Publications by authors named "Vincenzo De Feo"

161 Publications

Emetine, a potent alkaloid for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 targeting papain-like protease and non-structural proteins: pharmacokinetics, molecular docking and dynamic studies.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jul 13:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Hail, Ha'il, Saudi Arabia.

The main objective of this study is to find out the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of emetine by using molecular docking and dynamic simulation approaches. Interestingly, molecular docking studies suggest that Emetine showed significant binding affinity toward Nsp15 (-10.8kcal/mol) followed by Nsp12 (-9.5kcal/mol), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp (-9.5kcal/mol), Nsp16 (-9.4kcal/mol), Nsp10 (-9.2kcal/mol), Papain-like protein (-9.0kcal/mol), Nsp13 (-9.0kcal/mol), Nsp14 (-8.9kcal/mol) and Spike Protein Receptor Domain (-8.8kcal/mol) and chymotrypsin-like protease, 3CLpro (-8.5kcal/mol), respectively, which are essential for viral infection and replication. In addition, molecular dynamic simulation (MD) was also performed for 140ns to explore the stability behavior of the main targets and inhibitor complexes as well as the binding mechanics of the ligand to the target proteins. The obtained MD results followed by absolute binding energy calculation confirm that the binding of emetine at the level of the various receptors is more stable. The complex EmetineNSP15, mechanistically was stabilized as follows: Emetine first binds to the monomer, after, binds to the second inducing the formation of a dimer which in turn leading to the formation of complex that simulation stabilizes it at a value less than 5Å. Overall, supported by the powerful and good pharmacokinetic data of Emetine, our findings with clinical trials may be helpful to confirm that Emetine could be promoted in the prevention and eradication of COVID-19 by reducing the severity in the infected persons and therefore can open possible new strategies for drug repositioning. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1946715DOI Listing
July 2021

The Antioxidant Activity of Limonene Counteracts Neurotoxicity Triggered byAβ Oligomers in Primary Cortical Neurons.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Division of Pharmacology, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, School of Medicine, "Federico II" University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Many natural-derived compounds, including the essential oils from plants, are investigated to find new potential protective agents in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested the neuroprotective effect of limonene, one of the main components of the genus , against the neurotoxicity elicited by Aβ oligomers, currently considered a triggering factor in AD. To this aim, we assessed the acetylcholinesterase activity by Ellman's colorimetric method, the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity by MTT assay, the nuclear morphology by Hoechst 33258, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by DCFH-DA fluorescent dye, and the electrophysiological activity of K3.4 potassium channel subunits by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Interestingly, the monoterpene limonene showed a specific activity against acetylcholinesterase with an IC almost comparable to that of galantamine, used as positive control. Moreover, at the concentration of 10 µg/mL, limonene counteracted the increase of ROS production triggered by Aβ oligomers, thus preventing the upregulation of K3.4 activity. This, in turn, prevented cell death in primary cortical neurons, showing an interesting neuroprotective profile against Aβ-induced toxicity. Collectively, the present results showed that the antioxidant properties of the main component of the genus , limonene, may be useful to prevent neuronal suffering induced by Aβ oligomers preventing the hyperactivity of K3.4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227170PMC
June 2021

The Emerging Role of HDACs: Pathology and Therapeutic Targets in Diabetes Mellitus.

Cells 2021 May 28;10(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Applied Biology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the principal manifestations of metabolic syndrome and its prevalence with modern lifestyle is increasing incessantly. Chronic hyperglycemia can induce several vascular complications that were referred to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in DM. Although several therapeutic targets have been identified and accessed clinically, the imminent risk of DM and its prevalence are still ascending. Substantial pieces of evidence revealed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoforms can regulate various molecular activities in DM via epigenetic and post-translational regulation of several transcription factors. To date, 18 HDAC isoforms have been identified in mammals that were categorized into four different classes. Classes I, II, and IV are regarded as classical HDACs, which operate through a Zn-based mechanism. In contrast, class III HDACs or Sirtuins depend on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) for their molecular activity. Functionally, most of the HDAC isoforms can regulate β cell fate, insulin release, insulin expression and signaling, and glucose metabolism. Moreover, the roles of HDAC members have been implicated in the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and other pathological events, which substantially contribute to diabetes-related vascular dysfunctions. Therefore, HDACs could serve as the potential therapeutic target in DM towards developing novel intervention strategies. This review sheds light on the emerging role of HDACs/isoforms in diabetic pathophysiology and emphasized the scope of their targeting in DM for constituting novel interventional strategies for metabolic disorders/complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10061340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228721PMC
May 2021

Cesarean Scar Pregnancy Treated by Artery Embolization Combined with Diode Laser: A Novel Approach for a Rare Disease.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 23;57(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy.

Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which represents a consequence of a previous cesarean section. It is associated with major maternal morbidity and mortality and has potential implications on future fertility. Because of possible serious complications, CSP should be swiftly diagnosed and treated. There is no management protocol for this rare, life-threatening condition, and each patient should be evaluated individually. Several types of conservative treatment have been used to treat cesarean scar pregnancy: dilation and curettage (D&C), excision of trophoblastic tissues, local or systemic administration of methotrexate, bilateral hypogastric artery ligation, and selective uterine artery embolization with curettage and/or methotrexate administration. In our study we present a cesarean scar pregnancy of a 40-year-old woman who was treated with angiographic uterine artery embolization (UAE) followed by hysteroscopic diode laser resection. Our combined UAE-hysteroscopic laser surgery appears to offer an effective, safe, and minimally invasive surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57050411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146286PMC
April 2021

L.: A Plant Underestimated for Its Toxicity to Be Recovered from the Perspective of the Circular Economy.

Molecules 2021 Apr 8;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Via Giovanni Palatucci, 98168 Messina, Italy.

The aim of the study was to investigate the micromorphology of leaves and flowers harvested in three different Sicilian (Italy) areas with peculiar pedo-climatic conditions, and to characterize the phytochemical profile, the phytotoxic activity, and the eco-compatibility of their essential oils (EOs) for potential use as safe bioherbicides. Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) highlighted that indumentum consists of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of different types. Peltate trichomes of plants from the different sites showed few significant differences in dimension and abundance, but they were characterized by a surprisingly high number of secretory cells both in leaves and flowers. Phytochemical analyses showed that oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant class in all the EOs investigated (92.2-97.7%), but two different chemotypes, pulegone/isomenthone and piperitone/isomenthone, were found. The complex of morphological and phytochemical data indicates that soil salinity strongly affects the expression of the toxic metabolite pulegone, rather than the EO yield. Phytotoxicity tests showed a moderate activity of EOs against the selected species as confirmed by α-amylase assay. Moreover, the low toxicity on brine shrimp provided a rationale for the possible use of investigated EOs as eco-friendly herbicides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069592PMC
April 2021

Phytochemistry, Bioactivities, Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity Prediction of with Its Anticancer Potential against Human Lung, Breast and Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Lines.

Molecules 2021 Feb 2;26(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Salerno, Italy.

In this study, we investigated the bioactive potential (antibacterial and antioxidant), anticancer activity and detailed phytochemical analysis of ethanolic crude extract for the very first time using different in vitro approaches. Furthermore, computer-aided prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and safety profile of the identified phytoconstituents were also employed in order to provide some useful insights for drug discovery. , which is a rich source of potent natural bioactive compounds, showed promising antibacterial activity against the tested pathogenic bacteria (, , and ). The crude extract displayed favorable antioxidant activity against both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC = 231.6 μg/mL) and HO (IC = 288.3 μg/mL) molecules. also showed favorable and effective anticancer activity against all three malignant cancer cells in a dose/time dependent manner. Higher activity was found against lung (A549) (IC = 341.1 μg/mL), followed by colon (HCT-116) (IC = 378.8 μg/mL) and breast (MCF-7) (IC = 428.3 μg/mL) cancer cells. High resolution-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HR-LC-MS) data of crude extract revealed the presence of diverse bioactive/chemical components, including fatty acids, alcohol, sugar, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins and phenolics, which can be the basis and major cause for its bioactive potential. Therefore, achieved results from this study confirmed the efficacy of and a prospective source of naturally active biomolecules with antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer potential. These phytocompounds alone with their favorable pharmacokinetics profile suggests good lead and efficiency of with no toxicity risks. Finally, further in vivo experimental investigations can be promoted as probable candidates for various therapeutic functions, drug discovery and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867377PMC
February 2021

Study of Bio-Pharmaceutical and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate ( L.) Leathery Exocarp Extract.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 14;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy.

Pomegranate ( L.) fruits are important sources of vitamins and minerals and widely used in the dietary supplement industry. An aqueous extract of its leathery exocarp (LEP) was obtained by a solid-phase micro-extraction method. The antifungal activity was examined against the phytopathogenic fungi, , , and , and the antibacterial activity was evaluated against , and . The antimicrobial assays showed, in some cases, a promising antimicrobial effect compared to the synthetic drugs. The possible anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities of the LEP extract were investigated by the Ellman's assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, respectively, and their results showed that the LEP extract has an effective anti-acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect and an antioxidant activity. Thus, the LEP extract could be valid as a candidate for further studies on the use of pomegranate in neurodegenerative diseases as a food preservative and a suitable substitute to control several phytopathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10010153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828685PMC
January 2021

Basil Essential Oil: Composition, Antimicrobial Properties, and Microencapsulation to Produce Active Chitosan Films for Food Packaging.

