Publications by authors named "Vinod Kumar"

1,606 Publications

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Morphologically dissimilar spores of exhibit genomic homogeneity but the differential in Kojic acid accumulation.

3 Biotech 2022 Sep 1;12(9):197. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Fermentation and Microbial Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu, 180001 India.

We reported that  (SSC-3), an indigenous isolate from rice husk, is a potent kojic acid producer. During optimization, it was observed that under static fermentation conditions, this fungal strain produces two dissimilar morphological green and yellow spores, i.e., SSC-3(Y) and SSC-3(G). Furthermore, these different spore types differ in color, morphology, and in kojic acid metabolite accumulation, with green spores producing 12.87 g/l and yellow spores producing 8.63 g/l of kojic acid on the 12th day of fermentation. To understand if there is a genetic basis for the difference in morphology and metabolite accumulation characteristics, sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and RAPD analysis from both the spore were carried out. Our study revealed that though the spores are dissimilar with respect to morphology and metabolite accumulation profile, they are genetically homogenous. This suggests that there could be epigenetic differences in these spore types, which may be explored in detail in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-022-03230-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343528PMC
September 2022

Improving performance of classifiers for diagnosis of critical diseases to prevent COVID risk.

Comput Electr Eng 2022 Sep 28;102:108236. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Computer Science and Engineering, SRM University, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The risk of developing COVID-19 and its variants may be higher in those with pre-existing health conditions such as thyroid disease, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), breast tissue disease, chronic dermatitis, and other severe infections. Early and precise identification of these disorders is critical. A huge number of patients in nations like India require early and rapid testing as a preventative measure. The problem of imbalance arises from the skewed nature of data in which the instances from majority class are classified correct, while the minority class is unfortunately misclassified by many classifiers. When it comes to human life, this kind of misclassification is unacceptable. To solve the misclassification issue and improve accuracy in such datasets, we applied a variety of data balancing techniques to several machine learning algorithms. The outcomes are encouraging, with a considerable increase in accuracy. As an outcome of these proper diagnoses, we can make plans and take the required actions to stop patients from acquiring serious health issues or viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2022.108236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329734PMC
September 2022

Complex entropy based encryption and decryption technique for securing medical images.

Multimed Tools Appl 2022 Jul 26:1-19. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

School of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Kakryal, Katra, Jammu & Kashmir 182320 India.

During medical picture transmission, the most pressing concern is security. Medical images must be encrypted since they are extremely sensitive. Watermarking, digital fingerprinting/signature, and encoding are some of the available image security techniques. Images and movies, for example, must be highly encrypted and decoded without losing any content information. Medical photos, for example, require extra protection, and protecting medical images is a critical issue when medical images and related patient information are transferred over public networks. This research work proposes a visual encryption strategy to secure medical pictures before being transmitted or stored in the cloud. This technique makes such pictures of unauthorized people unavailable and also maintains confidentiality, a prime safety requirement. The process made use of a pixel shuffling-based encryption technique and a secret key created from the image. In this research, we encrypted the medical image using modified Arnold Map Encryption and generated secret key values. Therefore, the image is encrypted, and henceforth it is decrypted as well. So this work gave us the encrypted image and decrypted image/original image as well. The modified Arnold Map Encryption tries to add more randomness, thus increasing the entropy of the image and thus makes it harder to decrypt. The modified Arnold Map Encryption is also compared to other algorithms such as Hyper Chaotic, Secure Hash Algorithm-13 (SHA-13), Ten Logistic Maps, Bakers Map, HenonMap, Cross Chaos Map, and 2D Logistic Map and shows better results in terms of encryption speed and Number of Pixel Change Rate (NPCR) value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11042-022-13546-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314533PMC
July 2022

Genotypic variations for tuber nutrient content, dry matter and agronomic traits in tetraploid potato germplasm.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2022 Jun 23;28(6):1233-1248. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Division of Crop Improvement & Seed Technology, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh India.

