Publications by authors named "Vineet Kumar"

288 Publications

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals: An Indispensable Contrivance in Green Remediation Technology.

Plants (Basel) 2022 May 6;11(9). Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Environmental contamination is triggered by various anthropogenic activities, such as using pesticides, toxic chemicals, industrial effluents, and metals. Pollution not only affects both lotic and lentic environments but also terrestrial habitats, substantially endangering plants, animals, and human wellbeing. The traditional techniques used to eradicate the pollutants from soil and water are considered expensive, environmentally harmful and, typically, inefficacious. Thus, to abate the detrimental consequences of heavy metals, phytoremediation is one of the sustainable options for pollution remediation. The process involved is simple, effective, and economically efficient with large-scale extensive applicability. This green technology and its byproducts have several other essential utilities. Phytoremediation, in principle, utilizes solar energy and has an extraordinary perspective for abating and assembling heavy metals. The technique of phytoremediation has developed in contemporary times as an efficient method and its success depends on plant species selection. Here in this synthesis, we are presenting a scoping review of phytoremediation, its basic principles, techniques, and potential anticipated prospects. Furthermore, a detailed overview pertaining to biochemical aspects, progression of genetic engineering, and the exertion of macrophytes in phytoremediation has been provided. Such a promising technique is economically effective as well as eco-friendly, decontaminating and remediating the pollutants from the biosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11091255DOI Listing
May 2022

Control of meiotic chromosomal bouquet and germ cell morphogenesis by the zygotene cilium.

Science 2022 May 12:eabh3104. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Faculty of Medicine, Ein-Kerem Campus, Jerusalem 9112102, Israel.

A hallmark of meiosis is chromosomal pairing, which requires telomere tethering and rotation on the nuclear envelope via microtubules, driving chromosome homology searches. Telomere pulling toward the centrosome forms the "zygotene chromosomal bouquet". Here, we identified the "zygotene cilium" in oocytes. This cilium provides a cable system for the bouquet machinery, extending throughout the germline cyst. Using zebrafish mutants and live manipulations, we demonstrate that the cilium anchors the centrosome to counterbalance telomere pulling. The cilium is essential for bouquet and synaptonemal complex formation, oogenesis, ovarian development, and fertility. Thus, a cilium represents a conserved player in zebrafish and mouse meiosis, which sheds light on reproductive aspects in ciliopathies, and suggests that cilia can control chromosomal dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abh3104DOI Listing
May 2022

A novel CaO nanocomposite cross linked graphene oxide for Cr(VI) removal and sensing from wastewater.

Chemosphere 2022 Apr 27;301:134714. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Interdisciplinary Centre for Water Research (ICWaR), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 56001, India. Electronic address:

A novel green nanocomposite has been prepared by immobilizing CaO nanoparticles (CaO NPs) on the surface of graphene oxide. Biogenic CaO-NPs were synthesized from Lala clamshells. Morphological and structural characterizations of the nanocomposite were studied extensively. The adsorption capacity (q) of the nanocomposite for removing Cr(VI) was 38.04 mg g. In addition to this, the adsorption data were adequately simulated with Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and pseudo-second-order models, suggesting that the adsorption process was the combination of external mass transfer and chemisorption. Electrostatic interaction was the dominant mechanism for Cr(VI) removal. In addition, the synthesized nanocomposites also serve as an excellent sensor for Cr(VI) sensing, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.02 μM utilizing electrochemical methods. Therefore, this green nanocomposite can simultaneously serve as an adsorbent and sensor for Cr(VI)removal from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134714DOI Listing
April 2022

Use of Minced Residual Skin Grafts to Improve Donor Site Healing in Split-Thickness Skin Grafting.

Cureus 2022 Mar 24;14(3):e23453. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Topiwala National Medical College and Bai Yamunabai Laxman (BYL) Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, IND.

Background The morbidity of the donor site in split-thickness skin graft (STSG) may include abnormal pigmentation, delayed healing, and unfavorable scarring. Studies are usually focused on improving the healing of the recipient site, so donor site management becomes a secondary consideration. An optimal solution should be sought for donor site management to improve healing and minimize morbidity. Methods In this study, we used minced residual skin grafts over half of the donor site (cases) and compared the healing duration and scar quality with the other half (control). Healing duration was measured in days and the scar quality was assessed by the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) at 90 days, 180 days, and 360 days. Results The healing time was reduced with the application of minced residual skin grafts on the donor site. The scar quality was significantly better in the case group as compared to the control group at 90 days, 180 days, and 360 days (p<0.05). Conclusion Mincing residual skin grafts and replacing them back to the donor site reduces the healing time and improves the quality of the scar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.23453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9034767PMC
March 2022

