Publications by authors named "Vinod Kumar"

1,359 Publications

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Multi-Target-Directed Ligands as an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

Curr Med Chem 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab-151001, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurological disorder, and multiple pathological factors are believed to be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. A number of hypotheses, including Acetylcholinesterase, Monoamine oxidase, β-Amyloid, Tau protein, etc., have been proposed for the initiation and progression of the disease. At present, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors and memantine (NMDAR antagonist) are the only approved therapies for the symptomatic management of AD. Most of these single-target drugs have miserably failed in the treatment or halting the progression of the disease. Multi-factorial diseases like AD require complex treatment strategies that involve simultaneous modulation of a network of interacting targets. Since the last few years, Multi-Target-Directed Ligands (MTDLs) strategy, drugs that can simultaneously hit multiple targets, is being explored as an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD. In the current review article, the authors have briefly described various pathogenic pathways associated with AD. The importance of Multi-Target-Directed Ligands and their design strategies in recently reported articles have been discussed in detail. Potent leads are identified through various structure-activity relationship studies, and their drug-like characteristics are described. Recently developed promising compounds have been summarized in the article. Some of these MTDLs with balanced activity profiles against different targets have the potential to be developed as drug candidates for the treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867328666210512005508DOI Listing
May 2021

COVID-19 vaccine induced Axillary and Pectoral Lymphadenopathy on PET scan.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Hematology & Oncology, Saint Joseph's University Medical Center Paterson, New Jersey, U.S.A, 07503.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the ongoing global pandemic. It can manifest a wide range of complications depending upon the severity of infection and comorbidities of the patient. Vaccines are very important measure to provide protection against COVID-19. We report a case of 72-year-old female with past medical history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus who underwent imaging with PET scan imaging for staging of her small cell urinary bladder cancer and was found to have hypermetabolic uptake in the deltoid muscle of the left shoulder and hypermetabolic left axillary and pectoral lymph nodes due to mRNA BNT-162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine) vaccine administrated 3 days ago prior to PET scan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2021.04.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084621PMC
April 2021

Role of calcium phosphate and bioactive glass coating on in vivo bone healing of new Mg-Zn-Ca implant.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 May 7;32(5):55. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, India.

Present investigation focuses on development and detailed characterization of a new Mg alloy sample (BM) with and without coating of hydroxyapatite (BMH) and bioactive glass (BMG) by air plasma spray method. After detailed mechano-physico-chemical characterization of powders and coated samples, electrochemical corrosion and SBF immersion tests were carried out. Detailed in vitro characterizations for cell viability were undertaken using MG-63 cell line followed by in vivo tests in rabbit model for studying bone healing up to 60 days. Starting current density increases from BM to BMH to BMG indicating highest resistance towards corrosion in case of BMG samples, however BMH also showed highest i value suggesting slowest rate of corrosion than BM and BMG samples. Dissolution of calcium ion in case of BMH and BMG control formation of apatite phases on surface. Ca ions of coatings and from SBF solution underwent reduction reaction simultaneously with conversion of Mg to MgCl releasing OH in the solution, which increases pH. Viability and propagation of human osteoblast-like cells was verified using confocal microscopy observations and from expression of bone specific genes. Alkaline phosphatase assay and ARS staining indicate cell proliferation and production of neo-osseous tissue matrix. In vivo, based on histology of heart, kidney and liver, and immune response of IL-2, IL-6 and TNFα, all the materials show no adverse effects in body system. The bone creation was observed to be more for BMH. Although both BMH and BMG show rays of possibilities in early new bone formation and tough bone-implant bonding at interface as compared to bare Mg alloy, however, BMG showed better well-sprayed coating covering on substrate and resistance against corrosion prior implanting in vivo. Also, better apatite formation on this sample makes it more favourable implant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-021-06510-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Design and development of a prototype for specific naked-eye detection of blister and nerve agents.

Authors:
Vinod Kumar

Anal Methods 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Process and Technology Development Division, Defence Research & Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, India.

In view of the strong need to strengthen the national security arising from chemical terrorism, a rapid, specific, and onsite detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing a simple and easy-to-use kit is of utmost importance. Constant and sincere efforts are being carried out by the scientific community to find reliable techniques/methods for early warning detection. Herein, we designed a prototype technique in the form of a smart and portable chemical weapon detection kit (CWDK) to facilitate rapid and onsite detection. In this portable kit, a range of unique chemical probes were condensed to achieve the specific chromogenic and fluorogenic detection and discrimination of each member of blister and nerve agents. The embodiment of three chemical probes (Fc, SQ, and LH2) was eventually employed in a compact and flexible plastic packaging for detecting the presence of CWAs with the 'naked-eye' in the areas where laboratory services do not normally exist. The CWDK contains dye/reagent vials, sampling assembly, and a UV torch. The convenience and practicality of this technique suggest a great prospect for highly specific sensing of the complete class of CWAs with fast and accurate results in real-time scenarios with a sensitivity much below their lethal dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ay00449bDOI Listing
May 2021

Improving Micronutrient Status of Children and Women in Rural Communities in India Using Crystal Salt Enriched with Multiple Micronutrients.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2021 ;67(2):111-117

VitMin lab.