Nutrient deficiencies lead to various health issues and are common worldwide. Potato germplasm is a rich source of natural variations and genetic variability present in it can be exploited for developing nutrient-rich high-yielding potato varieties. In this study, variations in the yield, dry matter (DM) and mineral nutrients concentrations were evaluated in both peeled and unpeeled tubers of 243 highly diverse tetraploid potato accessions. These were raised under field conditions for two consecutive years. The germplasm studied has a wider range of variations in peeled tubers DM (13.71-27.80%), Fe (17.08-71.03 mg/kg), Zn (9.55-34.78 mg/kg), Cu (2.13-13.25 mg/kg), Mn (7.04-25.15), Ca (117.4-922.5 mg/kg), Mg (656.6-1510.6 mg/kg), S (1121.3-3765.8 mg/kg), K (1.20-3.09%), P (0.21-0.50%) and Mo (53.6-1164.0 ppb) concentrations compared to popular Indian potato varieties. Higher nutrient concentrations in whole tubers compared to tuber flesh suggest that these are present in high concentration in the tuber peripheral layers and peeling off the tubers results in the loss of nutrients. Highest loss due to peeling off the tubers was observed in Fe (35.63%) followed by Cu (22.80%), Mn (21.69%), Ca (21.27%), Mg (12.89%), K (12.75%), Zn (10.13%), and Mo (9.87%). The GCV and PCV for all the traits in peeled tubers ranged from 9.67 to 29.91%, and 13.84 to 43.32%, respectively. Several significant positive correlations were observed among the parameters and the first two principal components accounted for 39.37% of total variations. The results of this study will pave a way for the development of nutrient-rich high-yielding potato varieties.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-022-01197-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-022-01197-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334495PMC
June 2022

Theaflavin 3-gallate inhibits the main protease (M) of SARS-CoV-2 and reduces its count in vitro.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 30;12(1):13146. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, 176061, India.

The main protease (M) of SARS-CoV-2 has been recognized as an attractive drug target because of its central role in viral replication. Our previous preliminary molecular docking studies showed that theaflavin 3-gallate (a natural bioactive molecule derived from theaflavin and found in high abundance in black tea) exhibited better docking scores than repurposed drugs (Atazanavir, Darunavir, Lopinavir). In this study, conventional and steered MD-simulations analyses revealed stronger interactions of theaflavin 3-gallate with the active site residues of M than theaflavin and a standard molecule GC373 (a known inhibitor of M and novel broad-spectrum anti-viral agent). Theaflavin 3-gallate inhibited M protein of SARS-CoV-2 with an IC value of 18.48 ± 1.29 μM. Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (Indian/a3i clade/2020 isolate) with 200 μM of theaflavin 3-gallate in vitro using Vero cells and quantifying viral transcripts demonstrated reduction of viral count by 75% (viral particles reduced from Log10 to Log10). Overall, our findings suggest that theaflavin 3-gallate effectively targets the M thus limiting the replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-17558-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338964PMC
July 2022

A systematic review of analytical methods used in genetic association analysis of the X-chromosome.

Brief Bioinform 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525 HP, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Genetic association studies have been very successful at elucidating the genetic background of many complex diseases/traits. However, the X-chromosome is often neglected in these studies because of technical difficulties and the fact that most tools only utilize genetic data from autosomes. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of different practical approaches that are followed to incorporate the X-chromosome in association analysis, such as Genome-Wide Association Studies and Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis. In general, the choice of which test statistics is most appropriate will depend on three main criteria: (1) the underlying X-inactivation model, (2) if Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds and sex-specific allele frequencies are expected and (3) whether adjustment for confounding variables is required. All in all, it is recommended that a combination of different association tests should be used for the analysis of X-chromosome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbac287DOI Listing
July 2022

TiC-TiO MXene Nanocomposite-Based High-Efficiency Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing Platform for Diabetes Monitoring.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jul 26;22(15). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Stem Cell Research Centre, Department of Hematology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, UP, India.

Diabetes is a major health challenge, and it is linked to a number of serious health issues, including cardiovascular disease (heart attack and stroke), diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage or failure), and birth defects. The detection of glucose has a direct and significant clinical importance in the management of diabetes. Herein, we demonstrate the application of synthesized TiC-TiO MXene nanocomposite for high throughput non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The nanocomposite was synthesized by controlled oxidation of TiC-MXene nanosheets using HO at room temperature The oxidation results in the opening up of TiC-MXene nanosheets and the formation of TiO nanocrystals on their surfaces as revealed in microscopic and spectroscopic analysis. Nanocomposite exhibited considerably high electrochemical response than parent TiC MXene, and hence utilized as a novel electrode material for enzyme-free sensitive and specific detection of glucose. Developed nanocomposite-based non-enzymatic glucose sensor (NEGS) displays a wide linearity range (0.1 µM-200 µM, R = 0.992), high sensitivity of 75.32 μA mM cm, a low limit of detection (0.12 μM) and a rapid response time (~3s). NEGS has further shown a high level of repeatability and selectivity for glucose in serum spiked samples. The unveiled excellent sensing performance of NEGS is credited to synergistically improved electrochemical response of TiC MXene and TiO nanoparticles. All of these attributes highlight the potential of MXene nanocomposite as a next-generation NEGS for on the spot mass screening of diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22155589DOI Listing
July 2022

Addressing Binary Classification over Class Imbalanced Clinical Datasets Using Computationally Intelligent Techniques.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jul 13;10(7). Epub 2022 Jul 13.

College of Computing and IT University of Doha for Science and Technology, Doha P.O. Box 24449, Qatar.