Azapodophyllotoxin Causes Lymphoma and Kidney Cancer Regression by Disrupting Tubulin and Monoglycerols.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2022 Apr 30;13(4):615-622. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

A natural compound screen identified several anticancer compounds, among which azapodophyllotoxin (AZP) was found to be the most potent. AZP caused decreased viability of both mouse and human lymphoma and renal cell cancer (RCC) tumor-derived cell lines. Novel AZP derivatives were synthesized and screened identifying compound NSC750212 to inhibit the growth of both lymphoma and RCC both in vitro and in vivo. A nanoimmunoassay was used to assess the NSC750212 mode of action in vivo. On the basis of the structure of AZP and its mode of action, AZP disrupts tubulin polymerization. Through desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging, NSC750212 was found to inhibit lipid metabolism. NSC750212 suppresses monoglycerol metabolism depleting lipids and thereby inhibits tumor growth. The dual mode of tubulin polymerization disruption and monoglycerol metabolism inhibition makes NSC750212 a potent small molecule against lymphoma and RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.1c00673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9014495PMC
April 2022

A pilot multicentre cluster randomised trial to compare the effect of trauma life support training programmes on patient and provider outcomes.

BMJ Open 2022 Apr 18;12(4):e057504. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Surgery, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Introduction: Trauma accounts for nearly 10% of the global burden of disease. Several trauma life support programmes aim to improve trauma outcomes. There is no evidence from controlled trials to show the effect of these programmes on patient outcomes. We describe the protocol of a pilot study that aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing advanced trauma life support (ATLS) and primary trauma care (PTC) with standard care.

Methods And Analysis: We will pilot a pragmatic three-armed parallel, cluster randomised controlled trial in India, where neither of these programmes are routinely taught. We will recruit tertiary hospitals and include trauma patients and residents managing these patients. Two hospitals will be randomised to ATLS, two to PTC and two to standard care. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 30 days from the time of arrival to the emergency department. Our secondary outcomes will include patient, provider and process measures. All outcomes except time-to-event outcomes will be measured both as final values as well as change from baseline. We will compare outcomes in three combinations of trial arms: ATLS versus PTC, ATLS versus standard care and PTC versus standard care using absolute and relative differences along with associated CIs. We will conduct subgroup analyses across the clinical subgroups men, women, blunt multisystem trauma, penetrating trauma, shock, severe traumatic brain injury and elderly. In parallel to the pilot study, we will conduct community consultations to inform the planning of the full-scale trial.

Ethics And Dissemination: We will apply for ethics approvals to the local institutional review board in each hospital. The protocol will be published to Clinical Trials Registry-India and ClinicalTrials.gov. The results will be published and the anonymised data and code for analysis will be released publicly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-057504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9016405PMC
April 2022

Elimination of tucatinib, a small molecule kinase inhibitor of HER2, is primarily governed by CYP2C8 enantioselective oxidation of gem-dimethyl.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Seagen Inc, 21823 30th Dr SE, Bothell, WA, 98021, USA.

Purpose: Tucatinib, a small molecule for the treatment of metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer, was extensively metabolized in humans to multiple oxidative metabolites. To fully understand the elimination and biotransformation pathways of tucatinib, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of tucatinib, and also conducted a Phase I trial using [C]tucatinib.

Methods: To identify the responsible enzymes for tucatinib clearance, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of tucatinib including enzyme phenotyping, which facilitated the discovery of several metabolites in human and monkey plasma and excreta, in particular M1 (ONT-993, an aliphatic hydroxylated metabolite). Stereoselective formation of M1 was further investigated in vitro, in vivo, and in silico.

Results: In humans, approximately 86% of the total radiolabeled dose was recovered in feces and 4% in urine; in plasma, approximately 76% of radioactivity circulated as parent drug, with 19% attributed to multiple metabolites. The primary isoforms responsible for the elimination of tucatinib were CYP2C8 and CYP3A4/5. CYP2C8 was shown to possess sole catalytic activity for the formation of M1, whereas CYP3A4/5 and aldehyde oxidase catalyzed the formation of the remaining metabolites. Subsequent investigation revealed that M1 was formed in a stereoselective manner. Examination of the enantiomeric ratio of M1 stereoisomers observed in humans relative to cynomolgus monkeys revealed comparable results, suggesting that the enantiomers that comprise M1 were not considered to be unique or disproportionately high in human.

Conclusion: CYP2C8 and CYP3A4/5 are the primary drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of tucatinib, which provided the basis to describe human disposition of tucatinib and formation of the observed metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-022-04429-zDOI Listing
April 2022

Multicomponent Solids of Niflumic and Mefenamic Acids Based on Acid-Pyridine Synthon.