To demonstrate that fortified crystal salt enriched with iron, iodine, vitamin B12, folic acid and zinc can combat multi-micronutrient deficiencies. A randomized controlled study was conducted in 6 villages in Tiruvallur district, in Tamilnadu, South India. All the women and children aged 5-17 y in households in the experimental villages (n=117) were provided the fortified salt for 8 mo. Similar demographic group in the control villages (n=95) used regular non-fortified salts for the same time period. Blood from study subjects were analysed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, AGP, CRP, and serum zinc, at the beginning and end of the study. Urine was analyzed for iodine at the same times. The experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in hemoglobin (>1.05 g/dL), serum zinc (>12.23 μg/dL), ferritin (>6.97 μg/L) and body iron stores (>0.73 mg/kg body weight), compared to the control group. A significant decrease in the prevalence of anaemia from 67.5% to 29.1% and zinc deficiency from 32.7% to 12.4% was observed in the experimental group relative to control group, using Binary logistic regression. There was no change in urinary iodine in the experimental group while it decreased significantly in the control. The fortified crystal salt was effective in decreasing multi-micronutrient deficiencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.67.111DOI Listing
January 2021

Molecular changes associated with migratory departure from wintering areas in obligate songbird migrants.

J Exp Biol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India.

Daylength regulates the development of spring migratory and subsequent reproductive phenotypes in avian migrants. This study used molecular approaches, and compared mRNA and proteome-wide expressions in captive redheaded buntings that were photostimulated under long days (LD) for 4 days (early stimulated, LD-eS) or for ∼3 weeks until each bird had shown successive 4 nights of Zugunruhe (stimulated, LD-S); controls were maintained under short-days. After ∼3 weeks of LD, photostimulated indices of the migratory preparedness (fattening, weight gain and Zugunruhe) were paralleled with upregulated expression of acc, dgat2 and apoa1 genes in the liver, and of cd36, fabp3 and cpt1 genes in the flight muscle, suggesting an enhanced fatty acids (FAs) synthesis and transport in the LD-S state. Concurrently elevated expression of genes involved in the calcium-ion signaling and transport (camk1 and atp2a2; camk2a in LD-eS instead), cellular stress (hspa8 and sod1, not nos2) and metabolic pathways (apoa1 and sirt1), but not of the genes associated with migratory behaviour (adcyap1 and vps13a), were found in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Further, the MBH-specific quantitative proteomics revealed that out of 503 annotated proteins, 28 were differentially expressed (LD-eS vs. LD-S: 21 up- and 7 down-regulated) and they enriched five physiological pathways that are associated with fatty acids transport and metabolism. These first comprehensive results on gene and protein expressions suggest that changes in molecular correlates of fatty acids transport and metabolism may aid the decision for migratory departure from wintering areas in obligate songbird migrants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.242153DOI Listing
April 2021

Management Guidelines for Infection After ACL Reconstruction: Expert Opinion Statement Based on the Modified Delphi Survey of Indian Arthroscopy Surgeons.

Indian J Orthop 2021 Apr 1;55(2):342-351. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Orthopaedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, 110002 India.

Aim: Infection after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, though rare, is a potentially devastating complication and the evidence-based recommendation on the various topics in its management is limited. The purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for the prevention and management of infections in ACL reconstruction surgery by performing a structured expert consensus survey using Delphi methodology.

Materials And Methods: 22 topics of relevance in the prevention and management of infection following ACL reconstruction were chosen from an extensive literature review. 30 panelists were requested to respond to a three-round survey, with feedback, to develop a consensus statement on the topics.

Results: Consensus statements could be prepared in eleven out of twenty-two topics including: the graft is retained at the first arthroscopic debridement, the graft is removed when repeated debridement are needed, and revision ACL reconstruction is needed only if the patient develops instability. Concurrence could be obtained in the topics including: longer duration of antibiotics is needed in immunocompromised patients, soaking graft in antibiotic solution reduces infection risk, and knee swelling without warmth does not suggest infection.

Conclusions: A proper skin preparation, a longer course of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients, and soaking the graft in antibiotics reduces the risk of infection. In case of infection, a healthy-looking graft must be retained at the first debridement and if the graft must be removed, revision ACL reconstruction is advised only if the patient develops instability.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43465-021-00363-z.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-021-00363-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046894PMC
April 2021