Foods 2021 Jan 8;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, Italy.

The essential oil (EO) from basil--was characterized, microencapsulated by vibration technology, and used to prepare a new type of packaging system designed to extend the food shelf life. The basil essential oil (BEO) chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were analyzed, as well as the morphological and biological properties of the derived BEO microcapsules (BEOMC). Analysis of BEO by gas chromatography demonstrated that the main component was linalool, whereas the study of its antimicrobial activity showed a significant inhibitory effect against all the microorganisms tested, mostly Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, the prepared BEOMC showed a spheroidal shape and retained the EO antimicrobial activity. Finally, chitosan-based edible films were produced, grafted with BEOMC, and characterized for their physicochemical and biological properties. Since their effective antimicrobial activity was demonstrated, these films were tested as packaging system by wrapping cooked ham samples during 10 days of storage, with the aim of their possible use to extend the shelf life of the product. It was demonstrated that the obtained active film can both control the bacterial growth of the cooked ham and markedly inhibit the pH increase of the packaged food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10010121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827191PMC
January 2021

Myricitrin, a Glycosyloxyflavone in Bark Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy via Improving Glycemic Status, Reducing Oxidative Stress, and Suppressing Inflammation.

Molecules 2021 Jan 6;26(2). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Advanced Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India.

The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of myricitrin (Myr), a glycosyloxyflavone extracted from bark, against diabetic nephropathy. Myr exhibited a significant hypoglycemic effect in high fat-fed and a single low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Myr was found to improve glucose uptake by the skeletal muscle via activating IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/GLUT4 signaling in vitro and in vivo. Myr significantly attenuated high glucose (HG)-induced toxicity in NRK cells and in the kidneys of T2D rats. In this study, hyperglycemia caused nephrotoxicity via endorsing oxidative stress and inflammation resulting in the induction of apoptosis, fibrosis, and inflammatory damages. Myr was found to attenuate oxidative stress via scavenging/neutralizing oxidative radicals and improving endogenous redox defense through Nrf-2 activation in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Myr was also found to attenuate diabetes-triggered renal inflammation via suppressing NF-κB activation. Myr inhibited hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis and fibrosis in renal cells evidenced by the changes in the expressions of the apoptotic and fibrotic factors. The molecular docking predicted the interactions between Myr and different signal proteins. An in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) study predicted the drug-likeness character of Myr. Results suggested the possibility of Myr to be a potential therapeutic agent for diabetic nephropathy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825565PMC
January 2021

CD200 and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Biological and Clinical Relevance.

Front Oncol 2020 26;10:584427. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Hematology Institute, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy.

CD200, a transmembrane type Ia glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin protein superfamily, is broadly expressed on a wide variety of cell types, such as B lymphocytes, a subset of T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial and neuronal cells. It delivers immunosuppressive signals through its receptor CD200R, which is expressed on monocytes/myeloid cells and T lymphocytes. Moreover, interaction of CD200 with CD200R has also been reported to play a role in the regulation of tumor immunity. Overexpression of CD200 has been reported in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and hairy cell leukemia but not in mantle cell lymphoma, thus helping to better discriminate between these different B cell malignancies with different prognosis. In this review, we focus on the role of CD200 expression in the differential diagnosis of mature B-cell neoplasms and on the prognostic significance of CD200 expression in CLL, where conflicting results have been published so far. Of interest, increasing evidences indicate that anti-CD200 treatment might be therapeutically beneficial for treating CD200-expressing malignancies, such as CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.584427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727446PMC
November 2020

Chemical Characterization and Antibiofilm Activities of Bulbs and Leaves of Two Aglione ( var. Asch. et Graebn.) Landraces Grown in Southern Italy.

Molecules 2020 Nov 24;25(23). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Institute of Food Sciences, CNR-ISA, Via Roma 64, 83100 Avellino, Italy.

The present study was carried out to determine some biochemical characteristics, in particular the total polyphenol content and the free radical scavenging activity, of the extracts recovered from bulbs and aerial parts (these last often considered as by-products) of two landraces of var. cultivated in Southern Italy. For the first time, the capacity of the extracts of these landraces to inhibit the formation of biofilm of different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and to affect the metabolism of the cells present within the bacterial biofilm was evaluated. All extracts exhibited an amount of total polyphenols not lower than 2.86 mg/g of dried product and revealed a noteworthy antioxidant activity, with EC values not exceeding 4.95 mg. In both cases, the aerial parts extracts were more effective than the bulb extracts, which also showed a minor amount of total polyphenols. The extracts inhibited mainly the adhesive capability of and , by 95.78% and 85.01%, respectively. The extracts demonstrated to inhibit also the metabolism of the bacterial cells reaching levels up to 90%. Finally, as assessed by the assays performed on the 24-h preformed biofilms, all the extracts were also capable to cause a reduction in bacterial biomass and to affect their metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727684PMC
November 2020

HR-LCMS-Based Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of L. Methanolic Extract: Computational and In Vitro Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Nov 5;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Hail, P.O. Box 2440, Ha'il 2440, Saudi Arabia.