Front Chem 2022 31;10:729608. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The present study discusses comparative structural features of fourteen multicomponent solids of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Niflumic and Mefenamic acids, with amine and pyridine-based coformers. All the solids were structurally characterized through PXRD, SCXRD, DSC, and the monophasic nature of some of the solids was established through Rietveld refinement. The solid forms include salt, cocrystal, hydrate, and solvate. Except for two, all the solids reported here showed relatively higher solubility compared to the acids. The difference in pa and similarity in structural features of both the molecules enabled us to study the effect of Δpa on crystallization outcome systematically. The structures of all the solids are described through acid-pyridine synthon perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.729608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9009247PMC
March 2022

Editorial: Recent Trends in Integrated Wastewater Treatment for Sustainable Development.

Front Microbiol 2022 31;13:846503. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Waste and Effluent Treatment Laboratory, Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Tiradentes University, Aracaju, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.846503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9008750PMC
March 2022

Free spermidine evokes superoxide radicals that manifest toxicity.

Elife 2022 Apr 13;11. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Division of Molecular Biochemistry and Microbiology, CSIR Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India.

Spermidine and other polyamines alleviate oxidative stress, yet excess spermidine seems toxic to unless it is neutralized by SpeG, an enzyme for the spermidine -acetyl transferase function. Thus, wild-type can tolerate applied exogenous spermidine stress, but Δ strain of fails to do that. Here, using different reactive oxygen species (ROS) probes and performing electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we provide evidence that although spermidine mitigates oxidative stress by lowering overall ROS levels, excess of it simultaneously triggers the production of superoxide radicals, thereby causing toxicity in the Δ strain. Furthermore, performing microarray experiment and other biochemical assays, we show that the spermidine-induced superoxide anions affected redox balance and iron homeostasis. Finally, we demonstrate that while RNA-bound spermidine inhibits iron oxidation, free spermidine interacts and oxidizes the iron to evoke superoxide radicals directly. Therefore, we propose that the spermidine-induced superoxide generation is one of the major causes of spermidine toxicity in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.77704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9038194PMC
April 2022

Plant development and crop protection using phytonanotechnology: A new window for sustainable agriculture.

Chemosphere 2022 Mar 30:134465. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Bio-Resource Tech Laboratory, Department of Botany, School of Life Science, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, 495009, India. Electronic address:

Most developing nations' economies are built on agriculture and most of their citizens rely on it for survival. Global agricultural systems are experiencing tough and unprecedented challenges in the age of changing climate. Every year, the world's population grows, necessitating increased agrarian productivity. As a result, there has been a movement toward utilizing emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology. Nanotechnology with plant systems has inspired great interest in the current scenario in developing areas that come under the umbrella of agriculture and develop environmental remediation strategies. Plant-mediated synthesized nanoparticle (NPs) are eco-friendly, less time consuming, less expensive, and provide long-term product safety. Simultaneously, it provides tools that have the potentiality as "magic bullets" containing nutrients, fungicides, fertilizers, herbicides, or nucleic acids that target specific plant tissues and deliver their payload to the targeting location of the plant to achieve the intended results for environmental monitoring and pollution resistance. In this perspective, the classification and biological activities of different NPs on agroecosystem are focused. Furthermore, absorption, transport, and modification of NPs in plants were thoroughly examined. Some of the most promising new technologies e.g., nanotechnology to increase crop agricultural input efficiency and reduce biotic and abiotic stresses are also discussed. Potential development and implementation challenges were explored, highlighting the importance of using a systems approach when creating suggested nanotechnologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134465DOI Listing
March 2022

Diatoms as a biotechnological resource for the sustainable biofuel production: a state-of-the-art review.

Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 2022 Apr 27;38(1):111-131. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI)Waste Re-processing, Nehru Marg, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

The greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuel and higher economic cost in its transportation are stimulating scientists to explore biomass energy production at the local level. In the present review, the authors have explored the prospects of commercial-scale biofuels production from the microalgal group, diatoms. Insights on suitability of mass cultivation systems for large-scale production of diatoms have been deliberated based on published literature. Diatoms can proliferate extracting nutrients from the wastewater and the same biomass can be harvested for biofuel production. Residues can be further utilized for the formation of other bioproducts and biofertilizers. The residual applications of diatoms from mass culture are estimated to compensate for the additional costs incurred in the removal of impurities. Well-planned research is required to optimize the commercial-scale production of biofuels from diatoms. The aim of this review is therefore, to demonstrate the economically feasible, hygienically safe cultivation of diatoms on nutrients from wastewater, limitations in using diatoms for biofuel production, and how these limitations can be shorted out for optimum utilization of diatom for biofuel production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02648725.2022.2053319DOI Listing
April 2022

Electrically Switchable Anisometric Carbon Quantum Dots Exhibiting Linearly Polarized Photoluminescence: Syntheses, Anisotropic Properties, and Facile Control of Uniaxial Orientation.