Potential impact of celiac disease genetic risk factors on T cell receptor signaling in gluten-specific CD4+ T cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9252. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Celiac disease is an auto-immune disease in which an immune response to dietary gluten leads to inflammation and subsequent atrophy of small intestinal villi, causing severe bowel discomfort and malabsorption of nutrients. The major instigating factor for the immune response in celiac disease is the activation of gluten-specific CD4+ T cells expressing T cell receptors that recognize gluten peptides presented in the context of HLA-DQ2 and DQ8. Here we provide an in-depth characterization of 28 gluten-specific T cell clones. We assess their transcriptional and epigenetic response to T cell receptor stimulation and link this to genetic factors associated with celiac disease. Gluten-specific T cells have a distinct transcriptional profile that mostly resembles that of Th1 cells but also express cytokines characteristic of other types of T-helper cells. This transcriptional response appears not to be regulated by changes in chromatin state, but rather by early upregulation of transcription factors and non-coding RNAs that likely orchestrate the subsequent activation of genes that play a role in immune pathways. Finally, integration of chromatin and transcription factor binding profiles suggest that genes activated by T cell receptor stimulation of gluten‑specific T cells may be impacted by genetic variation at several genetic loci associated with celiac disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86612-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085175PMC
April 2021

Conceptualization of population-specific human functional immune-genomics projects to identify factors that contribute to variability in immune and infectious diseases.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 13;7(4):e06755. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6525 HP, the Netherlands.

The human immune system presents remarkable inter-individual variability in response to pathogens or perturbations. Recent high-throughput technologies have enabled the identification of both heritable and non-heritable determinants of immune response variation between individuals. In this review, we summarize the advances made through the Human Functional Genomics Projects (HFGPs), challenges and the need for more refined strategies. Inter-individual variability in stimulation-induced cytokine responses is influenced in part by age, gender, seasonality, and gut microbiome. Host genetic regulators especially single nucleotide polymorphisms in multiple immune gene loci, particularly the TLR1-TLR6-TLR10 locus, have been identified using individuals of predominantly European descent. However, transferability of such findings to other populations is challenging. We are beginning to incorporate diverse population cohorts and leverage multi-omics approaches at single cell level to bridge the current knowledge gap. We believe that such an approach presents the opportunities to comprehensively assess both genetic and environmental factors driving variation seen in immune response phenotype and a better understanding of the molecular and biological mechanisms involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066384PMC
April 2021

Life cycle analysis of fermentative production of succinic acid from bread waste.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 23;126:861-871. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK. Electronic address:

According to the US Department of Energy, succinic acid (SA) is a top platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. Bread waste, which has high starch content, is the second most wasted food in the UK and can serve as a potential low cost feedstock for the production of SA. This work evaluates the environmental performance of a proposed biorefinery concept for SA production by fermentation of waste bread using a cradle-to-factory gate life cycle assessment approach. The performance was assessed in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-renewable energy use (NREU). Waste bread fermentation demonstrated a better environmental profile compared to the fossil-based system, however, GHG emissions were about 50% higher as compared to processes using other biomass feedstocks such as corn wet mill or sorghum grains. NREU for fermentative SA production using waste bread was significantly lower (~ 46%) than fossil-based system and about the same as that of established biomass-based processes, thus proving the great potential of waste bread as a valuable feedstock for bioproduction of useful chemicals. The results show that steam and heating oil used in the process were the biggest contributors to the NREU and GHG emissions. Sensitivity analyses highlighted the importance of the solid biomass waste generated in the process which can potentially be used as fish feed. The LCA analysis can be used for targeted optimization of SA production from bread waste, thereby enabling the utilization of an otherwise waste stream and leading to the establishment of a circular economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.04.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Distribution and diversity of eukaryotic microalgae in Kuwait waters assessed using 18S rRNA gene sequencing.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(4):e0250645. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Environment and Life Sciences Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait, Kuwait.

The microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning through interactions among individuals and taxonomic groups in a highly dynamic marine ecosystem. The structure and functioning of the microbial communities are often influenced by the changes in the surrounding environment. Monitoring the microbial diversity of the marine ecosystem helps to understand spatial patterns of microbial community and changes due to season, climate, and various drivers of biological diversity. Kuwait is characterized by an arid environment with a high degree of temperature variation during summer and winter. Our understanding of spatial distribution patterns of microbial communities, their diversity, and the influence of human activities on the degree of changes in the diversity of the microbial community in Kuwait territorial waters remain unclear. In this study, we employed 18S rRNA sequencing to explore marine microalgal community composition and dynamics in seawater samples collected from Kuwait waters over two seasonal cycles across six locations. A total of 448,184 sequences across 36 replicates corresponding to 12 samples from six stations were obtained. The quality-filtered sequences were clustered into 1,293 representative sequences, which were then classified into different eukaryotic taxa. This study reveals that the phytoplankton community in Kuwait waters is diverse and shows significant variations among different taxa during summer and winter. Dinoflagellates and diatoms were the most abundant season-dependent microalgae taxa in Kuwait waters. Alexandrium and Pyrophacus were abundant in summer, whereas Gonyaulax was abundant during the winter. The abundance of Coscinodiscus and Navicula, of the diatom genera, were also dependent upon both seasonal and possible anthropogenic factors. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of a sequencing-based approach, which could be used to improve the accuracy of quantitative eukaryotic microbial community profiles.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250645PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075240PMC
April 2021

Non-invasive monitoring of glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in native Indian, as well as captive and re-wilded tigers in South Africa.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Apr 20;308:113783. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Pretoria, South Africa.