Nowadays, healthcare is the prime need of every human being in the world, and clinical datasets play an important role in developing an intelligent healthcare system for monitoring the health of people. Mostly, the real-world datasets are inherently class imbalanced, clinical datasets also suffer from this imbalance problem, and the imbalanced class distributions pose several issues in the training of classifiers. Consequently, classifiers suffer from low accuracy, precision, recall, and a high degree of misclassification, etc. We performed a brief literature review on the class imbalanced learning scenario. This study carries the empirical performance evaluation of six classifiers, namely Decision Tree, k-Nearest Neighbor, Logistic regression, Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, and Gaussian Naïve Bayes, over five imbalanced clinical datasets, Breast Cancer Disease, Coronary Heart Disease, Indian Liver Patient, Pima Indians Diabetes Database, and Coronary Kidney Disease, with respect to seven different class balancing techniques, namely Undersampling, Random oversampling, SMOTE, ADASYN, SVM-SMOTE, SMOTEEN, and SMOTETOMEK. In addition to this, the appropriate explanations for the superiority of the classifiers as well as data-balancing techniques are also explored. Furthermore, we discuss the possible recommendations on how to tackle the class imbalanced datasets while training the different supervised machine learning methods. Result analysis demonstrates that SMOTEEN balancing method often performed better over all the other six data-balancing techniques with all six classifiers and for all five clinical datasets. Except for SMOTEEN, all other six balancing techniques almost had equal performance but moderately lesser performance than SMOTEEN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10071293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9322725PMC
July 2022

Site-Specific Dry and Wet Deposition Velocities Using 7BE and Mass Interception Factor for Various Types of Plant Leaves at Narora Site, India.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2022 Jul 24. Epub 2022 Jul 24.

Environmental Survey Laboratory, Department: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment Division, BARC, Narora Atomic Power Station, Narora, Bulandshahar, U.P. 202 389, India.

Comprehensive studies were carried out during the period 2016-19 on the estimation of site-specific wet and dry deposition velocities and the mass interception factor for Narora site based on the concentrations of 7Be in air, air deposits, rain water and vegetation samples. Mean wet and dry deposition velocities for Narora site were found to be 1.64E-2 and 1.58E-3 m s-1, respectively. Mass interception factors for vegetation found to be 0.34-2.51 m2 kg-1 dry weight with a mean of 0.97 m2 kg-1 dry weight. The obtained parameters shall be used for estimation of impact due to radionuclide related to Narora Atomic Power station.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncac155DOI Listing
July 2022

Magnesium Phosphate Bioceramics for Bone Tissue Engineering.

Chem Rec 2022 Jul 22:e202200136. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, 700037, Kolkata, India.

Magnesium phosphate (MgP) is a family of newly developed resorbable bioceramics for bone tissue engineering. Although calcium phosphates (CaP) are the most commonly used bioceramics, low solubility, and slow degradation, when implanted in vivo, are their main drawbacks. Magnesium (Mg) is an essential element in the human body as it plays important role in bone metabolism, DNA stabilization, and skeletal development. Recent research on magnesium phosphates has established their higher degradability, in vitro, and in vivo biocompatibility. Compared to CaP, very limited research work has been found in the area of MgP. The prime goal of this review is to bring out the importance of magnesium phosphate ceramics for biomedical applications. In this review, we have discussed the synthesis methods, mechanical properties, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of MgP bioceramics. Moreover, we have highlighted the recent developments in metal ion-doped MgPs and MgP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202200136DOI Listing
July 2022

Recurrent Hypokalemia as an Unusual Presentation for Metastatic Adrenocortical Cancer.

Cureus 2022 Jun 15;14(6):e25954. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Hematology and Oncology, St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Paterson, USA.

Adrenocortical cancer is a rare malignancy of the endocrine system. Therefore, when this malignancy presents with metastatic disease, this leads to further difficulties in management. Due to the rare and ambiguous nature of this malignancy, diagnosis is generally made at later stages, with limited options for patients. Symptoms may include weight gain/loss, muscle weakness, abdominal discomfort/bloating, hyperglycemia, hypertension, electrolyte imbalance, hirsutism and virilization in females, gynecomastia and hypogonadism in males. Due to the variety of conditions presenting with one or more of these symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Many adrenocortical tumors, malignant and benign, are usually detected incidentally on imaging performed for evaluation of another condition, also known as "incidentalomas." Here, we present a rare case of metastatic adrenocortical malignancy in a 56-year-old female patient who presented with isolated recurrent episodes of hypokalemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9284839PMC
June 2022

Transcriptional profiles predict treatment outcome in patients with tuberculosis and diabetes at diagnosis and at two weeks after initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

EBioMedicine 2022 Jul 13;82:104173. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Dept of Infection Biology and TB Centre, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University London, United Kingdom.