ACS Nano 2022 Mar 28. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Nano Convergence Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, 54896, Republic of Korea.

Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have been extensively explored in diverse fields because of their exceptional features. The nanometric particles with photoluminescence (PL) benefit various optical and photonic applications. However, the majority of previous reports have mainly focused on either unpolarized or circular-polarized (CP) PL. Linearly polarized (LP) emission of CQDs is limited mainly because of their isometric shape and difficulties in macroscopic orientation control. Herein, we report syntheses of anisometric CQDs and facile control of the uniaxial orientation on a macroscopic scale, which results in linearly polarized photoluminescence (LP-PL). The anisometric CQDs are synthesized from rigid-rod-shaped precursors and evenly dispersed in the rod-like liquid crystal (LC) host. As-synthesized CQDs exhibit a PL quantum yield as high as 35% in chloroform. In addition to uniform alignment, facile directional switching of the elongated CQD is established by employing the electrical responsiveness of the CQD and host LC. Therefore, the dichroic photophysical properties of anisometric CQDs have been beneficially adopted for fabrications of polarization-sensitive and electrically switchable PL devices. Also, anisometric CQDs are embedded in polymer films with molecular orientational patterns and clearly recognized by LP-PL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c00758DOI Listing
March 2022

SU086, an inhibitor of HSP90, impairs glycolysis and represents a treatment strategy for advanced prostate cancer.

Cell Rep Med 2022 Feb 2;3(2):100502. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Among men, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality, with advanced disease remaining a major clinical challenge. We describe a small molecule, SU086, as a therapeutic strategy for advanced prostate cancer. We demonstrate that SU086 inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells , cell-line and patient-derived xenografts , and prostate cancer patient specimens. Furthermore, SU086 in combination with standard of care second-generation anti-androgen therapies displays increased impairment of prostate cancer cell and tumor growth and . Cellular thermal shift assay reveals that SU086 binds to heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and leads to a decrease in HSP90 levels. Proteomic profiling demonstrates that SU086 binds to and decreases HSP90. Metabolomic profiling reveals that SU086 leads to perturbation of glycolysis. Our study identifies SU086 as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer as a single agent or when combined with second-generation anti-androgens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8861828PMC
February 2022

Future simulated landscape predicts habitat loss for the Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei): A range level analysis for an endangered primate.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 23;826:154081. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata 700053, India. Electronic address:

Trachypithecus geei Khajuria, 1956 or Golden langur are an endangered colobine primate species that are distributed in the transboundary region of Bhutan and India. The species is severely threatened because of increasing habitat fragmentation and isolation across its entire range, especially the populations in Assam, India. The distribution range of the species has not been updated for the last two decades, nor is there any proper evaluation of the habitat requirements for the species. Therefore, we mapped the habitat suitability for the species across its entire distribution and projected its habitat suitability on the simulated landscape for the future (2031). The results indicate that out of the total range extent (66,320 km), only 12,265 km (18.49%) is suitable for the species at present, which will further be reduced to 8884 km by the year 2031, indicating major range contraction. These suitable habitats are largely scattered and fragmented in southern range of the species. Among the predictors used, the distance to evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest was the strongest predictor out of the 35 used for model building. Moreover, land use and land cover were found to be more informative than the climatic variables. Much of the suitable habitats of the species are located outside the protected area network in the landscape. Therefore, we identified landscape configurations and suitable habitat areas for the future conservation and monitoring of Golden Langur in the protected areas of its range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154081DOI Listing
June 2022

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of refractory pollutants of untreated and biomethanated distillery effluent using Allium cepa.

Environ Pollut 2022 May 11;300:118975. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Interdisciplinary Centre for Water Research (ICWaR), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, 56001, India.