Over the last century, wild tiger (Panthera tigris) numbers have declined from over 100 000 individuals to fewer than 4 000, with animals now confined to less than 5% of their historic range due to habitat loss, persecution, inadequate management, and poaching. In contrast, 15 000-20 000 tigers are estimated to be housed in captivity, experiencing conditions vastly different than their wild counterparts. A total of 280 tigers are currently held at 44 different facilities within South Africa, including zoos, semi-captive 're-wilded' populations, and pets; these animals provide a unique opportunity to measure the impact of extrinsic factors, found in exotic habitats, on the adrenocortical activity of tigers. By monitoring and comparing stress-related faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations of tigers housed at different locations, and free ranging tigers in natural tiger reserves, this project aimed to get a better understanding of the impact of extrinsic factors on adrenocortical function as a measure of stress. The results of this study showed no significant difference in fGCM concentrations between captive, re-wilded, and free-ranging tigers with the exception of one site. Furthermore, factors such as sex and season were not significant drivers of fGCM concentrations. One study group had elevated fGCM concentrations, showing population variation in the stress response. This indicates that populations are able to cope with exotic environments, however, as population-specific differences in the stress response exist, we suggest management protocols be created for each population. This study offered the unique opportunity to see how well tigers are faring outside of their native range and if having re-wilded tigers in exotic locations is a potential welfare-acceptable management option for tiger conservation globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2021.113783DOI Listing
April 2021

Data of common and species-specific transcriptional host responses to pathogenic fungi.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 4;35:106928. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboudumc Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Using a comparative RNA-Sequencing based transcriptional profiling approach, responses of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to common human pathogenic fungi have been characterized (Bruno et al. Computational and Structural Biology Journal). Primary human PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with the fungi , and after which RNA was isolated and sequenced. From raw sequencing reads differential expressed genes in response to the different fungi where calculated by comparison with unstimulated cells. By overlapping differentially expressed genes in response to the pathogenic fungi , and a dataset was generated that encompasses a common response to these three distinct fungi as well as species-specific responses. Here we present datasets on these common and species-specific responses that complement the original study (Bruno et al. Computational and Structural Biology Journal). These data serve to facilitate further fundamental research on the immune response to opportunistic pathogenic fungi such as , and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2021.106928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039545PMC
April 2021

Tuning Cationic Micelle Properties with an Antioxidant Additive: A Molecular Perspective.

Langmuir 2021 04 12;37(15):4611-4621. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemistry, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University (VNSGU), Udhana-Magdalla Road, Surat 395 007, Gujarat, India.

In this work, we characterize the micellization and morphology transition induced in aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution by the addition of the antioxidant propyl gallate (PG) using tensiometry, rheology, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques combined with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach. The adsorption of CTAB at the air-water interface in the presence of varying [PG] revealed a progressive decrease in the critical micelle concentration (CMC), while the changes in different interfacial parameters indicated enhancement of the hydrophobicity induced by PG in the CTAB micellar system. The dynamic rheology behavior indicated an increase in the flow viscosity (η) as a function of [PG]. Moreover, the rheological components (storage modulus, ', and loss modulus, ″) depicted the viscoelastic features. SANS measurements depicted the existence of ellipsoidal micelles with varying sizes and aggregation number () as a function of [PG] and temperature. Computational simulation performed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) provided an insight into the atomic composition of the examined system. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis depicted a close proximity of CTAB, i.e., emphasized favorable interactions between the quaternary nitrogen of CTAB and the hydroxyl group of the PG monomer, further validated by the two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (2D-NOESY), which showed the penetration of PG inside the CTAB micelles. In addition, various dynamic properties, viz., the radial distribution function (RDF), the radius of gyration (), and solvent-accessible surface area (SASA), showed a significant microstructural evolution of the ellipsoidal micelles in the examined CTAB-PG system, where the changes in the micellar morphology with a more elongated hydrophobic chain and the increased and SASA values indicated the notable intercalation of PG in the CTAB micelles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00290DOI Listing
April 2021

Fabrication and characterization of graphene oxide nanoparticles incorporated in poly (vinyl alcohol) electro-spun nanofibers and its vapor-phase crosslinking.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5):2089-2096

Department of Materials Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.