Background: Globally, the tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate is approximately 85%, with treatment failure, relapse and death occurring in a significant proportion of pulmonary TB patients. Treatment success is lower among people with diabetes mellitus (DM). Predicting treatment outcome early after diagnosis, especially in TB-DM patients, would allow early treatment adaptation for individuals and may improve global TB control.

Methods: Samples were collected in a longitudinal cohort study of adult TB patients from South Africa (n  =  94) and Indonesia (n  =  81), who had concomitant DM (n  =  59), intermediate hyperglycaemia (n  =  79) or normal glycaemia/no DM (n  =  37). Treatment outcome was monitored, and patients were categorized as having a good (cured) or poor (failed, recurrence, died) outcome during treatment and 12 months follow-up. Whole blood transcriptional profiles before, during and at the end of TB treatment were characterized using unbiased RNA-Seq and targeted gene dcRT-MLPA.

Findings: We report differences in whole blood transcriptome profiles, which were observed before initiation of treatment and throughout treatment, between patients with a good versus poor TB treatment outcome. An eight-gene and a 22-gene blood transcriptional signature distinguished patients with a good TB treatment outcome from patients with a poor TB treatment outcome at diagnosis (AUC = 0·815) or two weeks (AUC = 0·834) after initiation of TB treatment, respectively. High accuracy was obtained by cross-validating this signature in an external cohort (AUC = 0·749).

Interpretation: These findings suggest that transcriptional profiles can be used as a prognostic biomarker for treatment failure and success, even in patients with concomitant DM.

Funding: The research leading to these results, as part of the TANDEM Consortium, received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013 Grant Agreement No. 305279) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-TOP Grant Agreement No. 91214038). The research leading to the results presented in the Indian validation cohort was supported by Research Council of Norway Global Health and Vaccination Research (GLOBVAC) projects: RCN 179342, 192534, and 248042, the University of Bergen (Norway).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9297076PMC
July 2022

Nano Copper Supplementation Increases Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Gene Expression Profiles and Concentration of Antioxidants and Immune Variables in Sahiwal Heifers.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry, DUVASU, Mathura, India.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inorganic and nano copper (nanoCu) supplementation on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) gene expression, antioxidant status, and immune response in growing Sahiwal heifers. Twenty-four Sahiwal heifers were allocated at random into four groups of six heifers in each groups and fed for 120 days. Feeding regimen was similar in all the groups except that treatment groups were supplemented with 0.0 mg Cu, 10.0 mg inorganic copper (inCu), and 5.0 and 10.0 mg of nanoCu per kg dry matter (DM) in four respective groups. Feed intake and growth performance were similar in growing Sahiwal heifers fed on basal diet with or without supplemental Cu. Antioxidative variables like SOD, CAT, ceruloplasmin (Cp), total antioxidant status (TAS), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found higher in Cu-supplemented groups than control. Variables like malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were found lower in treatment groups than control. Total immunoglobulins (total Ig) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were higher in treatment groups than control, although interleukin-6 (IL-6) was similar in all groups. There were upregulation of mRNA expression of SOD and CAT genes in experimental animals fed on Cu-supplemented diet while mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) genes was not altered by dietary treatment. The results suggest that the level of 5-ppm nanoCu can be selected for feeding in growing cattle as it exerts similar effects as showed by 10-ppm inorganic Cu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03356-7DOI Listing
July 2022

Organic waste recycling for carbon smart circular bioeconomy and sustainable development: A review.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jul 15;360:127620. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Borås 50190, Sweden.

The development of sustainable and low carbon impact processes for a suitable management of waste and by-products coming from different factors of the industrial value chain like agricultural, forestry and food processing industries. Implementing this will helps to avoid the negative environmental impact and global warming. The application of the circular bioeconomy (CB) and the circular economic models have been shown to be a great opportunity for facing the waste and by-products issues by bringing sustainable processing systems which allow to the value chains be more responsible and resilient. In addition, biorefinery approach coupled to CB context could offer different solution and insights to conquer the current challenges related to decrease the fossil fuel dependency as well as increase efficiency of resource recovery and processing cost of the industrial residues. It is worth to remark the important role that the biotechnological processes such as fermentative, digestive and enzymatic conversions play for an effective waste management and carbon neutrality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127620DOI Listing
July 2022

Genetic determinants of fungi-induced ROS production are associated with the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

