Publications by authors named "Vincenzo Emmi"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Segregation of virulent influenza A(H1N1) variants in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients during the 2010-2011 seasonal epidemic.

PLoS One 2011 14;6(12):e28332. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Struttura Semplice Virologia Molecolare, Fondazione Istituto Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Since its appearance in 2009, the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus circulated worldwide causing several severe infections.

Methods: Respiratory samples from patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) and acute respiratory distress attending 24 intensive care units (ICUs) as well as from patients with lower respiratory tract infections not requiring ICU admission and community upper respiratory tract infections in the Lombardy region (10 million inhabitants) of Italy during the 2010-2011 winter-spring season, were analyzed.

Results: In patients with severe ILI, the viral load was higher in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with respect to nasal swab (NS), (p<0.001) suggesting a higher virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. Four distinct virus clusters (referred to as cluster A to D) circulated simultaneously. Most (72.7%, n = 48) of the 66 patients infected with viruses belonging to cluster A had a severe (n = 26) or moderate ILI (n = 22). Amino acid mutations (V26I, I116M, A186T, D187Y, D222G/N, M257I, S263F, I286L/M, and N473D) were observed only in patients with severe ILI. D222G/N variants were detected exclusively in BAL samples.

Conclusions: Multiple virus clusters co-circulated during the 2010-2011 winter-spring season. Severe or moderate ILI were associated with specific 2009 influenza A(H1N1) variants, which replicated preferentially in the lower respiratory tract.
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August 2012

Invasive fungal infections in the intensive care unit: a multicentre, prospective, observational study in Italy (2006-2008).

Mycoses 2012 Jan 12;55(1):73-9. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

Dipartimento Sanità Pubblica-Microbiologia-Virologia, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.

Critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) are highly susceptible to healthcare-associated infections caused by fungi. A prospective sequential survey of invasive fungal infections was conducted from May 2006 to April 2008 in 38 ICUs of 27 Italian hospitals. A total of 384 fungal infections (318 invasive Candida infections, three cryptococcosis and 63 mould infections) were notified. The median rate of candidaemia was 10.08 per 1000 admissions. In 15% of cases, the infection was already present at the time of admission to ICU. Seventy-seven percent of Candida infections were diagnosed in surgical patients. Candida albicans was isolated in 60% of cases, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis in 13%, each. Candida glabrata had the highest crude mortality rate (60%). Aspergillus infection was diagnosed in 32 medical and 25 surgical patients. The median rate was 6.31 per 1000 admissions. Corticosteroid treatment was the major host factor. Aspergillosis was demonstrated to be more severe than candidiasis as the crude mortality rate was significantly higher (63% vs. 46%), given an equal index of severity, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS-II). The present large nationwide survey points out the considerable morbidity and mortality of invasive fungal infections in surgical as well as medical patients in ICU.
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January 2012

Control of MRSA infection and colonisation in an intensive care unit by GeneOhm MRSA assay and culture methods.

BMC Infect Dis 2009 Aug 24;9:137. Epub 2009 Aug 24.

Laboratorio di Batteriologia e Micologia, Area Infettivologica, Fondazione IRCCS S, Matteo, Pavia, Italia.

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Due to the diffusion of MRSA strains in both hospital and community settings, prevention and control strategies are receiving increased attention. Approximately 25% to 30% of the population is colonised with S. aureus and 0.2% to 7% with MRSA. The BD GeneOhm MRSA real-time PCR assay offers quicker identification of MRSA-colonised patients than do culture methods.

Methods: Ninety-five patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia (Italy) for a period > 24 h were screened for MRSA colonisation with both the culture method and the GeneOhm assay.

Results: Of the 246 nasal swabs collected from 95 patients, 36 samples were found to be positive by both methods (true-positive). 30% of colonised patients had developed the MRSA infection.

Conclusion: Our results show that the GeneOhm MRSA assay is a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting MRSA quickly in nasal swabs. This study confirms that colonisation represents a high risk factor for MRSA infection, and that good MRSA surveillance in an Intensive Care Unit is therefore an excellent way to prevent MRSA infection.
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August 2009

[Diagnosis of intra-abdominal infections: clinical findings and imaging].

Infez Med 2008 Feb;16 Suppl 1:19-30

Rianimazione I, Fondazione IRCCS, Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Abdominal sepsis carries a high morbidity and mortality. Intra-abdominal infectious complications are one of the most common infectious etiologies seen in critically ill patients. Approximately 30% of patients admitted to an ICU with intra-abdominal infection succumb to their illness, and when peritonitis arises as a complication of a previous surgical procedure, or recurs during ICU admission, mortality rates exceed 50%. Thus early detection and treatment is essential to minimize patient complications. Critically ill patients are often clinically non valuable due to distracting injuries, respiratory failure, obtundation, or other pathology. Even when patients can be examined, the clinical exam is frequently unreliable and/or misleading. The diagnostic approach to identify abdominal problems will differ depending upon the hemo-dynamic stability of the patient. Patients who have low systolic blood pressures, who are pressor-dependent, may be too unstable to undergo studies that require trips away from the ICU or emergency department. Intra-abdominal pathology may be detected by ultrasound or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL). When critically ill patients are stable enough to undergo some diagnostic evaluation of their abdomen the approach is somewhat simpler. Overall, computerized tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for most intra-abdominal processes. For diagnosis of intra-abdominal conditions using CT scanning it is optimal if patients receive both oral and intravenous contrast. An exception to the use of CT scanning is evaluation of suspected biliary pathology, which is best imaged by ultrasound. It will identify cholecystitis with or without calculus and may show changes in the gallbladder or common bile duct associated with biliary obstruction.
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February 2008