In this study, we investigate the phytochemical profile, anticancer, and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract using both in vitro and in silico approaches. The results showed the identification of 29 phytochemical compounds belonging to 13 classes of compounds and 20 tripeptides using High Resolution-Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HR-LCMS). 13R-hydroxy-9E,11Z octadecadienoic acid, dihydrosamidin, valtratum, and cepharantine were the main compounds identified. The tested extract showed promising antioxidant activities (ABTS-IC = 0.042 mg/mL; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-IC = 0.087 mg/mL, β-carotene-IC = 0.101 mg/mL and FRAP-IC = 0.292 mg/mL). Using both malignant Walker 256/B and MatLyLu cell lines, methanolic extract showed a dose/time-dependent antitumor activity. The molecular docking approach revealed that most of the identified molecules were specifically binding with human peroxiredoxin 5, human androgen, and human progesterone receptors with high binding affinity scores. The obtained results confirmed that is a rich source of bioactive molecules with antioxidant and antitumor potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694502PMC
November 2020

Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic, and Anti-Quorum-Sensing Properties of L. Aerial Parts Methanolic Extract.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Oct 23;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Biology, University of Hail, College of Science, P.O. Box 2440, Ha'il 2440, Saudi Arabia.

The chemical profile of L. () methanolic extract was tested using liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-LCMS). Disc diffusion and microdilution assays were used for the antimicrobial activities. Coxsackievirus B-3 (CVB3) and Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were used for the antiviral activities. (ATCC 12472 and CV026) and PAO1 were used as starter strains for the anti-quorum sensing tests. Isoprenoids are the main class of compounds identified, and 13R-hydroxy-9E,11Z-octadecadienoic acid, valtratum, rhoifolin, sericetin diacetate, and dihydrosamidin were the dominant phytoconstituents. The highest mean diameter of growth inhibition zone was recorded for (19.33 ± 1.15 mm). The minimal inhibitory concentrations were ranging from 6.25 to 25 mg/mL for bacterial strains, and from 6.25 to 25 mg/mL for species. The 50% cytotoxic concentration on VERO (African Green Monkey Kidney) cell lines was estimated at 209 µg/mL. No antiviral activity was recorded. Additionally, extract was able to inhibit PAO1 motility in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the tested extract was able to inhibit 23.66% of the swarming and 35.25% of swimming capacities of PAO1 at 100 µg/mL. These results highlighted the role of germander as a potent antimicrobial agent that can interfere with the virulence factors controlled by the quorum-sensing systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690738PMC
October 2020

L. as a Potential Source of Antioxidant and Anticancer Bioactive Molecules: HR-LCMS Phytochemical Profiling, In Vitro and In Vivo Pharmacological Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Oct 16;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Biology, University of Hail, P.O. Box 2440, Ha'il 81451, Saudi Arabia.

This study investigated L. (AS) anticancer and antioxidant effects and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in a murine model of skeletal metastases due to inoculation of Walker 256/B cells. Phytochemical composition of AS extract (ASE) was studied by High Resolution-Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (HR-LCMS). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) were determined. In vitro, the antioxidant properties were evaluated by reducing power and antiradical activity against DPPH. Cancer cells' proliferation, apoptosis, metastatic development and angiogenesis were evaluated using Walker 256/B and MatLyLu cells. The p-coumaric acid was the major phenolic acid (1700 µg/g extract). ASE showed high levels of TPC and TFC and proved potent antioxidant effects. ASE inhibited Walker 256/B and MatLyLu cells' proliferation (Half-maximal inhibitory concentration: IC ≃ 150 µg/mL) and induced apoptosis. In silico and in vivo assays confirmed these findings. ASE effectively acts as a chemo-preventive compound, induces apoptosis and attenuates angiogenesis and osteolytic metastases due to Walker 256/B malignant cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602730PMC
October 2020

Polyphenols, the new frontiers of prebiotics.

Adv Food Nutr Res 2020 7;94:35-89. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences, DiAAA-University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy.