Redox Biol 2022 Jul 4;55:102391. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6525 HP, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, 9700RB, the Netherlands; Nitte (Deemed to be University), Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), Medical Sciences Complex, Deralakatte, Mangalore, 575018, India.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an essential component of the host defense against fungal infections. However, little is known about how common genetic variation affects ROS-mediated antifungal host defense. In the present study, we investigated the genetic factors that regulate ROS production capacity in response to the two human fungal pathogens: Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. We investigated fungal-stimulated ROS production by immune cells isolated from a population-based cohort of approximately 200 healthy individuals (200FG cohort), and mapped ROS-quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We identified several genetic loci that regulate ROS levels (P < 9.99 × 10), with some of these loci being pathogen-specific, and others shared between the two fungi. These ROS-QTLs were investigated for their influence on the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a disease relevant context. We stratified hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients based on the donor's SNP genotype and tested their impact on the risk of IPA. We identified rs4685368 as a ROS-QTL locus that was significantly associated with an increased risk of IPA after controlling for patient age and sex, hematological malignancy, type of transplantation, conditioning regimen, acute graft-versus-host-disease grades III-IV, and antifungal prophylaxis. Collectively, this data provides evidence that common genetic variation can influence ROS production capacity, and, importantly, the risk of developing IPA among HSCT recipients. This evidence warrants further research for patient stratification based on the genetic profiling that would allow the identifications of patients at high-risk for an invasive fungal infection, and who would benefit the most from a preventive strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2022.102391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9283926PMC
July 2022

Boswellic acids, as novel inhibitor targeting peptidoglycan biosynthetic enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) in Escherichia coli.

Arch Microbiol 2022 Jul 12;204(8):472. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Fermentation Microbial Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu Tawi, 180001, India.

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) is an essential cytosolic enzyme in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. It becomes a potential bacterial target for screening promising antibacterial compounds as it is associated with the early phases of peptidoglycan production. MurA enzyme is conserved and necessary for bacterial viability with no mammalian homolog, which is a well-proven therapeutic research target. The present study reports the natural compounds from Boswellia serrata targeting the MurA enzyme. The identified inhibitors against MurA Escherichia coli (E. coli): β-boswellic acid (IC 33.65 µM), Acetyl-β-boswellic acid (IC 30.17 µM), and Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (IC 37.67 µM). Inhibitors showed a fourfold decrease in IC values on pre-incubation with substrate-UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). Mode-of-inhibition studies revealed their uncompetitive nature with both the substrates. Although these boswellic acids have been explored for their pharmacological potential, this is the first study reporting these compounds' E. coli MurA inhibiting potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-022-03066-7DOI Listing
July 2022

Chronic choroidal folds in a patient with pleomorphic adenoma.

Natl Med J India 2021 Nov-Dec;34(6):372

Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/NMJI_353_20DOI Listing
July 2022

Antifungal evaluation and mechanistic investigations of membrane active short synthetic peptides-based amphiphiles.

Bioorg Chem 2022 Jul 4;127:106002. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector 67, S. A. S. Nagar, Punjab 160 062, India. Electronic address:

The quest for new class of peptide-based antibiotics has steered this research towards the design and synthesis of short sequences possessing modified amphiphilic histidine along with hydrophobic tryptophan residues. The new structural class of dipeptides Trp-His(1-Bn)-OMe/NHBn and tripeptides His(1-Bn)-Trp-His(1-Bn)-OMe/NHBn demonstrated promising antifungal and antibacterial activities with membrane lytic action. The illustration of desirable hydrophilic-lipophilic balance appeared in the dipeptide Trp-His[1-(3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)]-NHBn (13d) that produced the most promising antifungal activity with IC value of 2.10 μg/mL and MIC = 3.81 μg/mL against C. neoformans and antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and S. aureus with identical IC value of 4.40 μg/mL and MIC of 8.0 μg/mL. Peptide 13d did not exhibit cytotoxicity and hemolysis at the MIC value and above. This quintessence amphiphilicity was further corroborated by the mechanistic elucidations, which revealed that, peptide act by utilizing charge and hydrophobicity as the primary characteristic tools. Owing to their fundamental affinity, the negatively charged fungal membrane is enacted upon by the positively charged peptide, whereas the intrinsic hydrophobicity of the peptide allowed penetration into the lipophillic core of the fungal cell membrane. Consequently, the integrity of cell membrane is compromised leading to increased fluidity. The membrane eventually disintegrates thereby creating a hollow pore and appearance of a doughnut into the cell when visualized under SEM. The cell death mechanism and damage to the cell wall and intracellular organelles have been elucidated with the help of flow cytometry, TEM and CLSM studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2022.106002DOI Listing
July 2022

Hypercalcemia - An enigmatic cause of acute pancreatitis.

J Clin Transl Res 2022 Jun 25;8(3):176-180. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) continues to be one of the common abdominal emergencies encountered in tertiary care hospitals. The majority of AP is caused by gall stones and alcohol. Hypercalcemia though uncommon has been reported to cause AP, recurrent AP, and chronic pancreatitis (CP).

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe hypercalcemia-induced AP in different settings.

