Nsp1 and N conferring the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to enter and trigger zinc antiviral protein (ZAP) activity inside the host cell. In the current study, we presented a global view of mutational pattern observed in SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission. This provided a who-infect-whom geographical model since the early pandemic. This is hitherto the most comprehensive comparative genomics analysis of full-length genomes for co-mutations at different geographical regions especially in U.S. strains. Compositional structural biology results suggested that mutations have a balance of opposing forces affecting pathogenicity suggesting that only a few mutations are effective at the translation level. Novel HPI analysis and CpG predictions elucidate the proof of concept of hypoxia and thrombotic conditions in several patients. Thus, the current study focuses the understanding of population-specific variations attributing a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections in specific geographical regions which may eventually be vital for the most severely affected countries and regions for sharp development of custom-made vindication strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00030-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573956PMC
February 2021

Predicting Outcome in Acute Severe Colitis-Controversies in Clinical Practice in 2021.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jul;15(7):1211-1221

Translational Gastroenterology Unit, Nuffield Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Acute severe ulcerative colitis [ASUC] remains a common medical emergency, with 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis experiencing at least one event in their disease course. Despite advances in medical therapy, ASUC continues to be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, with up to 30% of patients requiring colectomy during initial admission. Our aim was to review the current controversies and recent progress in risk stratification, prediction of outcome, and personalisation of care in ASUC. We re-assess the use of Truelove and Witts' criteria, serum biomarkers, and the use of composite clinical indices in current clinical practice. We explore the potential for endoscopic prediction using defined validated indices for accurate and early prognostication, and the need to define outcome. We also consider the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we discuss the current research agenda, including the application of new and emerging biomarkers coupled with multi-omics and the implications in management and optimisation of outcome. Research priorities for the prediction of outcome in acute severe colitis include the following. 1. Development of an accurate admission score to guide early medical rescue therapy or colectomy. 2. Utility of point-of-care faecal calprotectin, with determination of optimal cut-off values. 3. Role of serum and faecal infliximab levels to both predict outcome and guide accelerated infliximab dosing. 4. Role of novel biomarkers, including serum calprotectin, in predicting response to corticosteroids or rescue therapy. 5. Specific predictors of response to ciclosporin and infliximab to allow rationalisation of drug use. 6. Utility of validated endoscopic scores. 7. Utility of radiological assessment beyond use of plain abdominal X-ray. 8. The use of multiomics and machine learning to predict risk of Acute Severe Colitis in patients with Ulcerative Colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799290PMC
July 2021

High mucosal cytomegalovirus DNA helps predict adverse short-term outcome in acute severe ulcerative colitis.

Intest Res 2021 Oct 6;19(4):438-447. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background/aims: Predictors of short-term outcome of intravenous (IV) steroid therapy in acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) have been well described, but the impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a predictor of outcome remains debatable. We investigated the role of quantitative CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a predictor of short-term outcome in patients with ASUC.

Methods: Consecutive patients with ASUC satisfying Truelove and Witts criteria hospitalized at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) from May 2016 to July 2019 were included; all received IV steroid. The primary outcome measure was steroid-failure defined as the need for rescue therapy (with ciclosporin or infliximab) or colectomy during admission. AIIMS' index (ulcerative colitis index of severity > 6 at day 1+fecal calprotectin > 1,000 μg/g at day 3), with quantitative CMV PCR on biopsy samples obtained at initial sigmoidoscopy were correlated with the primary outcome.

Results: Thirty of 76 patients (39%) failed IV corticosteroids and 12 (16%) underwent surgery. Patients with steroid failure had a significantly higher mucosal CMV DNA than responders (3,454 copies/mg [0-2,700,000] vs. 116 copies/mg [0-27,220]; P< 0.01). On multivariable analysis, mucosal CMV DNA load > 2,000 copies/mg (odds ratio [OR], 10.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-39.7; P< 0.01) and AIIMS' index (OR, 39.8; 95% CI, 4.4-364.4; P< 0.01) were independent predictors of steroid-failure and need for colectomy. The combination correctly predicted outcomes in 84% of patients with ASUC.

Conclusions: High mucosal CMV DNA ( > 2,000 copies/mg) independently predicts failure of IV corticosteroids and short-term risk of colectomy and it has an additional value to the established markers of disease severity in patients with ASUC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5217/ir.2020.00055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8566826PMC
October 2021

Gut microbiome diversity in acute severe colitis is distinct from mild to moderate ulcerative colitis.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Mar 14;36(3):731-739. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background And Aim: Although the gut microbiome of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) has been characterized, no study has characterized the gut microbiome in acute severe colitis (ASC). We compared the gut microbiome of patients with UC, ASC, and healthy controls (HCs).

