Publications by authors named "Vinciane Muls"

31 Publications

Normative Ambulatory Reflux Monitoring Metrics for Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: A Systematic Review of 720 Healthy Individuals.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jul 27:1945998211029831. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

Objectives: To review the normative data for acid, weakly acid, and nonacid proximal esophageal (PRE) and hypopharyngeal reflux (HRE) events in diagnosing laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) using ambulatory reflux monitoring.

Data Sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus.

Review Methods: A literature search was conducted about the normative data for PRE and HRE on multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH), hypopharyngeal-esophageal MII-pH (HEMII-pH), or oropharyngeal pH monitoring using PICOTS (population, intervention, comparison, outcome, timing, and setting) and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statements. Outcomes reviewed included device characteristics, impedance/pH sensor placements, study duration, number/average and percentiles of PRE or HRE occurrence, and the event characteristics (pH, composition, and position).

Results: Of 154 identified studies, 18 met criteria for analysis, including 720 healthy individuals. HEMII-pH, MII-pH, and oropharyngeal pH monitoring were used in 7, 6, and 5 studies, respectively. The definition and inclusion/exclusion criteria of healthy individuals varied substantially across studies, with 6 studies considering only digestive symptoms to exclude potential LPR patients. Substantial heterogeneity across studies was noted, including impedance/pH sensor placements/configurations and definitions of composition (liquid, gas, mixed) and type (acid, weakly acid, nonacid) of PRE/HRE. The 95th percentile thresholds were 10 to 73 events for PRE, 0 to 10 events for HRE on HEMII-pH, and 40 to 128 for events with pH <6.0 on oropharyngeal pH monitoring. Most HREs were nonacid and occurred upright. The mean HRE among healthy individuals was 1.

Conclusion: The low number of studies and the heterogeneity in inclusion criteria, definitions, and characterization of PRE and HRE limit the establishment of consensual normative criteria for LPR on ambulatory reflux monitoring. Future large multicenter studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01945998211029831DOI Listing
July 2021

Primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolates is twofold more frequent in HIV-positive than HIV-negative individuals: A descriptive observational study.

Microbiologyopen 2021 06;10(3):e1184

Department of Infectious Diseases, CHU Saint Pierre Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.

The antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from HIV-positive individuals is not well characterized. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and long-term trends associated with primary H. pylori antibiotic resistance, evaluate correlations with antibiotic consumption, and compare predictors for H. pylori antibiotic resistance between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. In this longitudinal registry study, we evaluated consecutive adults with and without HIV infection, naïve to H. pylori treatment, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and had a positive H. pylori culture, with susceptibility testing available, between 2004 and 2015. Outpatient antibiotic consumption data were based on nationwide aggregated numbers. H. pylori was isolated from gastric biopsies of 3008/8321 patients, 181/477 (37.9%) were HIV-positive and 2827/7844 (36.0%) HIV-negative. Overall cohort mean prevalence of H. pylori primary antibiotic resistance was 11.1% for clarithromycin, 17.8% levofloxacin, and 39.4% metronidazole. The prevalence of H. pylori primary resistance was significantly higher for these three drugs in HIV-positive individuals across the study period. Linear regression showed that the prevalence of clarithromycin and levofloxacin resistance correlated with the country aggregate daily dose consumption of macrolides and quinolones, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis showed that HIV infection is a strong independent risk factor for multiple H. pylori antibiotic resistance. In summary, HIV infection is a risk factor for carrying multi-resistant H. pylori strains and this is correlated with antibiotic consumption. Empirical therapies should be avoided in HIV-positive individuals. These data highlight the need to implement ongoing monitoring of H. pylori antimicrobial susceptibility among HIV-positive individuals. The study is registered at ISRCTN registry, number 13466428: https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN13466428.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.1184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166256PMC
June 2021

Influence of Age and Sex on Clinical and Therapeutic Features of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jun 22:1945998211020284. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Otorhinolaryngological Societies, Paris, France.

Objective: To explore the influence of age and sex on the clinical presentation and therapeutic response of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

Study Design: Prospective study.

Setting: Prospective multicenter study of 271 patients with a diagnosis of LPR confirmed by impedance-pH monitoring.

Methods: Patients were prescribed 6 months of diet changes and a combination of pantoprazole and/or alginate depending on the results of their impedance-pH results. The Reflux Symptom Score (RSS) and Reflux Sign Assessment (RSA) were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months posttreatment. Data were explored according to sex and age.

Results: A total of 237 patients completed the evaluations (138 females). On the RSS, patients of the oldest group (>60 years) had lower symptom scores (throat pain, ear pain, odynophagia, chest pain, tongue burning, nausea, halitosis, and indigestion) and lower quality-of-life scores than younger individuals. RSS and RSA outcomes significantly improved from pretreatment to 3 months posttreatment in all groups. Scores on the RSS and RSA continued to improve from 3 to 6 months posttreatment in the elderly group. Females with LPR had a higher score on the RSS at baseline as compared with males. On the RSS, scores significantly improved after 3 months in males and females; however, they continued to improve from 3 to 6 months in the female group.

Conclusion: Age and sex may influence the clinical presentation and pre- to posttreatment evolution of symptoms and findings. Age and sex differences could be considered in future therapeutic approaches to guide more effective personalized treatment plans for patients with LPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01945998211020284DOI Listing
June 2021

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease is More Severe in Obese Patients: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

Laryngoscope 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Foch Hospital, School of Medicine, University Paris Saclay, Paris, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: To investigate whether there is an impact of obesity and overweight on the clinical findings and therapeutic responses of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

Study Design: Prospective uncontrolled.

Methods: Patients with LPR-related symptoms and positive LPR diagnosis at the hypopharyngeal-esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance pH-monitoring (HEMII-pH) were recruited from December 2017 to December 2020. Patients were treated with a combination of diet, proton pump inhibitors, and alginate for 3 to 6 months. The following outcomes were studied according to the weight of patients: HEMII-pH, gastrointestinal endoscopy features, symptoms, findings, and therapeutic response.