Materials And Methods: In total 100 patients with AP, admitted from January 2021 to December 2021 at our center, etiologies were biliary (36%), alcohol (19%), idiopathic (21%), alcohol plus Biliary (5%), post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (7%), drug-induced (6%), hypercalcemia (3%), and dengue infection (3%). Overall mortality was 11%.

Results: In three patients with hypercalcemia-induced pancreatitis, causes of hypercalcemia were multiple myeloma, parathyroid adenoma leading to hyperparathyroidism, and hypervitaminosis D in association with hyperthyroidism.

Conclusion: Hypercalcemia-induced AP is not a rare phenomenon and should be actively investigated to prevent further attacks of AP and progression to CP.

Relevance For Patients: Hypercalcemia is a potentially treatable cause of AP and its identification will not only help to treat and prevent further episodes of pancreatitis but also to manage underlying diseases leading to hypercalcemia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9260341PMC
June 2022

Prospects of Biosensors Based on Functionalized and Nanostructured Solitary Materials: Detection of Viral Infections and Other Risks.

ACS Omega 2022 Jul 22;7(26):22073-22088. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Special Centre for Nanoscience, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi 110067, India.

Advances in nanotechnology over the past decade have emerged as a substitute for conventional therapies and have facilitated the development of economically viable biosensors. Next-generation biosensors can play a significant role in curbing the spread of various viruses, including HCoV-2, and controlling morbidity and mortality. Pertaining to the impact of the current pandemic, there is a need for point-of-care biosensor-based testing as a detection method to accelerate the detection process. Integrating biosensors with nanostructures could be a substitute for ultrasensitive label-free biosensors to amplify sensing and miniaturization. Notably, next-generation biosensors could expedite the detection process. An elaborate description of various types of functionalized nanomaterials and their synthetic aspects is presented. The utility of the functionalized nanostructured materials for fabricating nanobiosensors to detect several types of viral infections is described in this review. This review also discusses the choice of appropriate nanomaterials, as well as challenges and opportunities in the field of nanobiosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c01033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9260923PMC
July 2022

Myco-biorefinery approaches for food waste valorization: Present status and future prospects.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jul 6;360:127592. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Borås 50190, Sweden.

Increases in population and urbanization leads to generation of a large amount of food waste (FW) and its effective waste management is a major concern. But putrescible nature and high moisture content is a major limiting factor for cost effective FW valorization. Bioconversion of FW for the production of value added products is an eco-friendly and economically viable strategy for addressing these issues. Targeting on production of multiple products will solve these issues to greater extent. This article provides an overview of bioconversion of FW to different value added products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127592DOI Listing
July 2022

TiO based Photocatalysis membranes: An efficient strategy for pharmaceutical mineralization.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 6;845:157221. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Special Centre for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Among the various emerging contaminants, pharmaceuticals (PhACs) seem to have adverse effects on the quality of water. Even the smallest concentration of PhACs in ground water and drinking water is harmful to humans and aquatic species. Among all the deaths reported due to COVID-19, the mortality rate was higher for those patients who consumed antibiotics. Consequently, PhAC in water is a serious concern and their removal needs immediate attention. This study has focused on the PhACs' degradation by collaborating photocatalysis with membrane filtration. TiO-based photocatalytic membrane is an innovative strategy which demonstrates mineralization of PhACs as a safer option. To highlight the same, an emphasis on the preparation and reinforcing properties of TiO-based nanomembranes has been elaborated in this review. Further, mineralization of antibiotics or cytostatic compounds and their degradation mechanisms is also highlighted using TiO assisted membrane photocatalysis. Experimental reactor configurations have been discussed for commercial implementation of photoreactors for PhAC degradation anchored photocatalytic nanomembranes. Challenges and future perspectives are emphasized in order to design a nanomembrane based prototype in future for wastewater management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157221DOI Listing
July 2022

PCA-Based Incremental Extreme Learning Machine (PCA-IELM) for COVID-19 Patient Diagnosis Using Chest X-Ray Images.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 4;2022:9107430. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Hawassa University, Awasa, Ethiopia.