Methods: Patients with mild to moderate UC (n = 24), ASC (n = 19 with 21 episodes) and HCs (n = 50) were recruited prospectively. A 16SrDNA amplicon approach was used to explore gut microbial diversity and taxonomic repertoires. UC was diagnosed using European Crohn's and Colitis Organization guidelines, and ASC was diagnosed using Truelove and Witts' criteria.

Results: The normalized alpha diversity was significantly lower in ASC than mild-moderately active UC (P < 0.05) or HC (P < 0.001). The gut microbiome in ASC was highly unstable, as characterized by high intracohort variation (analyzed using J-divergence measure), which was significantly greater than in UC or HC. On principal coordinate analysis, the microbiome of HC and UC were similar, with the ASC cohort being distinct from both. Comparison of ranked abundances identified four distinct clusters of genera (G1, G2, G3, and G4), with specific trends in their abundance across three groups: G1/G2A clusters had the least, whereas G3 had the highest abundance in the ASC cohort.

Conclusions: Gut microbial diversity is lower in ASC than mild-moderate UC or HCs. Gut microbiome composition is increasingly unstable in ASC, with a distinct abundance of specific genera varying between HCs and ASC. Mild-moderate UC lies within the spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15232DOI Listing
March 2021

sp. nov. and sp. nov., isolated from calcite moonmilk deposits from caves.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Sep;70(9):5131-5140

Department of Experimental Biology, Czech Collection of Microorganisms, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

A taxonomic study of two fluorescent strains (HJ/4 and SJ/9/1) isolated from calcite moonmilk samples obtained from two caves in the Moravian Karst in the Czech Republic was carried out. Results of initial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis assigned both strains into the genus and showed 8H1 as their closest neighbour with 99.8 and 99.7 % 16S rRNA gene similarities to strains HJ/4 and SJ/9/1, respectively. Subsequent sequence analysis of , and housekeeping genes confirmed the highest similarity of both isolates to 8H1, but phylogeny and sequences similarities implied that they are representatives of two novel species within the genus . Further study comprising whole-genome sequencing followed by average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization calculations, repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting with the REP and ERIC primers, automated ribotyping with the RI restriction endonuclease, cellular fatty acid analysis, quinone and polar lipid characterization, and extensive biotyping confirmed clear separation of both analysed strains from the remaining species and showed that they represent two novel species within the genus for which the names sp. nov. (type strain HJ/4=CCM 7891=LMG 27930) and sp. nov. (type strain SJ/9/1=CCM 7893=LMG 27931) are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004393DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Rapidly Evolving SARS-CoV-2 Reveals Mosaic Pattern of Phylogeographical Distribution.

mSystems 2020 Jul 28;5(4). Epub 2020 Jul 28.

The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 has spread worldwide, emerging as a global pandemic. The severe respiratory pneumonia caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has so far claimed more than 0.38 million lives and has impacted human lives worldwide. However, as the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus displays high transmission rates, the underlying genomic severity is required to be fully understood. We studied the complete genomes of 95 SARS-CoV-2 strains from different geographical regions worldwide to uncover the pattern of the spread of the virus. We show that there is no direct transmission pattern of the virus among neighboring countries, suggesting that its spread is a result of travel of infected humans to different countries. We revealed unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13), nsp14, nsp15, and nsp16 (ORF1b polyproteins) and in the S-protein within 10 viral isolates from the United States. These viral proteins are involved in RNA replication and binding with the human receptors, indicating that the viral variants that are circulating in the population of the United States are different from those circulating in the populations of other countries. In addition, we found an amino acid addition in nsp16 (mRNA cap-1 methyltransferase) of a U.S. isolate (GenBank accession no. MT188341.1) leading to a shift in the amino acid frame from position 2540 onward. Through comparative structural analysis of the wild-type and mutant proteins, we showed that this addition of a phenylalanine residue renders the protein in the mutant less stable, which might affect mRNA cap-1 methyltransferase function. We further analyzed the SARS-CoV-2-human interactome, which revealed that the interferon signaling pathway is targeted by orf1ab during infection and that it also interacts with NF-κB-repressing factor (NKRF), which is a potential regulator of interleukin-8 (IL-8). We propose that targeting this interaction may subsequently improve the health condition of COVID-19 patients. Our analysis also emphasized that SARS-CoV-2 manipulates spliceosome machinery during infection; hence, targeting splicing might affect viral replication. In conclusion, the replicative machinery of SARS-CoV-2 is targeting interferon and the notch signaling pathway along with spliceosome machinery to evade host challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to storm the world, with over 6.5 million cases worldwide. The severity of the disease varies with the territories and is mainly influenced by population density and age factor. In this study, we analyzed the transmission pattern of 95 SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated from 11 different countries. Our study also revealed several nonsynonymous mutations in ORF1b and S-proteins and the impact on their structural stability. Our analysis showed the manipulation of host system by viral proteins through SARS-CoV-2-human protein interactome, which can be useful to understand the impact of virus on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00505-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394360PMC
July 2020

Effect of supplemental nutrition in pregnancy on offspring's risk of cardiovascular disease in young adulthood: Long-term follow-up of a cluster trial from India.