Electrospun nanofibrous membranes have gained great focused in medical research due to its simplicity, diversity and biodegradability. The challenge to researchers is to make more effective and sustainable by incorporating pristine materials to address adverse health issues of society. In this work, considering the unique characteristics of Graphene and its derivatives, well-dispersed Graphene Oxide (GO) were prepared using Modified Hummer's method. Further, the mixture of solutions, Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) PVA with synthesized GO nano-particles, was successively fabricated into nanofibrous membranes by electrospinning technique. Further, the electrospun membranes were cross-linked through vapours of Glutaraldehyde (GA) in controlled environment to make membranes hydrophobic in nature. In addition, the characterization of synthesized GO and electrospun nanofibers were done using SEM, XRD and FTIR. The results show that GO incorporation decreases the average diameter of nanofibers from 422±133nm to 274.1±93.23nm, whereas crosslinking of nanofibers at various hours (12 to 48h) tends to increase the average diameter from 368.4±130.1nm to 671.41±293nm. In addition to that the 12h crosslinked nanofibers membrane shows better antibacterial activity than without crosslinked PVA/GO membrane against E. coli after 24h of incubation. This primarily work provides a basis for further studies of this novel nanofibrous material.
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September 2020

Expression of DLX6 Gene in Mandibular Deficiency (Retrognathic Mandible): A Randomized Clinical and Genetic Study.

Cureus 2021 Feb 26;13(2):e13572. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Pedodontics, Navodaya Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, IND.

Introduction There are various genes that affect craniofacial development and among the important genes that affect jaw development is distal-less homeobox (DLX) 6 genes. The present study was carried out to determine the role of DLX6 gene variations in mandibular deficiency. Methods Thirty subjects having retrognathic mandible were evaluated by clinical examination and assessed using lateral cephalometric radiographs based on cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery (COGS) analysis of hard tissue with N-Pog parameters being less than -13 mm. For the same subjects, saliva samples were taken and sent to biotechnology labs for genetic evaluation. DNA was isolated from salivary samples using a DNA extraction kit and was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysis was done to assess the role of DLX6 gene in these study subjects.  Results  All 30 subjects showed N-POG parameters of COGS analysis for hard tissue to be less than -13mm, confirming retrognathic mandible. SNP analysis of subjects showed no SNPs in any EXON of the DLX6 gene for all 30 study samples. Conclusion  No variations in DLX6 gene were found in the present study. Further studies are required to investigate other genes that could be involved in the cause of retrognathic mandible with a larger sample size and to include subjects in the sample having features other than mandibular retrognathia like hearing loss, abnormal pinnae, ectrodactyly, cleft palate, developmental delay and abnormal teeth to determine the contribution of DLX6 gene variations in mandibular deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008976PMC
February 2021

Plant Prebiotics and Their Role in the Amelioration of Diseases.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 16;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Bioengineering and Food Technology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Prebiotics are either natural or synthetic non-digestible (non-)carbohydrate substances that boost the proliferation of gut microbes. Undigested fructooligosaccharides in the large intestine are utilised by the beneficial microorganisms for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids for their own growth. Although various food products are now recognized as having prebiotic properties, several others, such as almonds, artichoke, barley, chia seeds, chicory, dandelion greens, flaxseeds, garlic, and oats, are being explored and used as functional foods. Considering the benefits of these prebiotics in mineral absorption, metabolite production, gut microbiota modulation, and in various diseases such as diabetes, allergy, metabolic disorders, and necrotising enterocolitis, increasing attention has been focused on their applications in both food and pharmaceutical industries, although some of these food products are actually used as food supplements. This review aims to highlight the potential and need of these prebiotics in the diet and also discusses data related to the distinct types, sources, modes of action, and health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11030440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002343PMC
March 2021

Temporal and Spatial Epidemiological Analysis of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Outbreaks from the Past 25 Years in Sheep and Goats and Its Control in India.

Viruses 2021 03 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research -National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (ICAR-NIVEDI), Post Box No. 6450, Yelahanka, Bengaluru 560 064, Karnataka, India.

This study was aimed to understand the temporal and spatial epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in India using national surveillance data available in the National Animal Diseases Referral Expert System (NADRES) along with its control plan undertaken. On analysis of the outbreaks/cases reports in sheep and goats in NADRES database from 1995 to 2019, it was observed that PPR features among the top ten diseases and stands first among viral diseases, and among reported deaths, PPR accounts for 36% of mortality in sheep and goats. PPR outbreaks occur round the year in all the seasons but are encountered most frequently during the lean period especially, in the winter season (January to February) in different regions/zones. The reported outbreaks have been progressively declined in most of the states in India due to the implementation of a mass vaccination strategic program since 2011. On state-wise analysis, the PPR risk-areas showed wide variations with different levels of endemicity. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Karnataka were the top three outbreaks reported states during 1995-2010, whereas Jharkhand and West Bengal states reported more outbreaks during 2011-2015 and 2016-2019 periods. The temporal and spatial distribution of PPR in India provides valuable information on the hotspot areas/zones to take appropriate policy decisions towards its prevention and control in different regions/zones of India. The study also identifies when and where intensive surveillance and vaccination along with biosecurity measures need to be implemented for the control and eradication of the disease from India in consonance with the PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13030480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001942PMC
March 2021

Coats like response in healed choroiditis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 2:1-3. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2021.1887281DOI Listing
April 2021

Kinetics of nutrients remediation from sugar industry effluent-treated substrate using : mushroom yield and biochemical potentials.

