Publications by authors named "Vincent Samuel"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Treatment Satisfaction in a Civil Commitment Facility for Sexually Violent Persons.

Sex Abuse 2021 Jun 4:10790632211019728. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

Evaluating patient satisfaction in therapeutic settings is consistent with a Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model. This study provides results from a program improvement initiative in a sexually violent person (SVP) civil commitment facility that queried patients and treatment providers about their satisfaction with therapeutic processes and assessment methods. Overall, patients reported high levels of satisfaction with treatment at the facility, with the highest levels of satisfaction on items about being treated with kindness and respect and staff acting professionally. Providers rated current assessment methods such as the Penile Plethysmography (PPG) assessment, polygraph testing, and neuropsychological testing as most helpful for patients in treatment progress; however, patients rated PPG assessment and polygraph testing as the least helpful of the assessments conducted. Soliciting patient feedback periodically could be important for maintaining treatment engagement and discovering opportunities to enhance patient satisfaction to treatment in a SVP civil commitment setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10790632211019728DOI Listing
June 2021

Immediate "Kangaroo Mother Care" and Survival of Infants with Low Birth Weight.

N Engl J Med 2021 05;384(21):2028-2038

The affiliations of the members of the writing committee are as follows: the Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health, and Ageing, World Health Organization, Geneva (S.P.N.R., S.Y., N.M., H.V.J., H.T., R.B.); Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital (S.A., P.M., N.C., J.S., P.A., K.N., I.S., K.C.A., H.C.) and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (M.J.S.), New Delhi, and Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad (N.W.) - all in India; Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (H.N., E.A., A.M.) and Muhimbili National Hospital (M.N., R.M.) - both in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; the University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi (K.K., L.G., A.T.M., V.S., Q.D.); Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (C.H.A., O.K., B.P.K., E.A.A.); Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (S.N., R.L.-R., D.A., G.P.-R.) and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (A.B.-Y., N.W.-B., I.N.), Kumasi, and the School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra (A.A.M.) - all in Ghana; Karolinska University Hospital (A.L.) and Karolinska Institute (N.B., A.L., B.W.), Stockholm; the Institute for Safety Governance and Criminology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa (B.M.); and Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway (S.R.).

Background: "Kangaroo mother care," a type of newborn care involving skin-to-skin contact with the mother or other caregiver, reduces mortality in infants with low birth weight (<2.0 kg) when initiated after stabilization, but the majority of deaths occur before stabilization. The safety and efficacy of kangaroo mother care initiated soon after birth among infants with low birth weight are uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in five hospitals in Ghana, India, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania involving infants with a birth weight between 1.0 and 1.799 kg who were assigned to receive immediate kangaroo mother care (intervention) or conventional care in an incubator or a radiant warmer until their condition stabilized and kangaroo mother care thereafter (control). The primary outcomes were death in the neonatal period (the first 28 days of life) and in the first 72 hours of life.

Results: A total of 3211 infants and their mothers were randomly assigned to the intervention group (1609 infants with their mothers) or the control group (1602 infants with their mothers). The median daily duration of skin-to-skin contact in the neonatal intensive care unit was 16.9 hours (interquartile range, 13.0 to 19.7) in the intervention group and 1.5 hours (interquartile range, 0.3 to 3.3) in the control group. Neonatal death occurred in the first 28 days in 191 infants in the intervention group (12.0%) and in 249 infants in the control group (15.7%) (relative risk of death, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89; P = 0.001); neonatal death in the first 72 hours of life occurred in 74 infants in the intervention group (4.6%) and in 92 infants in the control group (5.8%) (relative risk of death, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.04; P = 0.09). The trial was stopped early on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board owing to the finding of reduced mortality among infants receiving immediate kangaroo mother care.

Conclusions: Among infants with a birth weight between 1.0 and 1.799 kg, those who received immediate kangaroo mother care had lower mortality at 28 days than those who received conventional care with kangaroo mother care initiated after stabilization; the between-group difference favoring immediate kangaroo mother care at 72 hours was not significant. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12618001880235; Clinical Trials Registry-India number, CTRI/2018/08/015369.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2026486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108485PMC
May 2021

Streptomyces marianii sp. nov., a novel marine actinomycete from southern coast of India.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2021 01 13;74(1):59-69. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Centre for Marine Science and Technology (CMST), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, 629502, India.

