Publications by authors named "Vinton W T Cheng"

3 Publications

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Selective blood-brain barrier permeabilisation of brain metastases by a type-1 receptor selective tumour necrosis factor mutein.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Cancer Research UK and Medical Research Council Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Metastasis to the brain is a major challenge with poor prognosis. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a significant impediment to effective treatment, being intact during the early stages of tumour development and heterogeneously permeable at later stages. Intravenous injection of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) selectively induces BBB permeabilisation at sites of brain micrometastasis, in a TNF type-1 receptor (TNFR1) dependent manner. Here, to enable clinical translation, we have developed a TNFR1-selective agonist variant of human TNF that induces BBB permeabilisation, whilst minimising potential toxicity.

Methods: A library of human TNF muteins (mutTNF) were generated and assessed for binding specificity to mouse and human TNFR1/2, endothelial permeabilising activity in vitro, potential immunogenicity and circulatory half-life. The permeabilising ability of the most promising variant was assessed in vivo in a model of brain metastasis.

Results: The primary mutTNF variant showed similar affinity for human TNFR1 than wild-type human TNF, similar affinity for mouse TNFR1 as wild-type mouse TNF, undetectable binding to human/mouse TNFR2, low potential immunogenicity and permeabilisation of an endothelial monolayer. Circulatory half-life was similar to mouse/human TNF and BBB permeabilisation was induced selectively at sites of micrometastases in vivo, with a time window of ≥24h and enabling delivery of agents within a therapeutically-relevant range (0.5-150kDa), including the clinically approved therapy, trastuzumab.

Conclusions: We have developed a clinically-translatable mutTNF that selectively opens the BBB at micrometastatic sites, whilst leaving the rest of the cerebrovasculature intact. This approach will open a window for brain metastasis treatment that currently does not exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab177DOI Listing
July 2021

COVID-19 prevalence and mortality in patients with cancer and the effect of primary tumour subtype and patient demographics: a prospective cohort study.

Lancet Oncol 2020 10 24;21(10):1309-1316. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Patients with cancer are purported to have poor COVID-19 outcomes. However, cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases, encompassing a spectrum of tumour subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate COVID-19 risk according to tumour subtype and patient demographics in patients with cancer in the UK.

Methods: We compared adult patients with cancer enrolled in the UK Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project (UKCCMP) cohort between March 18 and May 8, 2020, with a parallel non-COVID-19 UK cancer control population from the UK Office for National Statistics (2017 data). The primary outcome of the study was the effect of primary tumour subtype, age, and sex and on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevalence and the case-fatality rate during hospital admission. We analysed the effect of tumour subtype and patient demographics (age and sex) on prevalence and mortality from COVID-19 using univariable and multivariable models.

Findings: 319 (30·6%) of 1044 patients in the UKCCMP cohort died, 295 (92·5%) of whom had a cause of death recorded as due to COVID-19. The all-cause case-fatality rate in patients with cancer after SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly associated with increasing age, rising from 0·10 in patients aged 40-49 years to 0·48 in those aged 80 years and older. Patients with haematological malignancies (leukaemia, lymphoma, and myeloma) had a more severe COVID-19 trajectory compared with patients with solid organ tumours (odds ratio [OR] 1·57, 95% CI 1·15-2·15; p<0·0043). Compared with the rest of the UKCCMP cohort, patients with leukaemia showed a significantly increased case-fatality rate (2·25, 1·13-4·57; p=0·023). After correction for age and sex, patients with haematological malignancies who had recent chemotherapy had an increased risk of death during COVID-19-associated hospital admission (OR 2·09, 95% CI 1·09-4·08; p=0·028).

Interpretation: Patients with cancer with different tumour types have differing susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 phenotypes. We generated individualised risk tables for patients with cancer, considering age, sex, and tumour subtype. Our results could be useful to assist physicians in informed risk-benefit discussions to explain COVID-19 risk and enable an evidenced-based approach to national social isolation policies.

Funding: University of Birmingham and University of Oxford.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30442-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444972PMC
October 2020

VCAM-1-targeted MRI Enables Detection of Brain Micrometastases from Different Primary Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 01 2;25(2):533-543. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Oncology, Cancer Research UK and Medical Research Council, Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Purpose: A major issue for the effective treatment of brain metastasis is the late stage of diagnosis with existing clinical tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1)-targeted MRI for early detection of brain micrometastases in mouse models across multiple primary tumor types. Xenograft models of brain micrometastasis for human breast carcinoma (MDA231Br-GFP), lung adenocarcinoma (SEBTA-001), and melanoma (H1_DL2) were established via intracardiac injection in mice. Animals ( = 5-6/group) were injected intravenously with VCAM-1-targeted microparticles of iron oxide (VCAM-MPIO) and, subsequently, underwent *-weighted MRI. Control groups of naïve mice injected with VCAM-MPIO and tumor-bearing mice injected with nontargeting IgG-MPIO were included.

Results: All models showed disseminated micrometastases in the brain, together with endothelial VCAM-1 upregulation across the time course. *-weighted MRI of all tumor-bearing mice injected with VCAM-MPIO showed significantly more signal hypointensities ( < 0.001; two-sided) than control cohorts, despite a lack of blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Specific MPIO binding to VCAM-1-positive tumor-associated vessels was confirmed histologically. VCAM-1 expression was demonstrated in human brain metastasis samples, across all three primary tumor types.

Conclusions: VCAM-1-targeted MRI enables the detection of brain micrometastases from the three primary tumor types known to cause the majority of clinical cases. These findings represent an important step forward in the development of a broadly applicable and clinically relevant imaging technique for early diagnosis of brain metastasis, with significant implications for improved patient survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-1889DOI Listing
January 2019
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