3 Biotech 2021 Apr 10;11(4):164. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Agro-Ecology and Pollution Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri (Deemed To Be University), Haridwar, 249404 Uttarakhand India.

This study investigated the yield and biochemical potential of mushroom cultivated on agricultural waste substrate supplemented with treated sugar industry effluent (SIE). Laboratory-scale experiments were performed for the cultivation of on a mixture of wheat straw and sugar cane bagasse moistened with different doses of borewell water (BWW) and treated SIE (0-100%). Besides this, the simultaneous effects of the SIE amendment on total Kjeldahl's nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents of substrate and kinetics of their utilization by were studied. Results showed a relatively higher utilization of TKN (38.10 ± 1.60%) and TP (47.4 ± 6.44%) in a 25:75 ratio of BWW and SIE, respectively. The kinetics studies of TKN and TP utilization using Lineweaver-Burk models described the maximum specific utilization rates () of 0.165 and 0.125 mg·kg·d and saturation points ( ) of 72.401 and 33.283 mg·kg, respectively, which are in good agreement as indicated by values (> 0.90). In addition, the maximum significant ( < 0.01) yield (159.31 ± 8.85 g·Kg), biological efficiency (106.21 ± 3.84%), total phenols (3.03 ± 0.07 mg·g), ascorbic acid (0.44 ± 0.03 mg·g), and β-carotene (3.36 ± 0.05 μg·g) of were observed using the same treatment. Therefore, this paper reported sustainable utilization of TKN and TP nutrients from SIE for mushroom cultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02712-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947110PMC
April 2021

Acetate as a potential feedstock for the production of value-added chemicals: Metabolism and applications.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Mar 26;49:107736. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, UNIST, 50, UNIST-gil, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Acetate is regarded as a promising carbon feedstock in biological production owing to its possible derivation from C gases such as CO, CO and methane. To best use of acetate, comprehensive understanding of acetate metabolisms from genes and enzymes to pathways and regulations is needed. This review aims to provide an overview on the potential of acetate as carbon feedstock for industrial biotechnology. Biochemical, microbial and biotechnological aspects of acetate metabolism are described. Especially, the current state-of-the art in the production of value-added chemicals from acetate is summarized. Challenges and future perspectives are also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2021.107736DOI Listing
March 2021

Biochemical characterization and enhanced production of endoxylanase from thermophilic mould Myceliophthora thermophila.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Laboratory of Bioprocess Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 124001, India.

Endoxylanase production from M. thermophila BJTLRMDU3 using rice straw was enhanced to 2.53-fold after optimization in solid state fermentation (SSF). Endoxylanase was purified to homogeneity employing ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by gel filtration chromatography and had a molecular mass of ~ 25 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE. Optimal endoxylanase activity was recorded at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. Purified enzyme showed complete tolerance to n-hexane, but activity was slightly inhibited by other organic solvents. Among surfactants, Tweens (20, 60, and 80) and Triton X 100 slightly enhanced the enzyme activity. The V and K values for purified endoxylanase were 6.29 µmol/min/mg protein and 5.4 mg/ml, respectively. Endoxylanase released 79.08 and 42.95% higher reducing sugars and soluble proteins, respectively, which control after 48 h at 60 °C from poultry feed. Synergistic effect of endoxylanase (100 U/g) and phytase (15 U/g) on poultry feed released higher amount of reducing sugars (58.58 mg/feed), soluble proteins (42.48 mg/g feed), and inorganic phosphate (28.34 mg/feed) in contrast to control having 23.55, 16.98, and 10.46 mg/feed of reducing sugars, soluble proteins, and inorganic phosphate, respectively, at 60 °C supplemented with endoxylanase only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-021-02539-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Correlation of prakriti diagnosis using AyuSoft prakriti diagnostic tool with clinician rating in patients with psychiatric disorders.

J Ayurveda Integr Med 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Integrative Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.

Assessment of individual constitution (prakriti) has been an important basic construct of the Ayurveda system of medicine. The AyuSoft prakriti diagnostic tool has been extensively used in Ayurveda research. However, we could not find any literature regarding reliability of a prakriti diagnostic tool in patients with psychiatric conditions. One hundred and twelve patients (M = 70) suffering from various psychiatric disorders as per ICD-10 criteria were recruited (Depression = 31; Schizophrenia = 30, Anxiety disorders = 27; OCD = 9; BPAD = 15). The AyuSoft tool (developed by C-DAC, Pune, India) was applied to determine their prakriti after obtaining written informed consent. Two Ayurveda physicians independently assessed prakriti of the same patients through clinical examination. Inter-rater reliability was assessed between prakriti scores obtained from AyuSoft and those from the Ayurveda physicians by determining Cohen's Kappa intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC estimates and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated using SPSS statistical package (version 24.0) based on a mean-rating (k = 2), consistency and two-way mixed-effects model. We observed that there was a significant correlation between dosha scores obtained through AyuSoft and those from the two Ayurveda physicians (for all three doshas: p < 0.01). Inter-rater reliability was moderately strong for vata (ICC = 0.72; Cronbach's alpha = 0.83), good for pitta (ICC = 0.58; Cronbach's alpha = 0.62) and comparatively weak for kapha dosha (ICC = 0.44; Cronbach's alpha = 0.51) respectively. Prakriti diagnosis by AyuSoft was feasible in stabilized psychiatric patients and was found comparable to clinical diagnosis of prakriti by Ayurveda physicians in patients with psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2021.01.012DOI Listing
March 2021