A novel marine actinomycete strain designated ICN19 was isolated from the subtidal sediment of Chinnamuttam coast of Kanyakumari, India and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Neighbour-joining tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of validly described type strains had revealed the strain ICN19 formed distinct cluster with Streptomyces wuyuanensis CGMCC 4.7042, Streptomyces tirandamycinicus HNM0039 and Streptomyces spongiicola HNM0071. Morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain possessed LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was identified as MK-9(H8) (70%), MK-9(H6) (20%) and MK-9(H2) (2%), with the major cellular fatty acids (>10%) being anteiso-C, C and iso-C. The main polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and three unidentified phospholipids. The dendrogram generated on the basis of MALDI-TOF mass spectra supports the strain differentiated from its neigbours. The genome sequence of strain ICN19 was 9,010,366 bp in size with a total of 7420 protein-coding genes and 98 RNA genes. The genomic G+C content of the novel strain was 71.27 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain ICN19 and the reference strains with S. wuyuanensis CGMCC 4.7042, S. tirandamycinicus HNM0039 and S. spongiicola HNM0071 were 42.8%, 39.5% and 38%, respectively. Based on differences in physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic differences and whole-genome characteristics the isolated strain represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces marianii sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain is ICN19 (=MCC 3599 = KCTC 39749).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-020-0360-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Voluntary medical male circumcision and sexual practices among sexually active circumcised men in Mzuzu, Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Feb 11;20(1):211. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

College of Medicine, Department of Public health, Health Systems and Policy, P/Bag 360, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, Malawi.

Background: Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is one of the strategies being promoted to prevent sexual heterosexual transmission of HIV. It has been adopted by 14 countries with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision rates. The 60.0% protective efficacy of VMMC has come with misconceptions in some societies in Malawi, hence VMMC clients may opt for risky sexual practices owing to its perceived protective effect. The study estimated proportion of circumcised men engaging in risky sexual behaviors post-VMMC, assessed knowledge on VMMC protective effect and identified socio-demographic factors associated with risky sexual practices.

Method: A cross sectional study was conducted at two sites of Mzuzu city. Systematic random sampling was used to select 322 participants aged 18-49 who had undergone VMMC. The independent variables included age, location, occupation, religion, marital status and education. Outcome variables were non condom use, having multiple sexual partners and engaging in transactional sex. Data from questionnaires was analyzed using Pearson's chi square test and logistic regression.

Results: Out of 322 respondents, 84.8% (273) understood the partial protection offered by VMMC in HIV prevention. Ninety-six percent of the participants self-reported continued use of condoms post VMMC. Overall 23.7-38.3% participants self-reported engaging in risky sexual practices post VMMC, 23.7% (76) had more than one sexual partner; 29.2% (94) paid for sex while 39.9% (n = 187) did not use a condom. Residing in high density areas was associated with non-condom use, (p = 0.043). Being single (p < 0.001), and residing in low density areas (p = 0.004) was associated with engaging in transactional sex.

Conclusion: Risky sexual practices are evident among participants that have undergone VMMC. Messages on safer sexual practices and limitations of VMMC need to be emphasized to clients, especially unmarried or single and those residing in low density areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8309-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014635PMC
February 2020

Seroprevalence and trends in transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary non-remunerated blood donors at the Malawi Blood Transfusion Service-a time trend study.

Malawi Med J 2019 06;31(2):118-125

College of Medicine, Department of Public Health.