Environmental pollution caused by the discharge of raw and partly treated distillery effluent has become a serious and threatening problem due to its high pollution load. The aim of the present study was to assess the physicochemical load in alcohol distillery effluent before and after biomethanation treatment and the cyto- and genotoxicity effects of refractory pollutants emanated in raw/untreated and biomethanated distillery effluent on the ultrastructural and biochemical responses of Allium cepa root tip cells. Physicochemical analysis revealed high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD: 47840-36651 mg L), chemical oxygen demand (COD: 93452-84500 mg L) and total dissolved solids (TDS: 64251-74652 mg L) in raw and biomethanated effluent along with metal(loid)s (Fe: 456.152-346.26; Zn: 1.654-1.465; Cu: 0.648-0.562; Ni: 1.012-0.951, and Pb: 0.264 mg L) which were beyond the safe discharge values prescribed by the environmental regulatory agencies. The UV-Visible and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry analyses confirmed the high levels of organic, inorganic, and mixed contaminants discharged in raw and biomethanated distillery effluents. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis characterised chemical contaminants, such as hexadecanoic acid, butanedioic acid, bis(trimethylsilyl) ester; hexadecane, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol trimethylsilyl ether that have been reported as androgenic-mutagenic, and endocrine disrupting chemicals by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The cytotoxicity measured by A. cepa showed dose depended inhibition root growth inhibition and simultaneous reduction in mitotic index in tested effluents. The chromosomal aberrations studies resulted in laggard chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, chromosome loss, c-mitosis, chromosome bridge, abnormal metaphase, and disturbed anaphase as found in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, dose-dependent enhancement in the levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase were found to be higher in raw effluents treated root cells compared to biomethanated distillery effluent. Analysis of ultrastructural changes in root tip cells by TEM analysis revealed dramatic changes in the morphology of cell organelles and accumulation of metallic elements in and on the surface tissues. The results concluded that the discharged distillery effluents retained certain toxic pollutants which imposed cytotoxic and genotoxic hazards to A. cepa. Thus, for the sake of environmental protection, the raw as well as the disposed biomethanated effluent must be efficiently treated before its dumping into the terrestrial ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.118975DOI Listing
May 2022

Prediction of Hepatobiliary Clearances and Hepatic Concentrations of Transported Drugs in Humans Using Rosuvastatin as a Model Drug.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2022 Feb 12. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

To assess efficacy and toxicity of a drug in humans, it is important to measure the tissue concentration of a drug at the target site. For a drug that is transported into or out of the tissue, the tissue unbound steady-state concentration can be dramatically different from its corresponding unbound steady-state plasma concentration. Because routine measurement of drug tissue concentrations is not possible, using rosuvastatin as a model transporter substrate drug, we compared the ability of the proteomics-informed relative expression factor (REF) approach and sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCH) to accurately predict rosuvastatin human hepatobiliary clearances and hepatic concentrations. REF-predicted rosuvastatin biliary clearance (CL ), estimated using BCRP-overexpressing, MDR1-overexpressing, and MRP2-overexpressing vesicles, together with our previously published REF-predicted rosuvastatin hepatic sinusoidal uptake clearance (CL ) and physiologically scaled sinusoidal passive uptake and efflux clearance (CL ), were used to predict rosuvastatin hepatic concentrations. For SCH, the estimated rosuvastatin CL , CL , and CL were scaled using physiological scaling. The REF-predicted CL (6.39 ± 1.56 mL/minute) and hepatic rosuvastatin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) fell within our a priori defined success criterion, i.e., within twofold of the observed positron emission tomography-imaged values. In contrast, as expected, SCH dramatically overpredicted (predicted/observed ratio P/O = 8.38-10.41) rosuvastatin CL , and underpredicted hepatic AUC (P/O = 0.08-0.14). For both approaches, predictions were improved by using the parallel tube model vs. well-stirred model. Overall, using rosuvastatin as a model drug, this study demonstrates the success of the REF approach in predicting in vivo CL and hepatic concentration of drugs, and highlights the shortcomings of the SCH approach in making such predictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2556DOI Listing
February 2022

Outcomes of Arteriovenous Fistula Creation in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: An Indian Experience.

Cureus 2022 Jan 4;14(1):e20921. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, IND.

Introduction Creating an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) to provide a patent and long-term vascular access (VA) for hemodialysis (HD) still remains a challenge. A methodical approach to choosing the appropriate HD access in accordance with patients' end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) life plan will help them achieve their goals safely. This study summarizes the impact of various factors on the AVF outcomes in an Indian population as well as the necessary considerations before choosing the site of AVF creation. Materials and methods This study involved a single-center, retrospective evaluation of all patients who had undergone arteriovenous (AV) access creation for maintenance HD from October 2018 to August 2019 at a center in India. Results In our study of 216 cases, the average age at presentation was 43.9 years and the difference in age between the successful and unsuccessful group was not significant. The successful outcomes in males were significantly higher than those in females (p=0.005). The mean venous diameter in the successful group was significantly larger than that in the unsuccessful group. The distal arterial and vein diameter was higher in both males and females of the laborer group compared to the clerical group; however, the outcomes were comparable. The overall complication rate was 22.22%. We had primary patency rates of 83% at the end of one year with a primary failure rate of 8.80%. Conclusion Vein diameter was the most important predictive factor for a successful outcome in our study. Factors like age and life expectancy, gender, comorbidities, occupation, and type of anastomosis may not be individually predictive of outcomes but need to be considered before choosing the appropriate site of access creation according to the life plan of the patient. This will reduce morbidity associated with an additional procedure and facilitate the initiation of HD as early as possible. Occupation can be considered as a surrogate for preoperative forearm exercises with the increased caliber of vessels found in people performing heavy/manual labor favoring a more distal AVF creation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.20921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8811729PMC
January 2022

Prevalence of Malocclusion in Primary Dentition in Southeast Part of Haryana, India: A Cross-sectional Study.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021 Nov-Dec;14(6):757-761

Department of Prosthodontics, Crown and Bridge and Implantology, Rajasthan Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition of children in southeast part of Haryana state in India.