Gasping for sulfide: A critical appraisal of hydrogen sulfide in lung disease and accelerated aging.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

University of Exeter, 3286, University of Exeter Medical School, Magdalen Road, St. Luke's Campus, Exeter, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, EX1 2LU;

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is a gaseous signaling molecule involved in a plethora of physiologic and pathologic processes. It is primarily synthesised by cystathionine-β-synthase, cystathionine-γ-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase as a metabolite of the transsulfuration pathway. H2S has been shown to exert beneficial roles in lung disease acting as an anti-inflammatory and anti-viral, and to ameliorate cell metabolism and protect from oxidative stress. HSinteracts with transcription factors, ion channels and a multitude of proteins via post-translational modifications through S-persulfidation ('sulfhydration'). Perturbation of endogenous HSsynthesis and/or levels have been implicated in the development of accelerated lung aging and diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and fibrosis. Furthermore, evidence indicate that persulfidation is decreased with aging. Here we review the use of HSas a biomarker of lung pathologies and discuss the potential of using HS-generating molecules and synthesis inhibitors to treat respiratory diseases. Furthermore, we provide a critical appraisal of methods of detection used to quantify HSconcentration in biological samples and discuss the challenges of characterising physiological and pathological levels. Considerations and caveats of using HS delivery molecules, the choice of generating molecules and concentrations are also reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2021.0039DOI Listing
March 2021

Ultra-wide field retinal imaging: A wider clinical perspective.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr;69(4):824-835

RP Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

The peripheral retina is affected in a variety of retinal disorders. Traditional fundus cameras capture only a part of the fundus even when montaging techniques are used. Ultra-wide field imaging enables us to delve into the retinal periphery in greater detail. It not only facilitates assessing color images of the fundus, but also fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and red and green free images. In this review, a literature search using the keywords "ultra-widefield imaging", "widefield imaging", and "peripheral retinal imaging" in English and non-English languages was done and the relevant articles were included. Ultra-wide field imaging has made new observations in the normal population as well as in eyes with retinal disorders including vascular diseases, degenerative diseases, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, retinal and choroidal tumors and hereditary retinal dystrophies. This review aims to describe the utility of ultra-wide field imaging in various retinal disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1403_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012972PMC
April 2021

To compare clinical versus ultrasound assessment of correct placement of ProSeal Laryngeal mask airway (PLMA): a prospective randomized study.

J Clin Monit Comput 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Onco-Anaesthesia and Palliative Medicine, Dr BRAIRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Room No 139, First Floor, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Extraglottic airway devices (EAD) have revolutionized the perioperative airway management. The accuracy of clinical tests to identify malposition has been questioned by recent studies where fibreoptic evaluation identified various malpositions that were undiagnosed by a clinical test. Ultrasound (USG) has evolved to guide various airway interventions. However, USG is under-evaluated in the assessment of the EADs position. Our study aimed to compare clinical versus USG assessment of optimal placement of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA). This randomized control trial was done in 212 consenting patients undergoing onco-surgery with PLMA as an airway device. Patients were randomized in Group CL (n-107) and US (n-105). Following primary assessment-using clinical tests and USG evaluation using a scoring system, fibreoptic evaluation of the placement of PLMA was done and then assessed for optimal position. The accuracy of each technique for optimal placement was compared statistically. We found that the sensitivity and specificity of the clinical evaluation were 98.77% and 34.62% with a diagnostic accuracy of 83.18% when compared with fibreoptic evaluation. While USG evaluation using the scoring system has sensitivity and specificity of 95.45% and 29.41% with a diagnostic accuracy of 84.76%. It was noted that USG assessment has a higher positive predictive value (87.5%) as compared to clinical assessment (82.47%). The incidence of rotation was higher in the clinical group. There was no difference in airway related morbidity. USG is comparable to clinical tests for evaluation of the optimal placement of PLMA. However, USG has various advantages over clinical assessment as it is quick and identifies the unacceptable placement of PLMA where the tip of PLMA may not lie over the tip of the esophagus, thereby, avoiding unnecessary mucosal injury during forceful or repeated attempts for gastric drainage tube insertion.Trial registration: Clinical Trials Registry (CTRI/2017/11/010359) dated 3rd November 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10877-021-00684-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Chromo-fluorogenic sensors for chemical warfare agents in real-time analysis: journey towards accurate detection and differentiation.

Authors:
Vinod Kumar

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 16;57(28):3430-3444. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Process and Technology Development Division, Defence Research & Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, India.