Results: A total of 262 patients completed the study, accounting for 134, 85, and 43 patients with normal weight (body mass index [BMI] <25), overweight (BMI = 25-29.99), and obesity (BMI >30). Obese patients reported significant higher prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), acid LPR, and a more severe LPR disease regarding the number of pharyngeal reflux events, reflux symptom score (RSS), and reflux sign assessment (RSA). RSS and RSA scores significantly improved from baseline to 3-month posttreatment irrespective of the patient weight group. Symptoms and signs continued to improve from 3 to 6-month posttreatment only in patients with a normal weight.

Conclusion: Obesity is associated with a more severe LPR disease and a higher proportion of GERD and acid LPR. Obese LPR patients may require more frequently PPI-therapy regarding the higher prevalence of GERD.

Level Of Evidence: 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29676DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevalence and Features of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux in Patients with Primary Burning Mouth Syndrome.

Laryngoscope 2021 Oct 19;131(10):E2627-E2633. Epub 2021 May 19.

Reflux Study Group, Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: To investigate the prevalence and features of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS).

Study Design: Prospective uncontrolled study.

Methods: Patients who visited our Departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck and Maxillofacial surgery with BMS were prospectively recruited from September 2018 to September 2020. Patients benefited from dental, maxillofacial, otolaryngological examinations, and hypopharyngeal-esophageal impedance pH-monitoring (HEMII-pH). Oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal findings and symptoms were rated with Reflux Sign Assessment (RSA) and Reflux Symptom Score-12 (RSS-12). Patients were treated with a combination of diet, pantoprazole, and alginate.

Results: From the 81 included patients, 76 reported >1 pharyngeal reflux events (93.8%), accounting for 35 (46.1%), 24 (31.6%), and 17 (22.3%) acid, mixed, and nonacid LPR, respectively. Thirty-two patients had both LPR and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Thirty-eight patients benefited from pepsin saliva measurement, which was positive in 86.8% of cases. The mean scores of mouth/tongue burning, RSS-12, and RSA significantly improved from pre- to post-treatment (P < .004). At 3-month post-treatment, 62.5% of patients reported an improvement of mouth/tongue burning score. Patients with both GERD and LPR reported higher baseline RSS-12 and RSA scores.

Conclusion: Acid, weakly acid, and nonacid LPR may be involved in the development of BMS. The use of an appropriate treatment considering the reflux features is associated with an improvement of symptoms and findings.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E2627-E2633, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29604DOI Listing
October 2021

Impedance-pH monitoring profile of patients with reflux and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A controlled study.

Clin Otolaryngol 2021 Jul 24;46(4):816-822. Epub 2021 May 24.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

Objective: To study the profile of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) at the hypopharyngeal-oesophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (HEMII-pH) and to compare their reflux findings with LPR patients without OSAS.

Design: Prospective controlled study.

Methods: Patients with LPR and OSAS were prospectively recruited from August 2019 to June 2020. The profile of hypopharyngeal reflux events (HREs) of patients was studied through a breakdown of the HEMII-pH findings over the 24 hours of testing. Reflux symptom score (RSS), and gastrointestinal and HEMII-pH outcomes were compared between LPR patients and patients with LPR and OSAS. Multivariate analysis was used to study the relationship between reflux data and the following sleep outcomes: Apnea Hypopnea Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and paradoxical sleep data.

Results: A total of 89 patients completed the study. There were 45 patients with LPR and 44 subjects with both OSAS and LPR. The numbers of upright and daytime HREs and the otolaryngological RSS were significantly higher in patients with LPR compared with those with OSAS and LPR. There was a significant positive association between RSS quality-of-life score and ESS (P = .001). The occurrence of HREs in the evening was associated with higher ESS (P = .015). Patients with OSAS, LPR and GERD had higher number of nocturnal HREs compared with those without GERD (P = .001).

Conclusion: The presence of OSAS in LPR patients is associated with less severe HEMII-pH and ear, nose and throat symptoms. There may have different OSAS patient profiles according to the occurrence of GERD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13745DOI Listing
July 2021

Reflux clinic: proof-of-concept of a Multidisciplinary European Clinic.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 05 23;278(5):1713-1716. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06705-9DOI Listing
May 2021

The efficacy of a personalised treatment depending on the characteristics of reflux at multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring in patients with acid, non-acid and mixed laryngopharyngeal reflux.

Clin Otolaryngol 2021 May 10;46(3):602-613. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

Objective: To assess the evolution of symptoms and findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) patients according to the type of reflux (acid, non-acid, mixed and gastro-oesophageal (GERD)).

Design: Prospective uncontrolled multicentre study.

Methods: One hundred and six patients with LPR have been recruited from 3 European Hospitals. According to the reflux characteristics at the impedance-pH monitoring (acid, non-acid, mixed, GERD), patients received a personalised treatment based on the association of diet, pantoprazole, alginate or magaldrate for 3 months. Reflux Symptom Score (RSS) was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks post-treatment. Reflux Sign Assessment (RSA) has been used to rate laryngeal and extra-laryngeal findings at baseline and 12 weeks post-treatment. Overall success rate and the evolution of symptoms and findings were evaluated according to the LPR types.

Results: One hundred and two LPR patients (42 acid, 33 non-acid, 27 mixed, including 49 with LPR and GERD) completed the study. RSS and RSA total scores significantly improved from baseline to post-treatment time in acid, mixed and non-acid groups. The presence of GERD in addition to LPR did not impact the clinical improvement. The 3-month success rates of treatment ranged from 62% to 64%, and there were no significant differences between groups. The success rate of patients with non-acid LPR was similar to those of patients with mixed and acid LPR.

Conclusion: MII-pH is useful to specify the type of LPR and the related most adequate therapeutic regimen. Non-acid or mixed LPR similarly respond to treatment than acid LPR but require a treatment based on alginate or magaldrate covering the non-acid proximal reflux events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13722DOI Listing
May 2021

Does Pepsin Saliva Concentration (Peptest™) Predict the Therapeutic Response of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients?