There is a growing interest in the identification of molecules capable to promote health and with a concurrent potential for technological applications. Prebiotics are functional ingredients naturally occurring in some plant and animal foods that since many decades stimulated considerable attention from the pharmaceutical and food industries due to their positive health effects. Together the well-known biomolecules with ascertained prebiotic effect, in last year new molecules were finally recognized as prebiotics, so capable to improve the health of an organism, also through the positive effect exerted on host microbiota. Among the so-called prebiotics, a special mention should be given to polyphenols, probably the most important, or at least among the most important secondary metabolites produced by the vegetal kingdom. This short chapter wants to emphasize polyphenols and, after briefly describing the individual microbiome, to illustrate how polyphenols can, through their influence on the microbiome, have a positive effect on the health of the individual in general, and on some pathologies in particular, for which the role of a bad status of the individual microbiome has been definitively established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.afnr.2020.06.002DOI Listing
July 2021

Lavender and coriander essential oils and their main component linalool exert a protective effect against amyloid-β neurotoxicity.

Phytother Res 2021 Jan 12;35(1):486-493. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Dentistry Sciences, School of Medicine, "Federico II" University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to cognitive deficits and cognitive decline. Since no cure or preventing therapy is currently available to counteract AD, natural-derived compounds are investigated to find new potential neuroprotective agents for its treatment. In the present study, we tested the neuroprotective effect of lavender and coriander essential oils (EOs) and their main active constituent linalool, against the neurotoxicity elicited by Aβ oligomers, a key molecular factor in the neurodegeneration of AD. Importantly, our findings on neuronally differentiated PC12 cells exposed to Aβ oligomers are in accordance with previous in vivo studies reporting the neuroprotective potential of lavender and coriander EOs and linalool. We found that lavender and coriander EOs at the concentration of 10 μg/mL as well as linalool at the same concentration were able to improve viability and to reduce nuclear morphological abnormalities in cells treated with Aβ oligomers for 24 hours. Lavender and coriander EOs and linalool also showed to counteract the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species production and the activation of the pro-apoptotic enzyme caspase-3 induced by Aβ oligomers. Our findings provide further evidence that these EOs and their main constituent linalool could be natural agents of therapeutic interest against Aβ -induced neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6827DOI Listing
January 2021

Two representatives of lamiaceae essential oils and their main components cause changes in glutathione related enzymatic activities.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jul 30:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano (Salerno), Italy.

Mill. (lavender) and L. (greek oregano) are aromatic plants used in traditional medicine for relief of convulsion, anxiety, insomnia and in the treatment of neurological disorders. On the basis of literature, we evaluated the changing in glutathione enzymatic activities provoked by the essential oils and pure components, linalool, carvacrol and limonene to study the mechanisms of action, responsible for several activities. Activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) tend to increase respect to control. SOD maximal increase reached up to 117% for carvacrol and limonene. Increase in GPx activity reached even up to value 1.229 for origanum oil in comparison to control 0.125 μkat/mg prot. Activities of GR (glutathione reductase), except for lavender, showed a biphasic response. Like for GR, the administration of compounds, resulted in a biphasic response in GST (glutathione-S-transferase) activities (with a consistent increase in activity at concentration 125 μg/mL for all compounds except lavender). Moreover, the changes in GSH (reduced glutathione), are no significant for different concentrations of essential oils. So, the biological properties of essential oils and specifically, the antioxidant ones, can be related to their capacity to modify the glutathione enzymatic activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1797728DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of Extract on Biofilm Formation, Adhesion With Its Antibacterial Activities Against Foodborne Pathogens, and Characterization of Bioactive Metabolites: An Approach.

Front Microbiol 2020 13;11:823. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, Fisciano, Italy.

(), an ethnomedicinally important fern, has become an interesting herb in the search for novel bioactive metabolites, which can also be used as therapeutic agents. Primarily, in this study, crude extract was screened for its phytochemical constituents, antagonistic potential, and effect on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation against common food pathogens. Phytochemical profiling of was carried out by using High Resolution-Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (HR-LCMS) followed by antibacterial activity via agar cup/well diffusion, broth microdilution susceptibility methods, and growth curve analysis. Antibiofilm potency and efficacy were assessed on the development, formation, and texture of biofilms through light microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and the assessment of exopolysaccharide production. Correspondingly, a checkerboard test was performed to evaluate the combinatorial effect of and chloramphenicol. Lastly, molecular docking studies of identified phytochemicals with adhesin proteins of tested food pathogens, which helps the bacteria in surface attachment and leads to biofilm formation, were assessed. crude extract was found to be active against all tested food pathogens, displaying the rapid time-dependent kinetics of bacterial killing. crude extract also impedes the biofilm matrix by reducing the total content of exopolysaccharide, and, likewise, the microscopic images revealed a great extent of disruption in the architecture of biofilms. A synergy was observed between crude extract and chloramphenicol for , and , whereas an additive effect was observed for . Various bioactive phytochemicals were categorized from crude extract using HR-LCMS. The molecular docking of these identified phytochemicals was interrelated with the active site residues of adhesin proteins, IcsA, Sortase A, OprD, EspA, and FimH from , and , respectively. Thus, our findings represent the bioactivity and potency of crude extract against food pathogens not only in their planktonic forms but also against/in biofilms for the first time. We have also correlated these findings with the possible mechanism of biofilm inhibition via targeting adhesin proteins, which could be explored further to design new bioactive compounds against biofilm producing foodborne bacterial pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237743PMC
May 2020

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization with MALDI-TOF-MS Based Identification of spp. Isolated from Mobile Phones with their Antibiotic Susceptibility, Biofilm Formation, and Adhesion Properties.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 26;17(11). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Ha'il, Hail 2440, Saudi Arabia.