The existence of chemical weapons (blister and nerve agents) is an unfortunate reality of the modern world. The usage of these chemical agents by rogue states or terrorist groups has showcased their ugly faces in the past and even in recent years. Despite extensive and strenuous efforts by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to eliminate chemical warfare agents (CWAs) by the prohibition of their production and the destruction of their stockpiles, many countries still possess them in enormous quantities. Given the potential threat from these lethal agents, it is imperative to have a foolproof chemical sensor and detection system, which should consist of readily deployable chemical probes that can operate with high specificity and sensitivity. Over the last decade, our group has been engaged in designing and developing novel field-deployable sensing techniques by exploring approaches based on supramolecular tools, which can result in excellent specificity, sensitivity, high speed, portability and low cost. In this article, I describe our group's journey and success stories in the development of chemical warfare detection protocols, detailing the range of unique chemical probes and methods explored to achieve the specific detection of individual agents under real environmental conditions. It is interesting to note that the combination of three molecular probes (SQ, Fc and LH2) could simply achieve the detection of all CWAs at room temperature in one go without the need for nonportable and expensive instruments. The ease and generality of these techniques/methods suggest great promise for the highly specific chemical sensing of almost the entire class of CWAs. In this paper, a brief introduction is first provided to present the basic chemistry related to CWAs and the importance of supramolecular chemistry in the design of new protocols with new insights. The manipulation of molecular probes is then debated towards the development of a system for the chromo-fluorogenic sensing of CWAs without interference from most relevant analytes. Finally, the outlook of open challenges and the future developments of this rapidly evolving field is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00132aDOI Listing
April 2021

An environmental gamma spectrometry system with CsI(Tl) scintillator and FPGA based MCA for open field deployment.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 6;172:109677. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, 400094, India.

Inorganic scintillator-based gamma spectrometry is typically carried out under laboratory conditions by using systems that require AC mains supply and dedicated computers for their operation. In this study, an in-house grown CsI(Tl) single crystal scintillator is optically coupled to a bialkali photomultiplier tube (PMT). The output of the PMT is fed to a pulse processing chain consisting of a preamplifier followed by an in-house designed and developed field programmable gate array (FPGA) based multichannel analyzer (MCA). Spectral data from this MCA is sent via serial communication to a microcontroller. A global system for mobile communications (GSM) modem transmits this data in the form of short message service (SMS) packets to a central receiving station, where the spectrum is reconstructed. The requirement of on-site data logging computer to store large spectral data has thereby been eliminated, which, in turn, has eliminated the requirement of AC power supply, reduced the overall power consumption and size of the system, and made it possible to develop a standalone solar-powered unit. For further reduction of overall power consumption, the spectrometer is turned-on only when a Geiger Mueller (GM) counter based gross gamma detection circuit, also included in the system, detects an ambient gamma dose rate beyond a pre-set threshold level. A mathematical methodology has also been implemented for restoration of recorded spectra, shifted due to temperature variations in the environment. All these features have been integrated and a standalone, solar-powered and battery operated field-deployable environmental gamma spectrometry system (EGSS) has been developed and tested for open field deployment. Presence of Ar in ambient air was successfully detected by the system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109677DOI Listing
June 2021

Naproxen Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Renal Cortical Necrosis.

Indian J Nephrol 2020 Sep-Oct;30(5):334-336. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Nephrology, Aster Medcity Hospital, Kochii, Kerala, India.

Drug induced acute interstitial nephritis is an idiosyncratic reaction following a drug exposure. The commonest drugs implicated are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors. Renal cortical necrosis is a rare cause of acute kidney injury caused by severe and sustained vasoconstriction of small renal vessels. There is a change in the epidemiology of acute kidney injury especially in developing countries where drug induced acute kidney injury is becoming increasingly common. Naproxen is known to cause renal failure by renal papillary necrosis, tubular damage and acute interstitial nephritis. We present a case of Naproxen induced acute interstitial nephritis with acute cortical necrosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first documented case of Naproxen induced renal cortical necrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijn.IJN_75_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869646PMC
August 2020

The missing role of gray matter in studying brain controllability.

Netw Neurosci 2021 1;5(1):198-210. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Brain controllability properties are normally derived from the white matter fiber tracts in which the neural substrate of the actual energy consumption, namely the gray matter, has been widely ignored. Here, we study the relationship between gray matter volume of regions across the whole cortex and their respective control properties derived from the structural architecture of the white matter fiber tracts. The data suggests that the ability of white fiber tracts to exhibit control at specific nodes not only depends on the connection strength of the structural connectome but additionally depends on gray matter volume at the host nodes. Our data indicate that connectivity strength and gray matter volume interact with respect to the brain's control properties. Disentangling effects of the regional gray matter volume and connectivity strength, we found that frontal and sensory areas play crucial roles in controllability. Together these results suggest that structural and regional properties of the white matter and gray matter provide complementary information in studying the control properties of the intrinsic structural and functional architecture of the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/netn_a_00174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935040PMC
March 2021