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Sep 19;130(9):996-1003. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

Objective: To study the profile and the therapeutic response of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) at the hypopharyngeal-esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (HEMII-pH) according to the initial pepsin saliva concentration.

Methods: From January 2018 to January 2020, patients with positive LPR diagnosis at the HEMII-pH were consecutively recruited from 3 European Hospitals. Saliva pepsin concentration (Peptest™) was measured during the HEMII-pH testing period and patients were classified into 2 groups: negative versus positive Peptest. The clinical outcomes, that is, gastrointestinal and HEMII-pH findings, reflux symptom score-12 (RSS-12), and 3-month therapeutic response, were compared between groups.

Results: A total of 124 patients completed the study. Among them, 30 patients had negative Peptest. Pharyngeal reflux events occurred outside 1-hour post-meal time in 74.0%, after the meals in 20.5% and nighttime in 5.5%. The pepsin saliva level was not significantly associated with the reflux events preceding the sample collection. Patients with positive Peptest had better improvement of RSS-12 digestive and respiratory subscores and oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal findings compared with patients with negative Peptest.

Conclusion: Patients with high saliva pepsin concentration had no stronger gastrointestinal, HEMII-pH, or clinical outcomes compared with those with low or undetectable saliva pepsin concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003489420986347DOI Listing
September 2021

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: A State-of-the-Art Algorithm Management for Primary Care Physicians.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 10;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki Medical School, 54621 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disease in the general population with acute or chronic symptoms. LPR is often misdiagnosed in primary care because of the lack of typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and findings on endoscopy. Depending on the physician's specialty and experience, LPR may be over- or under-diagnosed. Management of LPR is potentially entirely feasible in primary care as long as General Practitioners (GPs) are aware of certain "red flags" that will prompt referral to a Gastroenterologist or an Otolaryngologist. The use of patient-reported outcome questionnaires and the consideration of some easy ways to diagnose LPR without special instrumentation oropharyngeal findings may help the GP to diagnose and often manage LPR. In this review, we provide a practical algorithm for LPR management for GPs and other specialists that cannot perform fiberoptic examination. In this algorithm, physicians have to exclude some confounding conditions such as allergy or other causes of pharyngolaryngitis and "red flags". They may prescribe an empirical treatment based on diet and behavioral changes with or without medication, depending on the symptom severity. Proton pump inhibitors and alginates remain a popular choice in order to protect the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa from acid, weakly acid and alkaline pharyngeal reflux events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697179PMC
November 2020

Changes of Laryngeal and Extralaryngeal Symptoms and Findings in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients.

Laryngoscope 2021 06 5;131(6):1332-1342. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: To assess the evolution of laryngeal and extralaryngeal symptoms and findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) throughout a 3-month to 9-month treatment.

Study Design: Prospective Controlled Study.

Methods: One hundred twenty-seven LPR patients and 123 healthy individuals were enrolled from four European hospitals. Patients were managed with a 3-month personalized treatment considering the LPR characteristics at the impedance-pH monitoring. Regarding the clinical therapeutic response, treatment was adapted for 3 to 6 additional months. Symptoms and findings were assessed throughout the therapeutic course with the Reflux Symptom Score (RSS) and the short version of the Reflux Sign Assessment (sRSA). The relationship between patient and reflux characteristics, symptoms, and findings was assessed.

Results: One hundred twenty-one LPR patients completed the study. LPR patients exhibited more laryngeal and extralaryngeal symptoms and findings than healthy individuals. RSS significantly improved from baseline to 6 weeks posttreatment and continued to improve from 3 months to 6 months posttreatment. sRSA significantly improved from baseline to 3 months posttreatment. No further improvement was noted at 6 months posttreatment for pharyngeal and oral findings. Laryngeal findings continued to improve from 3 months to 6 months posttreatment. There was a significant association between patient stress level and RSS (P = .045). At 3 months posttreatment, 28.1% of patients had high or complete response, whereas 47.1% required 6 months or 9 months of treatment. Overall, 24.8% of patients had an LPR chronic course.

Conclusions: Laryngeal and extralaryngeal symptoms and findings significantly improved throughout treatment in LPR patients. The improvement of laryngeal findings was slower. Regarding the low prevalence of some digestive or otolaryngological symptoms, a short version of the RSS could be developed.

Level Of Evidence: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:1332-1342, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28962DOI Listing
June 2021

Development and Validation of the Short Version of the Reflux Symptom Score: Reflux Symptom Score-12.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 01 21;164(1):166-174. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Research Committee of the Young Otolaryngologists, International Federations of ORL Societies, Paris, France.

Objective: To develop and validate a short version of the Reflux Symptom Score-the 12-question Reflux Symptom Score-12 (RSS-12)-for patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPR).

Study Design: Prospective study.

Setting: Multicenter academic hospitals.

Methods: Patients with LPR diagnosed via multichannel intraluminal impedance pH monitoring were enrolled from 3 European hospitals. Healthy individuals completed the study. Individuals completed the Reflux Symptom Score, Reflux Symptom Index (RSI), and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) at baseline and 3 months posttreatment. The Reflux Symptom Score was completed twice within a 7-day period to assess test-retest reliability. Cronbach's α was used for assessing internal consistency. The RSS-12 was developed and validity assessed through a comparison of the RSS-12, RSI, and VHI. Responsiveness to change was evaluated through the pre- to posttreatment evolution of the RSS-12 total score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the RSS-12 threshold that is suggestive of LPR.

Results: The RSS-12 was characterized by high test-retest reliability ( = 0.956) and adequate internal consistency reliability (α = 0.739). The RSS-12 was significantly correlated with the RSI ( = 0.845), suggesting high external validity. The RSS-12 total and item scores were significantly higher in patients with LPR as compared with healthy individuals ( = .001), supporting high internal validity. RSS-12, VHI, and RSI significantly improved throughout treatment. Regarding the receiver operating characteristic curve, an RSS-12 score >11 is suggestive of LPR, exhibiting a sensitivity of 94.5% and a specificity of 86.2%.