Materials And Methods: About 1,540 children of age 3-5 years from 10 nursery and 10 primary schools were selected across Rohtak city. The children were selected by stratified random technique and examined at their respective schools. Oral examination was done to record the parameters such as molar relation, canine relation, crowding, spacing, midline shift, overjet, overbite, rotations, supernumerary teeth, tooth wear, anterior crossbite, and open bite. Chi-square test was used for calculating -value.

Results: Class I canine relations was seen in 66.2%, flush terminal plane, mesial step, and distal step were observed in 60%, 30.8%, 9.2%, respectively. Midline shift was observed in 1.8% in maxilla and 4% cases in mandible. Rotations were more prevalent in mandibular dentition (26%). Supernumerary teeth were found to be 0.4% in maxillary arch. Spacing was reported in 81.9% in maxillary dentition and 69% in mandibular dentition. Increased overjet and overbite was present in 10.3% and 30.9%, respectively. Anterior crossbite and anterior open bite were seen in only 1% and 1.9% children, respectively with statistically significant higher prevalence in males. Prevalence of attritional facets were reported 13% in enamel and 8% in dentin.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of class I canine relation, flush terminal plane molar, and spaced dentitions, suggestive of low prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in Rohtak district of Haryana state. The results may provide a baseline data for further research on a larger scale.

How To Cite This Article: Sharma K, Bihani T, Kumar V. Prevalence of Malocclusion in Primary Dentition in Southeast Part of Haryana, India A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021;14(6):757-761.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8783215PMC
February 2022

Adsorptive remediation of naproxen from water using in-house developed hybrid material functionalized with iron oxide.

Chemosphere 2022 Feb 10;289:133222. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

School of Engineering, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Ave. Brasil Sul, Number 56, ZIP Code 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil.

Every year, a considerable volume of medications is consumed. Because these medications are not entirely eliminated in the sewage treatment plants and impact the surface waterways, the environmental pollution problem arises. This study objective was to evaluate the possibility of using an absorbent material made with of polyethylene terephthalate and sugarcane bagasse ash functionalized with iron oxide (PETSCA/Fe) in the removal of naproxen from water. The feasibility of having viable features in becoming an efficient adsorbent was first determined. The batch test was performed, allowing the dose effect, adsorption kinetics, and isotherm models to be evaluated. The determination of naproxen (NAP) concentration in water was analyzed on a high-performance liquid chromatograph and Langmuir method best represented the adsorption isotherm model. PETSCA/Fe adsorbent material demonstrated potential in the naproxen removal at a low cost. The batching process was satisfactory, with 0.30 g of composite being the optimum fit for the system. The adsorption kinetics was determined and described by the pseudo second order model, with an average correlation coefficient (R) of 0.974. The adsorption system model was best represented by the Langmuir isotherm curve. Moreover, adsorption in the presence of HO had a positive impact on the process, removing 81.9% of NAP, whereas the process without HO did not remove more than 62.0% of NAP. Therefore, because of its good qualities for NAP removal, PETSCA/Fe is recommended as adsorbent material, primarily in small-volume water filtration systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.133222DOI Listing
February 2022

Considerations in Choosing the Right Device for Intraoperative Video Recording in Plastic Surgery.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 Jan;149(1):176e-179e

Department of Plastic Surgery, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Hospital, Mumbai, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000008662DOI Listing
January 2022

Total Hip Replacement in Sickle Cell Disease Patients with Avascular Necrosis of Head of Femur: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Indian J Orthop 2021 Oct 28;55(5):1225-1231. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Background: Femoral head avascular necrosis leads to osteoarthritis of the hip joint and affects its functional capacity in sickle cell disease patients. The functional outcomes of total hip replacement (THR) on patients with congruous joints who underwent hip replacement after having a failed joint preservation surgery are unknown. This study aimed to compare the functional outcomes of THR in patients with sickle cell disease having avascular necrosis with and without loss of hip joint congruency.

Methods: This retrospective study included 35 patients (age, 20-52 years; 18 males and 17 females) who underwent uncemented THR. Patients were divided into Group-A ( = 18, good hip joint congruency) and Group-B ( = 17, obliterated hip joint congruency). The Harris Hip Score (HHS) was used to assess functional outcomes. All patients were followed up at 6-weekly intervals then 6-monthly intervals.