PLoS Med 2020 07 21;17(7):e1003183. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Undernutrition during intrauterine life and early childhood is hypothesised to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis), but experimental evidence from humans is limited. This hypothesis has major implications for control of the cardiovascular disease epidemic in South Asia (home to a quarter of world's population), where a quarter of newborns have low birth weight. We investigated whether, in an area with prevalent undernutrition, supplemental nutrition offered to pregnant women and their offspring below the age of 6 years was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in the offspring when they were young adults.

Methods And Findings: The Hyderabad Nutrition Trial was a community-based nonrandomised controlled intervention trial conducted in 29 villages near Hyderabad, India (1987-1990). Protein-calorie food supplement was offered daily to pregnant and lactating women (2.09 MJ energy and 20-25 g protein) and their offspring (1.25 MJ energy and 8-10 g protein) until the age of six years in the 15 intervention villages, but not in the 14 control villages. A total of 1,826 participants (949 from the intervention villages and 877 from the control villages, representing 70% of the cohort) at a mean age of 21.6 years (62% males) were examined between 2009 and 2012. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the participants was 20 kg/m2 and the mean systolic blood pressure was 115 mm Hg. The age, sex, socioeconomic position, and urbanisation-adjusted effects of intervention (beta coefficients and 95% confidence intervals) on outcomes were as follows: carotid intima-media thickness, 0.01 mm (-0.01 to 0.03), p = 0.36; arterial stiffness (augmentation index), -1.1% (-2.5 to 0.3), p = 0.097; systolic blood pressure, 0.5 mm Hg (-0.6 to 1.6), p = 0.36; BMI, -0.13 kg/m2 (-0.75 to 0.09), p = 0.093; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 0.06 mmol/L (-0.07 to 0.2), p = 0.37; and fasting insulin (log), -0.06 mU/L (-0.19 to 0.07), p = 0.43. The limitations of this study include nonrandomised allocation of intervention and lack of data on compliance, and potential for selection bias due to incomplete follow-up.

Conclusions: Our results showed that in an area with prevalent undernutrition, protein-calorie food supplements offered to pregnant women and their offspring below the age of 6 years were not associated with lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors among offspring when they were young adults. Our findings, coupled with evidence from other intervention studies to date, suggest that policy makers should attach limited value to cardiovascular health benefits of maternal and child protein-calorie food supplementation programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373266PMC
July 2020

Prediction of Transcription Factors and Their Involvement in Regulating Rifamycin Production in S699.

Indian J Microbiol 2020 Sep 18;60(3):310-317. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, New Delhi, 110033 India.

S699 produces rifamycin B and successors of this strain are in use for the industrial production of rifamycin B. Semisynthetic derivatives of rifamycin B are used against that causes tuberculosis. Although the rifamycin biosynthetic gene cluster was characterized two decades ago, the regulation of rifamycin B biosynthesis in S699 is poorly understood. In this study, we analysed the genome and proteome of S699 and identified 1102 transcription factors which comprise about 10% of the total genome. Using interactomics approaches we delineated 30 unique transcription factors directly involved in secondary metabolism that regulate rifamycin B biosynthesis. We also predict the role of RifN as hub in controlling the regulation of other genes involved in rifamycin biosynthesis. RifN is important for maintaining the integrity of the rifamycin-network. Thus, these transcription factor can be exploited to improve rifamycin B production in S699.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-020-00868-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329952PMC
September 2020

Prevalence of auto-antibodies and autoimmune disorders in patients with celiac disease.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2020 07 30;55(7):785. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2020.1785544DOI Listing
July 2020

Primary Giant Hydatid Cyst of Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles.

World Neurosurg 2020 09 12;141:240-244. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Hydatid cyst disease, commonly caused by Echinococcus granulosus, rarely occurs in paraspinal muscles. Among the few reported cases, the current case is the largest paraspinal hydatid cyst disease ever reported in literature with a review of management of such large lesions.

Case Description: A 38-year-old male presented with lower back swelling for 1 year. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested hydatidosis, following which the patient was taken up for surgery after preoperative medical therapy. En bloc resection was done, and histopathologic examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis. Postoperative albendazole was also used, and no recurrence was noted at 24 months post operation.

Conclusions: Hydatid disease should be kept as one of the differential diagnoses for back swelling, especially in endemic regions. Giant-sized hydatid cysts of paraspinal muscles, though rare, cannot be ruled out on clinical ground alone. Thorough history taking and detailed examination should be aided with radiologic investigations like magnetic resonance imaging for an accurate diagnosis. En bloc excision of the cyst combined with preoperative and postoperative medical therapy is an effective method of treating this condition and significantly reducing complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.061DOI Listing
September 2020
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