Conclusion: The RSS-12 is a shorter, reliable, and valid self-administered patient-reported outcome measure questionnaire that can be used in the outpatient setting to suggest and monitor LPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599820941003DOI Listing
January 2021

Saliva Pepsin Concentration of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients Is Influenced by Meals Consumed Before the Samples.

Laryngoscope 2021 02 8;131(2):350-359. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young Otolaryngologists of the, International Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies, Paris, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: To assess the impact of diet on the saliva pepsin concentration of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

Study Design: Non-controlled Prospective Study.

Methods: Patients with positive LPR regarding hypopharyngeal-esophageal impedance-pH monitoring (HEMII-pH) were enrolled from three European Hospitals. Patients collected three saliva samples, respectively, in the morning (fasting), and 1 to 2 hour after lunch and dinner. Patients carefully detailed foods and beverages consumed during meals and before the pepsin samples. The 3-month treatment was based on the association of diet, proton pump inhibitors, alginate, or magaldrate regarding the HEMII-pH characteristics. Reflux Symptom Score (RSS) and Reflux Sign Assessment (RSA) were used for assessing the pre- to posttreatment clinical evolution. The Refluxogenic Diet Score and the Refluxogenic Score of a Dish (RESDI) were used to assess the refluxogenic potential of foods and beverages. The relationship between saliva pepsin concentration, HEMII-pH, RESDI, RSS, and RSA was investigated through multiple linear regression.

Results: Forty-two patients were included. The saliva pepsin concentration of the 24-hour period of testing was significantly associated with foods and beverages consumed during the testing period and the evening dinner (r = 0.973, P < .001). RSS and RSA significantly improved throughout treatment. The level of saliva pepsin in the morning was a negative predictive factor of the therapeutic response regarding RSA and RSS (P < .036).

Conclusions: Foods and beverages may significantly impact the saliva pepsin concentration of patients with LPR. Patients with high-level saliva pepsin in the morning had lower therapeutic response compared with those with low-level saliva pepsin.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:350-359, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28756DOI Listing
February 2021

Hypopharyngeal-Esophageal Impedance-pH Monitoring Profiles of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients.

Laryngoscope 2021 02 21;131(2):268-276. Epub 2020 May 21.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young Otolaryngologists of the International Federation of Otorhinolaryngological Societies, Paris, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: To investigate the profile of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) at hypopharyngeal-esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (HEMII-pH) monitoring and the relationship between hypopharyngeal-proximal reflux episodes (HREs) and saliva pepsin concentration.

Study Design: Prospective non-controlled.

Methods: Patients were recruited from three European hospitals from January 2018 to October 2019. Patients benefited from HEMII-pH monitoring and saliva collections to measure saliva pepsin concentration in the same time. Saliva pepsin concentration was measured in the morning (fasting), after lunch, and after dinner. The LPR profile of patients was studied through a breakdown of the HEMII-pH findings over the 24 hours of testing. The relationship between the concentrations of saliva pepsin and 24-hour HREs was studied through linear multiple regression.

Results: One hundred twenty-six patients completed the study. The HEMII-pH analyses revealed that 73.99% of HREs occurred outside 1-hour postmeal times, whereas 20.49% and 5.52% of HREs occurred during the 1-hour postmeal and nighttime, respectively. Seventy-four patients (58.73%) did not have nighttime HREs. Patients with both daytime and nighttime HREs had more severe HEMII-pH parameters and reflux symptom score compared with patients with only daytime HREs. There were no significant associations between HREs and saliva pepsin concentration.

Conclusions: Unlike gastroesophageal reflux disease, HREs occur less frequently after meals and nighttime. The analysis of the HEMII-pH profile of the LPR patients has to be considered to develop future personalized therapeutic strategies.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:268-276, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28736DOI Listing
February 2021

In Response to Validity and Reliability of the Reflux Symptom Score.

Laryngoscope 2021 01 30;131(1):E204. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

LPR Study group of the Young Otolaryngologists of International Federation of Otorhinolaryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28679DOI Listing
January 2021

Gastroesophageal reflux in laryngopharyngeal reflux patients: Clinical features and therapeutic response.

Laryngoscope 2020 08 26;130(8):E479-E489. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS).

Objective: To investigate the clinical features and the therapeutic response of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) patients with or without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Methods: Patients with LPR symptoms were enrolled from three European Hospitals. The diagnosis of LPR and GERD was made through impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH). A gastrointestinal endoscopy was realized in patients with digestive complaints or ≥60 years old. The 3- to 6-month treatment was based on the association of diet, pantoprazole, alginate, and magaldrate regarding the MII-pH characteristics. Reflux Symptom Score (RSS) and Reflux Sign Assessment (RSA) were used to evaluate the clinical evolution throughout treatment. The gastrointestinal endoscopy findings, clinical features, and therapeutic response were compared between patients with LPR and GERD (LPR/GERD) and patients with LPR.

Results: One hundred and eleven LPR patients were included, 54 being LPR/GERD. LPR/GERD patients had a higher number of proximal reflux episodes compared with LPR patients. The prevalence of esophagitis, hernia hiatal, and lower esophageal sphincter insufficiency did not differ between groups. The presence of GERD was strongly associated with acid LPR. Patients without GERD had a higher proportion of nonacid and mixed LPR compared with LPR/GERD patients. The pre- to posttreatment evolutions of RSS and RSA were quite similar in both groups, with the exception of the 3- to 6-month improvement of digestive symptoms, which was better in LPR/GERD group. The therapeutic success rates were 79.6% and 77.2% in GERD/LPR and LPR group, respectively.

Conclusion: GERD is predictive of acid LPR. The clinical evolution and the therapeutic response rates were quite similar in both groups.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 130: E479-E489, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28482DOI Listing
August 2020

A 10-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Prospective Study of 2 Treatments for Chronic Rhinosinusitis Without Nasal Polyps and Investigation of the Impact of Gastroeosophageal Reflux Disease in the Resistance to Treatment.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Sep 15;100(5_suppl):569S-577S. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, 81880CHU Saint-Pierre, School of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, Europe.

Objectives: To compare the 2 long-term medical strategies in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSnNP) and to identify the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Helicobacter pylori as factors of treatment failure.