Results: The mean follow-up period was 8.26 ± 3.01 years. The mean preoperative HHSs of Group-A and Group-B were 45.22 ± 3.021 and 25.94 ± 4.437, respectively. Postoperatively, a subsequent increase in HHS was found in both groups, and a significant difference between the groups was observed at 6 weeks ( < 0.0001*) and 1 year ( < 0.0006*). Interestingly, HHS was not significantly different ( = 0.0688) at 5-year follow-up between the groups. The differences in HHS within the group at each subsequent follow-up were also statistically significant (ANOVA,  < 0.0001*).

Conclusion: A significant improvement was observed with THR in both groups. Nevertheless, the flattened hip joint congruency group showed significantly better HHS improvements than the normal congruency groups. These findings may aid in the decision-making capabilities of the surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-021-00394-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8586121PMC
October 2021

Correction to: In vitro exposed magnesium oxide nanoparticles enhanced the growth of legume Macrotyloma uniflorum.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Feb;29(9):13646

Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Lab, Department of Biotechnology, DAV University, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144012, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17718-6DOI Listing
February 2022

Clinical Outcomes of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Versus Hamstring Tendons Autograft: A Retrospective Analysis.

Cureus 2021 Oct 13;13(10):e18760. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, IND.

Aim:  The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the clinical outcomes of anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a free quadriceps (QUADRI) tendon or a quadrupled hamstring (HAM) autograft.

Material And Method: The retrospective analysis (Level III, Therapeutic Study) included consecutive patients who underwent ACL reconstruction between April 2017 and April 2020 using either a free quadriceps tendon autograft or a hamstring tendon autograft. All patients underwent ACL reconstruction to treat isolated ACL injuries. The Tegner-Lysholm knee scoring system and the modified Cincinnati knee score were used for evaluation before surgery, and at six weeks, six months, and one-year follow-up time.

Results:  In the present study, 35 people underwent quadriceps (QUADRI) grafts and 35 underwent hamstring (HAM) grafts. The demographic data for the groups were extremely comparable. The mean follow-up length for the HAM group was 11.96±0.28 months, while the QUADRI group had a mean follow-up period of 11.25±0.43 months. No significant variations in the Cincinnati score were observed between the two groups during any of the treatment's follow-up periods. Similarly, the Tegner Lysholm Score revealed no statistically significant differences between clinical outcomes in the HAM and QUADRI groups at all follow-up visits, except for the sixth week.

Conclusion:  Clinical outcomes are comparable in terms of stability and subjective assessments following ACL reconstruction using a free quadriceps or hamstring tendon autograft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.18760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8592296PMC
October 2021

Chromium (VI) detection by microbial carbon dots: Microwave synthesis and mechanistic study.

J Basic Microbiol 2022 Mar 3;62(3-4):455-464. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Functionalized carbon dots (CDs) derived from Citrobacter freundii bacterial cells were used for selective detection of Cr(VI). A microwave-heating-based green synthesis approach is adopted to produce functionalized CDs from C. freundii bacterial cells (CF-CDs). The reaction was carried out in a 500 W microwave digester at 200°C for 20 min. The supernatant was filtered with a 0.2 µm filter and highly monodisperse CDs were obtained. Inherent functionalization of CF-CDs with nitrogen and oxygen-containing functional groups made them extremely selective toward Cr(VI) with a lower limit of detection of ~1.7 ppm. More importantly, CF-CDs could distinguish between Cr(VI) and Cr(III), which is highly desirable for practical applications. The fabricated sensor had a dual linear response range between 0 and 50 µM and 50-250 µM. The synthesized CDs were inherently functionalized which made them highly selective for Cr(VI) detection. CF-CDs also possess high stability over long storage period. This study reports the facile synthesis and characterization of a highly selective sensor for Cr(VI). As opposed to similar CDs sensors reported for Cr(VI), based on inner-filter effect, CF-CDs exhibit a strong, specific interaction toward Cr(VI), indicated by the large binding constant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.202100394DOI Listing
March 2022

In vitro exposed magnesium oxide nanoparticles enhanced the growth of legume Macrotyloma uniflorum.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Feb 30;29(9):13635-13645. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Lab, Department of Biotechnology, DAV University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India, 144012.