Cell phones, smartphones, and tablets are extensively used in social and professional life, so they are frequently exposed to bacteria. The main goal of the present work was to isolate and characterize strains from students' cell phone mobiles. Subsequently, 24 strains were tested against a wide range of antibiotics, for the distribution of some virulence-related genes and their ability to form biofilm. spp. were cultured from all studied devices on chromogenic medium and identified using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) technique (MALDI-TOF-MS). The results obtained showed that was the dominant species (19 strains, 79.1%), followed by (3 strains, 12.5%), and (2 strains, 8.3%). Isolated strains showed high percentages of hydrolytic enzymes production, resistance to many tested antibiotics, and 37.5% expressed the gene. The tested strains were highly adhesive to polystyrene and glass and expressed implicated (62.5%) and (66.6%) genes. All spp. strains tested were found to possess proteases and the α-hemolysin gene. Our results highlighted the importance of mobile phones as a great source of spp., and these species were found to be resistant to many antibiotics with multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ranging from (0.444) to (0.812). Most of the studied strains are able to form biofilm and expressed many virulence genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the phenotypic and genetic characters highlighted the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of the population studied. Further analyses are needed to elucidate the human health risks associated with the identified strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312679PMC
May 2020

Depigmenting potential of lichen extracts evaluated by in vitro and in vivo tests.

PeerJ 2020 15;8:e9150. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Melanin is the main pigment of human skin, playing the primary role of protection from ultraviolet radiation. Alteration of the melanin production may lead to hyperpigmentation diseases, with both aesthetic and health consequences. Thus, suppressors of melanogenesis are considered useful tools for medical and cosmetic treatments. A great interest is focused on natural sources, aimed at finding safe and quantitatively available depigmenting substances. Lichens are thought to be possible sources of this kind of compounds, as the occurrence of many phenolic molecules suggests possible effects on phenolase enzymes involved in melanin synthesis, like tyrosinase. In this work, we used four lichen species, Ach., Hale, (L.) Hue, and (Hudson) M. Choisy, to obtain extracts in solvents of increasing polarity, viz. chloroform, chloroform-methanol, methanol, and water. Cell-free, tyrosinase inhibition experiments showed highest inhibition for methanol extract, followed by chloroform-methanol one. Comparable results for depigmenting activities were observed by means of in vitro and in vivo systems, such as MeWo melanoma cells and zebrafish larvae. Our study provides first evidence of depigmenting effects of lichen extracts, from tyrosinase inhibition to cell and in vivo models, suggesting that and extracts deserve to be further studied for developing skin-whitening products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233272PMC
May 2020

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils of and .

Front Microbiol 2020 15;11:409. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Institute of Food Sciences, CNR-ISA, Italian National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.

The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition and to evaluate the antimicrobial and phytotoxic properties of the essential oils (EOs) obtained from leaves of chemotype "Variety B" and , native to Australia. Geranyl acetate, γ-terpinene, geraniol, terpinolene, α-pinene, -cimene, and linalool were the main components in EO, confirming also the existence of several chemotypes in such taxa; on the other hand, 1,8-cineole, -sabinene hydrate acetate, globulol, longicyclene, terpinolene, and camphene were present in major amounts in the EO. Chemical analysis of revealed that it belongs to the variety "B." EO showed good antibacterial activity, with an MIC of 0.5 and 2 μg/mL against , and , respectively. The activity of EO was stronger than EO, whose maximum MIC reached 5 μg/mL. and EOs were particularly effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation by , already at a concentration of 0.01 μg/mL. The other strains were resistant to both EOs up to a dose of 0.05 μg/mL. The maximum inhibition on biofilm formed by was recorded for EO, reaching a value of 93.12% at 1.0 μg/mL. This is the first manuscript which studies the biofilm inhibition by EOs and evaluates their effects on biofilm metabolism. Both EOs were more effective against . In addition, even though EO 0.1 μg/mL was unable to inhibit biofilm formation by , it decreased the metabolic activity of the biofilm to 78.55% compared to control; furthermore, despite it inducing a relatively low inhibition (66.67%) on biofilm formation, it markedly affected metabolic activity, which decreased to 16.09% with respect to the control. On the contrary, EO 0.5 μg/mL induced a 79.88% inhibition of biofilm, maintaining a high metabolic activity (90.89%) compared to the control. Moreover, this EO showed inhibitory activity against radical elongation of and the germination of radish. On the contrary, EO showed no phytotoxic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174609PMC
April 2020

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Peels of Three Species.