Material And Methods: Fifty-seven patients with CRSnNP were randomized into 2 therapeutic groups. The first group was treated with 4 weeks of amoxicillin/clavulanate and a short course of oral steroids. The second group received 8 weeks of clarithromycin. Sinonasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20) and Lund and Mackay scores were assessed at baseline and after treatment, and GERD Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire was evaluated in all patients. Patients with a GERD-HRQL score >8 received esogastroscopy and H pylori detection. Patients were followed during a 10-year period for clinical course and GERD evolution. The 10-year evolution of patients was described in terms of recurrence, medical, and surgical treatments.

Results: Thirty-seven patients completed the study; SNOT-20 and Lund and Mackay scores similarly improved in both groups. Amoxicillin/clavulanate group had significantly more adverse reactions than the clarithromycin group (P = .03). After the therapeutic course, 35% (amoxicillin/clavulanate) and 41% (clarithromycin) of patients needed functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). During the long-term follow-up, 54% (amoxicillin/clavulanate) and 40% (clarithromycin) of patients had late CRSnNP recurrence; FESS was performed in less than 15% of cases of recurrence. Gastroesophageal reflux disease complaint's severity was associated with late recurrence of CRSnNP.

Conclusion: Amoxicillin/clavulanate and clarithromycin would be competitive treatments for CRSnNP. Gastroesophageal reflux disease seems to be a negative factor for treatment response and recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561319892460DOI Listing
September 2021

Validity and Reliability of the Reflux Sign Assessment.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2020 Apr 15;129(4):313-325. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Research Committee of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS).

Objective: To develop and validate the Reflux Sign Assessment (RSA), a clinical instrument evaluating the physical findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

Methods: A total of 106 patients completed a 3-month treatment based on the association of diet, pantoprazole, alginate, or magaldrate with the LPR characteristics (acid, nonacid, mixed). Forty-two asymptomatic individuals completed the study (control group). The RSA results and reflux finding score (RFS) were documented for the LPR patients at baseline and after treatment. Intrarater reliability was assessed through a test-retest blinded evaluation of signs (7-day intervals). Interrater reliability was assessed by comparing the RSA evaluations of three blinded otolaryngologists through Kendall's W. Responsiveness to change was evaluated through a comparison of the baseline and 3-month posttreatment findings. The RSA cutoffs for determining the presence and absence of LPR were examined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results: A total of 102 LPR patients completed the study (68 females). The mean age was 53 years. The mean RSA at baseline was 25.95 ± 9.58; it significantly improved to 18.96 ± 7.58 after 3 months of therapy ( < .001). RSA exhibited good intra- ( = 0.813) and interrater (Kendall's W = 0.663) reliabilities (N = 56). There was no significant association between the RSA, gastrointestinal endoscopy findings, and the types of reflux (acid, nonacid, or mixed) according to impedance-pH monitoring. An RSA >14 may be suggestive of LPR.

Conclusion: The RSA is a complete clinical instrument evaluating both laryngeal and extralaryngeal findings associated with LPR. The RSA demonstrated high intra- and interrater reliabilities and responsiveness to change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003489419888947DOI Listing
April 2020

Patients with acid, high-fat and low-protein diet have higher laryngopharyngeal reflux episodes at the impedance-pH monitoring.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Feb 2;277(2):511-520. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

Objective: To assess the impact of diet on the occurrence of proximal reflux episodes at the multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

Methods: Patients with LPR symptoms and findings were recruited from three European hospitals. The LPR diagnostic was confirmed through MII-pH and patients were benefited from gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Regarding the types of reflux at the MII-pH (acid, nonacid, mixed), patients received a 3 month-therapy based on the association of alkaline, low-fat and high-protein diet, proton pump inhibitors, alginate or magaldrate. Reflux symptom score (RSS) and reflux sign assessment (RSA) were used to evaluate laryngeal and extra-laryngeal symptoms and findings from pretreatment to posttreatment. The Global Refluxogenic Score (GRES) was used to assess the refluxogenic potential of the diet of the patients at baseline and posttreatment. The relationship between GRES severity; the MII-pH findings; GI endoscopy; and the therapeutic response was explored through multiple linear regression.

Results: Eighty-five LPR patients were included. The mean GRES significantly improved from pretreatment (50.7 ± 23.8) to posttreatment (27.3 ± 23.2; P = 0.001). Similarly, RSS and RSA significantly improved from baseline to posttreatment. The baseline GRES was significantly associated with the occurrence of proximal reflux episodes at the MII-pH (P = 0.001). Trends were found regarding the association between GRES and the occurrence of esophagitis (P = 0.06) and between hiatal hernia and DeMeester score (P = 0.06). There was a significant and strong association between the concomitant respect of diet and medication and the improvement of RSS (P = 0.001).

Conclusion: The consumption of high-fat, low-protein, high-sugar, acid foods, and beverages is associated with a higher number of proximal reflux episodes at the MII-pH, according to the global refluxogenic score of LPR patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-019-05711-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Development of scores assessing the refluxogenic potential of diet of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Dec 12;276(12):3389-3404. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Study Group of Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France.

Objective: To develop clinical tools assessing the refluxogenic potential of foods and beverages (F&B) consumed by patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

Methods: European experts of the LPR Study group of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federation of Oto-rhino-laryngological societies were invited to identify the components of Western European F&B that would be associated with the development of LPR. Based on the list generated by experts, four authors conducted a systematic review to identify the F&B involved in the development of esophageal sphincter and motility dysfunctions, both mechanisms involved in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease and LPR. Regarding the F&B components and the characteristics identified as important in the development of reflux, experts developed three rational scores for the assessment of the refluxogenic potential of F&B, a dish, or the overall diet of the patient.