Novel coronavirus 2019 has created a pandemic and was first reported in December 2019. It has had very adverse consequences on people's daily life, healthcare, and the world's economy as well. According to the World Health Organization's most recent statistics, COVID-19 has become a worldwide pandemic, and the number of infected persons and fatalities growing at an alarming rate. It is highly required to have an effective system to early detect the COVID-19 patients to curb the further spreading of the virus from the affected person. Therefore, to early identify positive cases in patients and to support radiologists in the automatic diagnosis of COVID-19 from X-ray images, a novel method PCA-IELM is proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA) and incremental extreme learning machine. The suggested method's key addition is that it considers the benefits of PCA and the incremental extreme learning machine. Further, our strategy PCA-IELM reduces the input dimension by extracting the most important information from an image. Consequently, the technique can effectively increase the COVID-19 patient prediction performance. In addition to these, PCA-IELM has a faster training speed than a multi-layer neural network. The proposed approach was tested on a COVID-19 patient's chest X-ray image dataset. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach PCA-IELM outperforms PCA-SVM and PCA-ELM in terms of accuracy (98.11%), precision (96.11%), recall (97.50%), F1-score (98.50%), etc., and training speed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9107430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9253873PMC
July 2022

Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of -Propargylated Diphenylpyrimidines as Multitarget Directed Ligands for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2022 07 7;13(14):2122-2139. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Laboratory of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab 151401, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), a multifactorial complex neural disorder, is categorized with progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment as main clinical features. The multitarget directed ligand (MTDL) strategy is explored for the treatment of multifactorial diseases such as cancer and AD. Herein, we report the synthesis and screening of 24 -propargyl-substituted diphenylpyrimidine derivatives as MTDLs against acetylcholine/butyrylcholine esterases and monoamine oxidase enzymes. In this series, showed the most potent MAO-B inhibitory activity with an IC value of 0.04 ± 0.002 μM. with an IC value of 0.04 ± 0.003 μM and a selectivity index of 626 (over BuChE) displayed the most potent AChE inhibitory activity in this series. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition studies, reduced intercellular ROS levels in SH-SY5Y cells by 36%. This series of compounds also exhibited potent neuroprotective potential against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal damage in SH-SY5Y cells with up to 90% recovery. In the studies in the rats, the hydrochloride salt of was orally administered and found to cross the blood-brain barrier and reach the target site. significantly attenuated the spatial memory impairment and improved the cognitive deficits in the mice. This series of compounds were found to be irreversible inhibitors and showed no cytotoxicity against neuronal cells. In studies, the compounds attained thermodynamically stable orientation with complete occupancy at the active site of the receptors. Thus, -propargyl-substituted diphenylpyrimidines displayed drug-like characteristics and have the potential to be developed as MTDLs for the effective treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00132DOI Listing
July 2022

Technological advancements in valorization of second generation (2G) feedstocks for bio-based succinic acid production.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jun 27;360:127513. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK. Electronic address:

Succinic acid (SA) is used as a commodity chemical and as a precursor in chemical industry to produce other derivatives such as 1,4-butaneidol, tetrahydrofuran, fumaric acid, and bio-polyesters. The production of bio-based SA from renewable feedstocks has always been in the limelight owing to the advantages of renewability, abundance and reducing climate change by CO capture. Considering this, the current review focuses on various 2G feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass, crude glycerol, and food waste for cost-effective SA production. It also highlights the importance of producing SA via separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and consolidated bioprocessing. Furthermore, recent advances in genetic engineering, and downstream SA processing are thoroughly discussed. It also elaborates on the techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment (LCA) studies carried out to understand the economics and environmental effects of bio-based SA synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127513DOI Listing
June 2022

PNEUMATIC VITREOLYSIS VERSUS PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY IN FOCAL SYMPTOMATIC VITREOMACULAR TRACTION SYNDROME: A Randomized Trial.

Retina 2022 07;42(7):1277-1283

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: To compare pneumatic vitreolysis and pars plana vitrectomy in the management of focal symptomatic vitreomacular traction (VMT).

Method: Patients aged 18 years or older, with idiopathic focal symptomatic VMT and best-corrected visual acuity <20/40, without any other retinal pathology were randomized to undergo pneumatic vitreolysis (Group 1) or pars plana vitrectomy (Group 2). The primary outcome measure was resolution of traction confirmed with optical coherence tomography at 3 months. Secondary outcome measures were to compare changes in best-corrected visual acuity, central foveal thickness, and complications if any.

Results: A total of 30 eyes of 30 patients were included with 15 eyes in each group. Vitreomacular traction resolved successfully in 12 of 15 (80%) eyes in Group 1 and in all (100%) eyes in Group 2 (P = 0.224). The mean visual acuity improved from 0.80 ± 0.26 (20/126 Snellen's equivalent) to 0.70 ± 0.46 logMAR (20/100 Snellen's equivalent) in Group 1 (P = 0.71) and from 0.904 ± 0.44 (20/160 Snellen's equivalent) to 0.47 ± 0.26 logMAR (20/59 Snellen's equivalent) in Group 2 (P = 0.0016). Although 4 of 15 (26.66%) eyes in Group 1 had formation of full-thickness macular hole and 7 eyes required resurgery (4 for full-thickness macular hole and 3 for unresolved VMT), none in the pars plana vitrectomy group had any complications requiring resurgery (P = 0.0063). Two eyes in the pars plana vitrectomy group had intraoperative deroofing of the fovea leading to full-thickness macular hole.