Molecules 2020 Apr 19;25(8). Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Palatucci, 98168 Messina, Italy.

Background: Fruit peels are generally underutilized byproducts of the food industry, although they are valuable sources of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new application for three peel EOs as bio-herbicides.

Methods: After a micro-morphological evaluation of peels by SEM analysis, the phytochemical composition of the EOs of Risso & Poit., Raf., and (L.) Osbeck was characterized by GC/FID and GC/MS analyses. The in vitro phytotoxicity against germination and initial radical elongation of several crop and weed species was evaluated. Furthermore, the eco-compatibility of these EOs has been assessed by the brine shrimp () lethality assay.

Results: SEM analysis highlighted the morphometric differences of the schizolysigenous pockets among the peels of the three species. Oxygenated monoterpenes are the main constituents in (51.09%), whereas monoterpene hydrocarbons represent the most abundant compounds in (82.15%) and (80.33%) EOs. They showed marked and selective phytotoxic activity in vitro, often at very low concentration (0.1 μg/mL) against all plant species investigated, without showing any toxicity on , opening the perspective of their use as safe bio-herbicides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221518PMC
April 2020

Plant-Based Antidiabetic Nanoformulations: The Emerging Paradigm for Effective Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 23;21(6). Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy.

Diabetes mellitus is a life-threatening metabolic syndrome. Over the past few decades, the incidence of diabetes has climbed exponentially. Several therapeutic approaches have been undertaken, but the occurrence and risk still remain unabated. Several plant-derived small molecules have been proposed to be effective against diabetes and associated vascular complications via acting on several therapeutic targets. In addition, the biocompatibility of these phytochemicals increasingly enhances the interest of exploiting them as therapeutic negotiators. However, poor pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical attributes of these phytochemicals largely restrict their clinical usefulness as therapeutic agents. Several pharmaceutical attempts have been undertaken to enhance their compliance and therapeutic efficacy. In this regard, the application of nanotechnology has been proven to be the best approach to improve the compliance and clinical efficacy by overturning the pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical obstacles associated with the plant-derived antidiabetic agents. This review gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the nanoformulations of phytochemicals in the management of diabetes and associated complications. The effects of nanosizing on pharmacokinetic, biopharmaceutical and therapeutic profiles of plant-derived small molecules, such as curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, quercetin, apigenin, baicalin, luteolin, rosmarinic acid, berberine, gymnemic acid, emodin, scutellarin, catechins, thymoquinone, ferulic acid, stevioside, and others have been discussed comprehensively in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139625PMC
March 2020

Thymol Chemotype Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil as a Potential Selective Bio-Based Herbicide on Monocot Plant Species.

Molecules 2020 Jan 29;25(3). Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano, Italy.

Searching for new bio-based herbicides is crucial for decreasing chemical pollution, protecting the environment, and sustaining biodiversity. Origanum vulgare is considered a promising source of essential oil with herbicidal effect. The mode of action is not known. The present study focused on (1) comparison of phytotoxic activity of Origanum vulgare EO on monocot (Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare) and dicot species (Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba); (2) and evaluating other antimicrobial biological activities against phytopatogen bacteria (Clavibacter michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Pseudomonas savastanoi, and Xanthomonas campestris); antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium expansum, and Botrytis cinerea; cytotoxic activity and antioxidant activity. According to the GC/MS analyses, the EO belongs to the thymol chemotype O. vulgare with its high content of thymol (76%). Germination of all four species was not influenced by EO. The phytotoxic effect was statistically significant in the monocot species, while in the dicot species the opposite was observed-a stimulation effect, which was also statistically significant. Strong biological activity of O. vulgare EO was noted on all phytopatogen bacteria and fungi in the highest dose. Cytotoxic activity showed an IC = 50.5 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity showed an IC = 106.6 μg/mL after 45 min experimental time. Based on the presented results, it is possible to conclude that thymol chemotype O. vulgare essential oil could be potentially used as a herbicide with selective effects on monocot plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037002PMC
January 2020

Polyphenols, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Biofilm Inhibitory Activities of Peel and Pulp of L., , and cv. Salò Cultivated in Southern Italy.

Molecules 2019 Dec 13;24(24). Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Istituto di Scienze dell'Alimentazione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISA-CNR), via Roma 64, 83100 Avellino, Italy.