Results: Twenty-six European experts participated to the study and identified the following components of F&B as important in the development of LPR: pH; lipid, carbohydrate, protein composition; fiber composition of vegetables; alcohol degree; caffeine/theine composition; and high osmolality of beverage. A total of 72 relevant studies have contributed to identifying the Western European F&B that are highly susceptible to be involved in the development of reflux. The F&B characteristics were considered for developing a Refluxogenic Diet Score (REDS), allowing a categorization of F&B into five categories ranging from 1 (low refluxogenic F&B) to 5 (high refluxogenic F&B). From REDS, experts developed the Refluxogenic Score of a Dish (RESDI) and the Global Refluxogenic Diet Score (GRES), which allow the assessment of the refluxogenic potential of dish and the overall diet of the LPR patient, respectively.

Conclusion: REDS, RESDI and GRES are proposed as objective scores for assessing the refluxogenic potential of F&B composing a dish or the overall diet of LPR patients. Future studies are needed to study the correlation between these scores and the development of LPR according to impedance-pH study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-019-05631-1DOI Listing
December 2019

The management of suspected or confirmed laryngopharyngeal reflux patients with recalcitrant symptoms: A contemporary review.

Clin Otolaryngol 2019 09 31;44(5):784-800. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To summarise current knowledge about the prevalence, aetiology and management of recalcitrant laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) patients-those who do not respond to anti-reflux medical treatment.

Methods: A literature search was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines to identify studies that reported success of anti-reflux medical treatment with emphasis on studies that attempted to be rigorous in defining a population of LPR patients and which subsequently explored the characteristics of non-responder patients (ie aetiology of resistance; differential diagnoses; management and treatment). Three investigators screened publications for eligibility from PubMED, Cochrane Library and Scopus and excluded studies based on predetermined criteria. Design, diagnostic method, exclusion criteria, treatment characteristics, follow-up and quality of outcome assessment were evaluated.

Results: Of the 139 articles screened, 45 met the inclusion criteria. The definition of non-responder patients varied substantially from one study to another and often did not include laryngopharyngeal signs. The reported success rate of conventional therapeutic trials ranged from 17% to 87% and depended on diagnostic criteria, treatment scheme, definition of treatment failure and treatment outcomes that varied substantially between studies. The management of non-responders differed between studies with a few differential diagnoses reported. No study considered the profile of reflux (acidic, weakly acid, non-acid or mixed) or addressed personalised treatment with the addition of alginate or magaldrate, low acid diet, or other interventions that have emerging evidence of efficacy.

Conclusion: To date, there is no standardised management of LPR patients who do not respond to traditional treatment approached. A diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is proposed to improve the management of these patients. Future studies will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of this algorithm through large cohort studies of non-responder LPR patients.

Level Of Evidence: 2a.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13395DOI Listing
September 2019

Validity and reliability of the reflux symptom score.

Laryngoscope 2020 03 14;130(3):E98-E107. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Research Committee of the Young Otolaryngologists of the International Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Marseille, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: To develop and validate the Reflux Symptom Score (RSS), a self-administered patient-reported outcome questionnaire for patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

Study Design: Prospective controlled study.

Methods: A total of 113 patients with LPR were enrolled and treated with diet and 3 months of pantoprazole, alginate, and/or magaldrate depending on the LPR characteristics (acid, nonacid, or mixed). Eighty asymptomatic individuals completed the study. Patients and controls completed the RSS twice within a 7-day period to assess test-retest reliability. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's α for the RSS items in patients and controls. Validity was assessed by comparing the baseline RSS with the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Seventy-seven patients completed the RSS at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment to assess responsiveness to change. The RSS cutoff for determining the presence and absence of LPR was examined by receiver operating characteristic analysis.

Results: Test-retest reliability (r = 0.921) and internal consistency reliability (α = 0.969) were high. RSS exhibited high external validity indicated by a significant correlation with the RSI (r = 0.831). Internal validity was excellent based on the higher RSS in patients compared with controls (P = .001). RSS, RSI, and VHI scores significantly improved from pre- to posttreatment, indicating a high responsiveness to change. RSS >13 can be considered suggestive of LPR-related symptoms. RSS was not influenced by the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, LPR subtypes, or patient characteristics.

Conclusions: RSS is a self-administered patient-reported outcome questionnaire that demonstrates high reliability and excellent criterion-based validity. RSS can be used in diagnosing and monitoring LPR disease.

Level Of Evidence: 3b Laryngoscope, 130:E98-E107, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28017DOI Listing
March 2020

Transanal Minimally Invasive Anal Canal Polyp Resection.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2018 Apr;28(2):e59-e61

Department of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, Saint-Pierre University Hospital, Brussels.

Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are operative endoscopies that have been performed since a long time. Recently, an evolution of laparoscopy called transanal minimally invasive surgery began to be popularized, and it can be adopted in the face of difficult cases for EMR/ESD. In this video, a 36-year-old woman was submitted to transanal minimally invasive surgery resection, after unsuccessful ESD, for a 2-cm polyp located anteriorly in the anal canal, just beyond the pectineal line. Preoperative workup showed a uT1m versus T1sm N0 M0 lesion. The procedure was performed with a new reusable transanal platform and a monocurved coagulating hook and grasping forceps. The operative time was 90 minutes. No perioperative complications were registered, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 1. The pathologic report showed a villotubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and distant-free margins. After 1 year, the patient was going well, without any recurrent disease. Transanal minimally invasive surgery resection is a good alternative to conventional endoscopic therapies, allowing a meticulous dissection under the magnified operative field's exposure, and a mucosal-submucosal flap closure under satisfactory surgeon's ergonomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000503DOI Listing
April 2018

Impact of Infliximab and Cyclosporine on the Risk of Colectomy in Hospitalized Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Complicated by Cytomegalovirus-A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2017 09;23(9):1605-1613

1Department of Gastroenterology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Evaggelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece; 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, KU Leuven, Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Leuven, Belgium; 4Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 5Department of Gastroenterology, Rambam Health Care Campus, B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, the Technion, Haifa, Israel; 6Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Digestive Diseases Institute, Jerusalem, Israel; 7Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 8Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universidade Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; 9Department of Gastroenterology, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal; 10Department of Gastroenterology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Québec, Canada; 11Department of Gastroenterology, Luigi Sacco' University Hospital, Milan, Italy; 12Department of Gastroenterology, Imelda GI Clinical Research Center, Bonheiden, Belgium; 13IBD Unit, Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 14Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain; 15Department of Gastroenterology, CHU Dinant Godinne, UCL Namur, Yvoir, Belgium; 16Department of Gastroenterology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia; 17Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology, Infectious Diseases, Rheumatology), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 18Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, CHU Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 19Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, IBD Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 20Department of Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 21Department of Gastroenterology, Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 22Service de Gastroentérologie, Hôpital Universitaire de Bicêtre, Université Paris Sud, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, le Kremlin Bicêtre, Paris, France; and 23Department of Gastroenterology, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint Etiennne, France.