Nanoparticles interact with plants to induce a positive, negative, or neutral effect on their growth and development. In this study, we document the positive influence of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) on the morpho-biochemical parameters of Macrotyloma uniflorum (horse gram). Horse gram is a protein and polyphenol-rich legume crop. It is an important part of the human diet and nutrition. When exposed to MgO-NPs, a significant increment in the shoot-root length, fresh biomass, and chlorophyll content of horse gram was evident. Furthermore, there was a 4-20 and 18-127% increase in the accumulation of carbohydrate and protein content on MgO-NP exposure. The antioxidant potential was enhanced by 5-19% on NP treatment as a result of the increase in the accumulation of total polyphenolics. Total phenols and flavonoids were enhanced by 7-20 and 50-84% in the presence of MgO-NPs. The enzyme activity of SOD, CAT, and APX was also enhanced in MgO-NP-exposed horse gram. The observed alterations were also justified by the Pearson correlation. Overall, the MgO-NP-induced morpho-biochemical alterations in horse gram indicated their probable role as a nano-fertilizer. However, it further warrants the need to extensively investigate the responses of various other plant types to MgO-NPs before industry scale application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16828-5DOI Listing
February 2022

Decellularization of Skin Tissue.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1345:165-191

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122, India.

Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, materials, and tissue engineering. They are engineered to interact with biological systems to treat, augment, repair, or replace lost tissue function. The choice of biomaterial depends on the procedure being performed, the severity of the patient's condition, and the surgeon's preference. Prostheses made from natural-derived biomaterials are often derived from decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal (xenograft) or human (allograft) origin. Advantages of using ECM include their resemblance in morphology and three-dimensional structures with that of tissue to be replaced. Due to this, scientists all over are now focusing on naturally derived biomaterials which have been shown to possess several advantages compared to synthetic ones, owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and remodeling properties. Advantages of a naturally derived biomaterial enhance their application for replacement or restoration of damaged organs/tissues. They adequately support cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Naturally derived biomaterials can induce extracellular matrix formation and tissue repair when implanted into a defect by enhancing attachment and migration of cells from surrounding environment. In the current chapter, we will focus on the natural and synthetic dermal matrix development and all of the progress in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82735-9_15DOI Listing
September 2021

Estimation of Number of Graphene Layers Using Different Methods: A Focused Review.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 16;14(16). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Graphene, a two-dimensional nanosheet, is composed of carbon species (sp hybridized carbon atoms) and is the center of attention for researchers due to its extraordinary physicochemical (e.g., optical transparency, electrical, thermal conductivity, and mechanical) properties. Graphene can be synthesized using top-down or bottom-up approaches and is used in the electronics and medical (e.g., drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensors) fields as well as in photovoltaic systems. However, the mass production of graphene and the means of transferring monolayer graphene for commercial purposes are still under investigation. When graphene layers are stacked as flakes, they have substantial impacts on the properties of graphene-based materials, and the layering of graphene obtained using different approaches varies. The determination of number of graphene layers is very important since the properties exhibited by monolayer graphene decrease as the number of graphene layer per flake increases to 5 as few-layer graphene, 10 as multilayer graphene, and more than 10 layers, when it behaves like bulk graphite. Thus, this review summarizes graphene developments and production. In addition, the efficacies of determining the number of graphene layers using various characterization methods (e.g., transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and mapping, and spin hall effect-based methods) are compared. Among these methods, TEM and Raman spectra were found to be most promising to determine number of graphene layers and their stacking order.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14164590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399741PMC
August 2021

Outcomes of Renal Trauma in Indian Urban Tertiary Healthcare Centres: A Multicentre Cohort Study.

World J Surg 2021 12 21;45(12):3567-3574. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in LMIC, Mumbai, India.

Background: Renal trauma is present in 0.5-5% of patients admitted for trauma. Advancements in radiologic imaging and minimal-invasive techniques have led to decreased need for surgical intervention. We used a large trauma cohort to characterise renal trauma patients, their management and outcomes.

Methods: We analysed "Towards Improved Trauma Care Outcomes in India" cohort from four urban tertiary public hospitals in India between 1st September 2013 and 31st December 2015. The data of patients with renal trauma were extracted using International Classification of Diseases 10 codes and analysed for demographic and clinical details.

Results: A total of 16,047 trauma patients were included in this cohort. Abdominal trauma comprised 1119 (7%) cases, of which 144 (13%) had renal trauma. Renal trauma was present in 1% of all the patients admitted for trauma. The mean age was 28 years (SD-14.7). A total of 119 (83%) patients were male. Majority (93%) were due to blunt injuries. Road traffic injuries were the most common mechanism (53%) followed by falls (29%). Most renal injuries (89%) were associated with other organ injuries. Seven of the 144 (5%) patients required nephrectomy. Three patients had grade V trauma; all underwent nephrectomy. The 30-day in-hospital mortality, in patients with renal trauma, was 17% (24/144).

Conclusion: Most renal trauma patients were managed nonoperatively. 89% of patients with renal trauma had concomitant injuries. The renal trauma profile from this large cohort may be generalisable to urban contexts in India and other low- and middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-021-06293-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8572839PMC
December 2021
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