Introduction: Collecting blood from voluntary non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is a key strategy for blood safety. Identifying such populations involves analysis of population and blood donor data to identify risk factors for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs). There are no recent seroprevalence statistics for blood donors in Malawi. This study fills this gap by describing characteristics of blood donors, trend of annual prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis and factors associated with each TTI.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of blood donors' records in the MBTS database from 2011 to 2015 was undertaken. Summary statistics were performed to describe characteristics of the blood donors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine association between prevalence of infections and socio-demographic factors. Time trend analysis was done to assess changes in prevalence. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The number of blood donors screened over the 5 year period was 125,893. The mean number of donors donating blood per year was 39, 289; median age was 19 years; 82% were male, 87% single and 72% students and56% were repeat blood donors. Overall prevalence of each TTI decreased. The 2015 prevalence was: 3.6% for HBV; 1.9% for HIV; 2.6% for Syphilis and 1.0% for HCV while the 2011 prevalence was 4.7% for HBV; 3.5% for HIV 3.2% for syphilis and 2.4% for HCV.Repeat blood donors had significantly lower prevalence of TTIs than first time donors. Females were associated with lower risk for HBV, HCV and syphilis. Age ≥25 years and being out of school were associated with HIV. Age ≥25 years was associated with reduced risk for HCV and being self-employed and married were each associated with syphilis.

Conclusion: The typical blood donor is a young single male student. Repeat blood donation improves safety of the blood supply.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v31i2.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698631PMC
June 2019

Ala-geninthiocin, a new broad spectrum thiopeptide antibiotic, produced by a marine Streptomyces sp. ICN19.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2019 02 24;72(2):99-105. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology (ICN), Centre for Marine Science and Technology (CMST), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam-629502, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Bioassay-guided screening of antibacterial compounds from the cultured marine Streptomyces sp. ICN19 provided Ala-geninthiocin (1), along with its known analogs geninthiocin (2) and Val-geninthiocin (3) and the indolocarbazole staurosporine (4). The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and ESI-HRMS. The absolute configurations of the amino acid residues were determined by enantioselective GC-MS analysis. Compound 1 exhibited potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Micrococcus luteus, as well as cytotoxicity against A549 human lung carcinoma cells with an IC value of 6 nM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-018-0115-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Zebrafish bio-assay guided isolation of human acetylcholinesterase inhibitory trans-tephrostachin from Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.

Neurosci Lett 2018 11 2;687:268-275. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Neuroscience Lab, Molecular and Nanomedicine Research Unit (MNRU), Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CNSNT), Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Jeppiaar Nagar, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Chennai - 600119, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

An acetylcholinesterase inhibitory compound was isolated from Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. by zebrafish brain based bioassay guided isolation and predicted as trans-tephrostachin.Enzyme kinetics studies (Line weaver-Burk plots and Michaelis Menten equation) favored the reversible / mixed type, with the inhibition constant (Ki) of 53.0 ± 7.4 μM in zebrafish brain (IC value of 39.0 ± 1.4 μM). However, the inhibition constant (Ki) was found to be 36.0 ± 0.4 μM with IC value of 20.0 ± 1.0 μM, whereas donepezil showed 3.2 ± 0.3 μM with the IC value of 0.12 ± 0.04 μM for human acetylcholinesterase. Further, the molecular docking, dynamics and simulation for trans-tephrostachin obtained better binding affinity and efficacy than commercial drugs donepezil and galanthamine. Hence, the isolated compound trans - tephrostachin from T. purpurea shall be further considered for the development of potential drug for the counteraction of Alzheimer's disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2018.09.058DOI Listing
November 2018

In vivo safety evaluation of antibacterial silver chloride nanoparticles from Streptomyces exfoliatus ICN25 in zebrafish embryos.

Microb Pathog 2017 Nov 21;112:76-82. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology (ICN), Centre for Marine Science and Technology (CMST), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari Dist 629502, TN, India. Electronic address:

Silver chloride nanoparticles were synthesized from the cell-free culture supernatant of Streptomyces strain using green synthesis approach with good yield. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, IR, SEM, AFM and XRD techniques. These nanoparticles exhibited broad spectrum of antibacterial activity towards Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin sensitive S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia at ≤ 2 μg/ml minimal inhibitory concentrations. In vivo bioassay in nanoparticles treated zebrafish embryos exhibited 16 μg/ml dose as maximal cardiac safety concentration and further increases in concentration revealed adverse effects such as pericardial bulging, mouth protrudation, hemorrhage and yolk sac elongation. The less toxicity of nanoparticles treated embryos in terms of cardiac assessment and lethality analysis was observed. The dose below 5 μg/ml is concluded as an in vitro and in vivo therapeutic dose. The properties of this biosynthesized nanoparticle suggest a path towards developing antibiotic nanoparticles that are likely to avoid development of multidrug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.07.054DOI Listing
November 2017

HR-LC-MS based analysis of two antibacterial metabolites from a marine sponge symbiont Streptomyces pharmamarensis ICN40.