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is frequently detected in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The impact of CMV infection on the outcome of UC exacerbation remains unclear. The benefit of combining antiviral with anti-inflammatory treatment has not been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of CMV-positive hospitalized patients with UC treated with antiviral therapy either alone or combined with salvage anti-inflammatory therapy (infliximab [IFX] or cyclosporine A [CsA]).

Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study of hospitalized CMV-positive patients with UC. The patients were classified into 2 groups: antiviral-if treated with antivirals alone; combined-if treated with both antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy. The outcomes included the rate of colectomy in both arms during the course of hospitalization and after 3/12 months.

Results: A total of 110 patients were included; 47 (42.7%) patients did not receive IFX nor CsA; 36 (32.7%) received IFX during hospitalization or within 1 month before hospitalization; 20 (18.1%) patients received CsA during hospitalization; 7 (6.4%) were exposed to both IFX and CsA. The rate of colectomy was 14.5% at 30 days, 20.0% at 3 months, and 34.8% at 12 months. Colectomy rates were similar across treatment groups. No clinical and demographic variables were independently associated with the risk of colectomy.

Conclusions: IFX or cyclosporine therapy is not associated with additional risk for colectomy over antiviral therapy alone in hospitalized CMV-positive patients with UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MIB.0000000000001160DOI Listing
September 2017

HIV-Helicobacter pylori Co-Infection: Antibiotic Resistance, Prevalence, and Risk Factors.

PLoS One 2015 21;10(12):e0145119. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, CHU Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer due to the availability of more potent treatments. However, prescription of antibiotics to treat or prevent infections in these patients may increase the likelihood of co-infection with antibiotic-resistant species.

Aim: To compare antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and assess risk-factors for resistance.

Methods: We prospectively collected data from consecutive HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients with H. pylori-positive gastric biopsies who had never received H. pylori treatment were included.

Results: Of the 353 patients included, 93 were HIV-positive and 260 HIV-negative. Among the HIV-positive patients, 56 (60%) had been infected for <10 years, the median CD4+ count was 493 cells/μl and median viral load was 61 copies/mL; 66 (71%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy. HIV-positive patients were more often male (p = 0.009), had a lower body mass index (p<0.0001), and had less frequently received antibiotics during the 12-months prior to the endoscopy (p<0.0001) than HIV-negative patients. HIV-positive patients were more likely to have H. pylori resistant to levofloxacin (p = 0.0004), metronidazole (p = 0.01), or multiple antibiotics (p = 0.006). HIV-positive Black Africans were more likely to have resistant strains than were HIV-negative Black Africans (p = 0.04). Ethnicity and HIV status were independent risk factors for H. pylori resistance in all patients and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sex were risk factors in HIV-positive patients.

Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of primary H. pylori-resistant strains in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative patients. AIDS and sex were predictors of H. pylori resistance in HIV-positive patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145119PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4686959PMC
June 2016

The role of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the era of modern antiretroviral therapy.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Dec;27(12):1459-65

Departments of aHepatogastroenterology bInfectious Diseases, CHU Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Objective: Gastrointestinal disorders are common in HIV-positive patients and, in some cases, may be related to antiretroviral therapy (ART), making it difficult to determine the need for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte T CD4 cell counts were correlated with indications for endoscopy in these patients and with endoscopic diagnosis.

Patients And Methods: We prospectively collected data from consecutive HIV-positive patients undergoing UGI endoscopy between 2007 and 2013, and included 265 patients who had been receiving ART for at least 6 months. Parameters studied were demographics, immune parameters, comorbidities, comedications, indications for endoscopy, and endoscopic, pathologic, and microbiologic findings.

Results: The most frequent indications for UGI endoscopy were gastroesophageal reflux, epigastric pain, and other. Peptic esophagitis, esophageal candidiasis, and normal endoscopy were the most common diagnoses. The prevalence rates of Helicobacter pylori infection and neoplasia were 26.4 and 1.8%, respectively. Patients with CD4+ counts 200 cells/μl or more had significantly lower rates of macrolide and nonmacrolide use, fewer comorbidities, and were less likely to have AIDS than patients with lower counts. They were also more likely to have normal UGI endoscopy and had a higher frequency of H. pylori infection. AIDS status and the presence of comorbidities were independent predictors of endoscopic abnormalities.

Conclusion: UGI endoscopy remains a key diagnostic procedure for HIV-positive patients with UGI symptoms. AIDS and comorbidities are risk factors for the presence of mucosal lesions among HIV-positive patients on ART.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000000467DOI Listing
December 2015

Consecutive fecal calprotectin measurements to predict relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving infliximab maintenance therapy.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013 Sep;19(10):2111-7

Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: This study examined whether fecal calprotectin can be used in daily practice as a marker to monitor patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) receiving infliximab maintenance therapy.

Methods: This prospective multicenter study enrolled adult patients with UC in clinical remission under infliximab maintenance therapy. Fecal calprotectin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Sigmoidoscopies were performed at inclusion and at study end. Relapse was defined as a clinical need for change in treatment or an endoscopic Mayo subscore of ≥2 at week 52. Sustained deep remission was defined as a partial Mayo score <3 at all points and an endoscopic Mayo score 0 at week 52.