Conclusion: Pars plana vitrectomy is better than pneumatic vitreolysis as a single intervention in the management of focal symptomatic VMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000003456DOI Listing
July 2022

Night melatonin levels affect cognition in diurnal animals: Molecular insights from a corvid exposed to an illuminated night environment.

Environ Pollut 2022 Sep 14;308:119618. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

IndoUS Center in Chronobiology, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007, India. Electronic address:

This study investigated the role of nocturnal melatonin secretion in the cognitive performance of diurnal animals. An initial experiment measured the cognitive performance in Indian house crows treated for 11 days with 12 h light at 1.426 W/m (∼150 lux) coupled with 12 h of 0.058 W/m (∼6-lux) dim light at night (dLAN) or with absolute darkness (0 lux dark night, LD). dLAN treatment significantly decreased midnight melatonin levels and negatively impacted cognitive performance. Subsequently, the role of exogenous melatonin (50 μg; administered intraperitoneally half an hour before the night began) was assessed on the regulation of cognitive performance in two separate experimental cohorts of crows kept under dLAN; LD controls received vehicle. Exogenous melatonin restored its mid-night levels under dLAN at par with those under LD controls, and improved the cognitive performance, as measured in the innovative problem-solving, and spatial and pattern learning-memory efficiency tests in dLAN-treated crows. There were concurrent molecular changes in the cognition-associated brain areas, namely the hippocampus, nidopallium caudolaterale and midbrain. In particular, the expression levels of genes involved in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity (bdnf, dcx, egr1, creb), and dopamine synthesis and signalling (th, drd1, drd2, darpp32, taar1) were restored to LD control levels in crows treated with illuminated nights and received melatonin. These results demonstrate that the maintenance of nocturnal melatonin levels is crucial for an optimal higher-order brain function in diurnal animals in the face of an environmental threat, such as light pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119618DOI Listing
September 2022

A case report on fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia, oligosyndactyly syndrome variant in a male infant.

J Pak Med Assoc 2022 May;72(5):975-977

Department of Medicine, Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia, and oligosyndactyly (FATCO syndrome) is a rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation characterised by unilateral or bilateral fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia, and lower limb oligosyndactyly involving the lateral rays. A newborn male born at term via a Caesarean Section presented with malformations consisting of tibial campomelia, unilateral fibular hypoplasia, and oligosyndactyly, a "FATCO variant" case. On radiographic examination, an anterolateral shortened and bowed right lower limb at the distal third of the tibia, a rudimentary right fibula and absence of three rays on right foot were revealed. "FATCO syndrome" although rare may be linked to involvement of different body systems with morbidity and mortality. Proper parent counseling is a key aspect of this syndrome. Timely diagnosis and management with a multidisciplinary approach is essential to avoid lifelong disability, which can be a hurdle in a developing country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.3793DOI Listing
May 2022

El-Ganzouri multivariate risk index based airway management in head and neck cancer patients: A retrospective analysis of 1000 patients in a tertiary care center.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2022 Jan-Mar;38(1):97-103. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Oncoanaesthesia and Palliative Medicine, Dr. BRAIRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Background And Aims: Intubation in head and neck carcinoma (HNC) is difficult due to many reasons. Various guidelines recommend strategies for airway management in such anticipated difficult airway cases. However, literature is limited on airway management planning as per the level of difficulty based on airway assessment in these patients. EL-Ganzouri risk index (EGRI) has been proposed to aid in making airway management plan in HNC cases by some authors. This retrospective study was conducted to look at the data related to the pre-anesthetic airway assessment and the airway management plan executed by the anesthesiologists in 1000 patients of HNC in the previous nearly four years in order to determine how the choices made conformed to EGRI scores.

Material And Methods: Records of all the patients with oral cancer posted for surgery over four years from January 2014 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed for preoperative airway assessment using El Ganzouri risk index assessment (EGRI), the intraoperative technique for nasotracheal intubation, airway management plan, and any intraoperative complications.

Results: The risk of predicted airway difficulty was low (EGRI <4) in 38 patients and was high in the rest. The EGRI score was higher in the FOB group [4-9] as compared to DL [2-3] and VL [1-6]. The patients with EGRI >7 were intubated awake and those with EGRI <7 were intubated under general anesthesia (79.8%). Overall, the technique of choice for intubation was fibreoptic bronchoscopy (54%) followed by video laryngoscopy (42.6%).

Conclusion: The airway management plan used in a tertiary care cancer center conformed to the approach suggested by the multivariate El Ganzouri risk index (EGRI). EGRI appears to be a useful means to ascertain the appropriate strategies for intubation in head and neck cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/joacp.JOACP_176_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9191799PMC
November 2021
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