The aim of this paper was to study the polyphenols of peel and pulp of three taxa-, and cv. Salò-cultivated in the Cosenza province, Southern Italy, and to evaluate their antioxidant and antibacterial activity, performed against , , , , and . Furthermore, we assessed the inhibitory effect of the extracts on bacterial capacity to form biofilm, and on the metabolic activity of the cells present therein. The results indicated that such extracts could find new potential applications in the field of natural antioxidant and anti-bacterial agents in pharmaceutics, agriculture, and food fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943604PMC
December 2019

Anti-quorum Sensing and Antimicrobial Effect of Mediterranean Plant Essential Oils Against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

Front Microbiol 2019 19;10:2619. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

Essential oils (EOs) are one of the most interesting natural products extracted from different aromatic plants. For centuries, EOs have been considered an essential part of the traditional pharmacopeia. Many plant EOs have been reported as possible effective alternatives for commercial pesticides, and their single constituents have been used efficiently in food preservation for their promising anti-QS activity against several food pathogenic microorganisms. The current mini review gives a general overview over the microbicide effect as well as anti-quorum sensing and the anti-biofilm formation of some common plant EOs, especially those of and families; these are commonly grown in the Mediterranean region and are effective against some serious food phytopathogenic bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877472PMC
November 2019

Carnosic Acid Attenuates Cadmium Induced Nephrotoxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress, Promoting Nrf2/HO-1 Signalling and Impairing TGF-β1/Smad/Collagen IV Signalling.

Molecules 2019 Nov 18;24(22). Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy.

Cadmium (Cd) imparts nephrotoxicity via triggering oxidative stress and pathological signal transductions in renal cells. The present study was performed to explore the protective mechanism of carnosic acid (CA), a naturally occurring antioxidant compound, against cadmium chloride (CdCl)-provoked nephrotoxicity employing suitable in vitro and in vivo assays. CA (5 µM) exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect against CdCl (40 µM) in normal kidney epithelial (NKE) cells evidenced from cell viability, image, and flow cytometry assays. In this study, CdCl treatment enhanced oxidative stress by triggering free radical production, suppressing the endogenous redox defence system, and inhibiting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation in NKE cells and mouse kidneys. Moreover, CdCl treatment significantly endorsed apoptosis and fibrosis via activation of apoptotic and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/collagen IV signalling pathways, respectively. In contrast, CA treatment significantly attenuated Cd-provoked nephrotoxicity via inhibiting free radicals, endorsing redox defence, suppressing apoptosis, and inhibiting fibrosis in renal cells in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In addition, CA treatment significantly ( < 0.05-0.01) restored blood and urine parameters to near-normal levels in mice. Histological findings further confirmed the protective role of CA against Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity. Molecular docking predicted possible interactions between CA and Nrf2/TGF-β1/Smad/collagen IV. Hence, CA was found to be a potential therapeutic agent to treat Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891359PMC
November 2019

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisia herba-alba and Origanum majorana Essential Oils from Morocco.

Molecules 2019 Nov 6;24(22). Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Laboratory of Biosciences, Integrated and Molecular Functional Exploration, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques Mohammedia, 146 Mohammedia 20650, Morocco.

Essential oils (EOs) are one of the most important groups of plant metabolites responsible for their biological activities. This study was carried out to study the chemical composition and the antimicrobial effects of Artemisia herba-alba and Origanum majorana essential oils against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a fungal strain isolated from spoiled butter. The plants were collected in the region Azzemour of South West Morocco and the EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity was determined using the agar paper disc method. The main components of A. herba-alba EO were cis-thujone, trans-thujone and vanillyl alcohol; in O. majorana EO terpinen-4-ol, isopulegol and β-phellandrene predominated. Both essential oils exhibited growth inhibiting activities in a concentration-dependent manner on several microorganism species. Our results demonstrated that O. majorana and A. herba-alba EOs could be effective natural antibacterial agents in foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891654PMC
November 2019

Biochemical composition and antioxidant activity of three extra virgin olive oils from the Irpinia Province, Southern Italy.

Food Sci Nutr 2019 Oct 6;7(10):3233-3243. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Istituto di Scienze dell'Alimentazione Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-ISA) Avellino Italy.

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), appraised for its healthy properties, represents an important element for the economy of several countries of the Mediterranean area, including Italy. Our study aimed to evaluate some biochemical characteristics (polyphenols and volatile compounds) as well as the antioxidant activity of three EVOOs obtained from the varieties , and , grown in the same field of an Irpinian village, Montella, in the Campania region, Southern Italy. Extra virgin olive oil contained the greatest amount of total polyphenols and showed the highest antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis of the aromatic profiles indicated that the three EVOOs could be easily discriminated according to the cultivar. 1-Hexanol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-pentanone, representing the most abundant volatiles of the EVOO , and 2-hexenal, which resulted the main component in EVOOs and , could be considered as markers to discriminate these three EVOOs, according to the ReliefF feature selection algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804774PMC
October 2019
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