Results: Full analysis was possible for 87 of 113 included patients with UC (77%). Of these patients, 30 (34.4%) were considered to be in sustained deep remission and 13 (14.9%) to have relapsed. Calprotectin levels in patients with sustained deep remission remained very low (median < 40 mg/kg at all time points). Patients who flared had significantly higher calprotectin levels (median > 300 mg/kg) already 3 months before the flare. Further receiver operator curve analysis suggested that a calprotectin level >300 mg/kg had a reasonable sensitivity (58.3%) and specificity (93.3%) to model flare. Two consecutive calprotectin measurements of >300 mg/kg with 1-month interval were identified as the best predictor of flare (61.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity).

Conclusions: Fecal calprotectin can be used in daily practice to monitor patients with UC receiving infliximab maintenance therapy. Two consecutive measurements >300 mg/kg is more specific than a single measurement for predicting relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829b2a37DOI Listing
September 2013

Three-year results of a multicenter prospective study of transoral incisionless fundoplication.

Surg Innov 2013 Aug 11;20(4):321-30. Epub 2012 Sep 11.

Department of Digestive Endoscopy, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire St Pierre, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: To date, there are no long-term data on the use of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) for the treatment of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We sought to prospectively evaluate the long-term safety and durability of TIF in a multi-center setting.

Methods: A longitudinal per protocol (PP) and a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) analysis at 1 and 3 years consisted of symptom evaluation using the GERD health-related quality of life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire, medication use, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and pH-metry.

Results: Of 79 patients previously reported at 1 year, 12 were lost to follow-up, and 1 died from an unrelated cause. The remaining 66 patients were followed up and analyzed (mITT). Of 66 patients, 12 underwent revisional procedures, leaving 54 patients for PP analysis at a median of 3.1 years (range = 2.9-3.6). No adverse events related to TIF were reported at 2- or 3-year follow-up. On PP analysis, median GERD-HRQL score off proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) improved significantly to 4 (range 0-32) from both off (25 [13-38], P < .0001) and on (9 [0-22], P < .0001) PPIs. Discontinuation of daily PPIs was sustained in 61% (mITT) and 74% (PP) of patients. Of 11 patients with pH data at 3 years (PP), 9 (82%) remained normal. Based on mITT analysis, 9/23 (39%) remained normal at 3 years.

Conclusions: The clinical outcomes at 3 years following TIF, patient satisfaction, healing of erosive esophagitis, and cessation of PPI medication support long-term safety and durability of the TIF procedure for those with initial treatment success. Although complete normalization of pH studies occurred in a minority of patients, successful cases showed long-term durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1553350612459275DOI Listing
August 2013

Comparison of demographic characteristics and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in HIV-positive, antiretroviral-treated patients with and without Helicobacter pylori coinfection.

Helicobacter 2012 Apr;17(2):153-9

Clinic of Hepato-gastroenterology, ULB, Brussels, Belgium.

Objectives: We evaluated demographic characteristics in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who had upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms requiring UGI endoscopy and compared the findings in patients with and without H. Pylori coinfection.

Methods: We prospectively observed all HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy who underwent UGI endoscopy for the first time and were tested for H. pylori from January 2004 to December 2008. Data collected included the following: demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index [BMI], tobacco use, alcohol intake, and HIV risk behavior); comorbidity (viral hepatitis B or C, any organ dysfunction, or opportunistic disease); medication, including antibiotics, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, and NSAIDs; CD4 cell counts, viral load; symptoms; and endoscopic and histologic diagnoses (H. pylori determined by Giemsa staining). Patients were compared according to H. pylori status (presence vs absence).

Results: One hundred and forty-five patients were evaluated. Compared to patients without H. pylori infection (n = 97), those with H. pylori infection (n = 48) had a significantly higher CD4 cell count (p = .008), were more likely to be heterosexual (p = .047), had a higher BMI (p = .027), had a greater incidence of duodenal ulcers (p = .005), had lower viral loads (p < .01), were less likely to have received macrolide antibiotics in the last 3 months (p = .00), and had less comorbidity (p = .03). They were also more frequently of Black African than Caucasians. In multivariate analysis, being heterosexual and having a low viral load were independently associated with an increased risk of having H. Pylori coinfection.

Conclusion: In the antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-H. pylori coinfection is associated with a greater incidence of duodenal ulcers and higher CD4 counts, higher BMI, less comorbidity, and less frequent use of macrolides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-5378.2011.00929.xDOI Listing
April 2012

Antireflux transoral incisionless fundoplication using EsophyX: 12-month results of a prospective multicenter study.

World J Surg 2008 Aug;32(8):1676-88

Department of Digestive Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire St. Pierre, 322 rue Haute, Brussels 1000, Belgium.

Background: A novel transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) procedure using the EsophyX system with SerosaFuse fasteners was designed to reconstruct a full-thickness valve at the gastroesophageal junction through tailored delivery of multiple fasteners during a single-device insertion. The safety and efficacy of TIF for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were evaluated in a prospective multicenter trial.

Methods: Patients (n = 86) with chronic GERD treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included an irreducible hiatal hernia > 2 cm.

Results: The TIF procedure (n = 84) reduced all hiatal hernias (n = 49) and constructed valves measuring 4 cm (2-6 cm) and 230 degrees (160 degrees -300 degrees ). Serious adverse events consisted of two esophageal perforations upon device insertion and one case of postoperative intraluminal bleeding. Other adverse events were mild and transient. At 12 months, aggregate (n = 79) and stratified Hill grade I tight (n = 21) results showed 73% and 86% of patients with >or=50% improvement in GERD health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores, 85% discontinuation of daily PPI use, and 81% complete cessation of PPIs; 37% and 48% normalization of esophageal acid exposure; 60% and 89% hiatal hernia reduction; and 62% and 80% esophagitis reduction, respectively. More than 50% of patients with Hill grade I tight valves had a normalized cardia circumference. Resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was improved significantly (p < 0.001), by 53%. EsophyX-TIF cured GERD in 56% of patients based on their symptom reduction and PPI discontinuation.

Conclusion: The 12-month results showed that EsophyX-TIF was safe and effective in improving quality of life and for reducing symptoms, PPI use, hiatal hernia, and esophagitis, as well as increasing the LES resting pressure and normalizing esophageal pH and cardia circumference in chronic GERD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-008-9594-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2490723PMC
August 2008
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