Microb Pathog 2017 Oct 18;111:450-457. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology (ICN), Centre for Marine Science and Technology (CMST), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, 629502 Kanyakumari District, TN, India. Electronic address:

On the effort to screen antibiotics against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), an actinomycete strain which can produce bactericidal compound was isolated from a marine sponge of Kanyakumari Coast, India. Two anti-MRSA compounds (PVI401 and PVI402) were isolated from the fermentation plates of Streptomyces pharmamarensis ICN40. TLC bioautography analysis yielded two active spots with Rf value of 0.75 (PVI401) and 0.8 (PVI402) from the crude extract. Both the compounds were characterized by HR-LC-MS analysis. LC-MS based de-replication analysis found out the compound PVI401 with an exact mass of 376.09435 Da and PVI402 with an exact mass of 273.26795 Da were found to be unidentified. Antibacterial spectrum showed significant minimal inhibitory concentration as 0.5 μg/ml of PVI401 and 2 μg/ml of PVI402 against MRSA. The whole organism zebrafish safety evaluation exhibited the compound PVI402 is safe upto 1 mg/ml 40 μg/ml of PVI401 exhibited thrombosis in cardiac chamber and this compound exhibited 44 μg/ml of LC against HepG2 hepatic carcinoma cell line. Both the compounds may be identified further for its structural novelty and clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.09.033DOI Listing
October 2017

Cow Dung Is a Novel Feedstock for Fibrinolytic Enzyme Production from Newly Isolated Bacillus sp. IND7 and Its Application in In Vitro Clot Lysis.

Front Microbiol 2016 29;7:361. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Bacterial fibrinolytic enzymes find great applications to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases. The novel fibrinolytic enzymes from food grade organisms are useful for thrombolytic therapy. This study reports fibrinolytic enzyme production by Bacillus sp. IND7 in solid-state fermentation (SSF). In this study, cow dung was used as the cheap substrate for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme. Enzyme production was primarily improved by optimizing the nutrient and physical factors by one-variable-at-a-time approach. A statistical method (two-level full factorial design) was applied to investigate the significant variables. Of the different variables, pH, starch, and beef extract significantly influenced on the production of fibrinolytic enzyme (p < 0.05). The optimum levels of these significant factors were further investigated using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for enhanced fibrinolytic enzyme production were 1.23% (w/w) starch and 0.3% (w/w) beef extract with initial medium pH 9.0. Under the optimized conditions, cow dung substrate yielded 8,345 U/g substrate, and an overall 2.5-fold improvement in fibrinolytic enzyme production was achieved due to its optimization. This is the first report of fibrinolytic enzyme production using cow dung substrate from Bacillus sp. in SSF. The crude enzyme displayed potent activity on zymography and digested goat blood clot completely in in vitro condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4810022PMC
April 2016

Novel Bacillus subtilis IND19 cell factory for the simultaneous production of carboxy methyl cellulase and protease using cow dung substrate in solid-substrate fermentation.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2016 22;9:73. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

Grassland and forage division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam 330-801 Republic of Korea.

Background: Hydrolytic enzymes, such as cellulases and proteases, have various applications, including bioethanol production, extraction of fruit and vegetable juice, detergent formulation, and leather processing. Solid-substrate fermentation has been an emerging method to utilize low-cost agricultural residues for the production of these enzymes. Although the production of carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) and protease in solid state fermentation (SSF) have been studied extensively, research investigating multienzyme production in a single fermentation process is limited. The production of multienzymes from a single fermentation system could reduce the overall production cost of enzymes. In order to achieve enhanced production of enzymes, the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied.

Results: Bacillus subtilis IND19 utilized cow dung substrates for the production of CMCase and protease. A central composite design and a RSM were used to determine the optimal concentrations of peptone, NaH2PO4, and medium pH. Maximum productions of CMCase and protease were observed at 0.9 % peptone, 0.78 % NaH2PO4, and medium pH of 8.41, and 1 % peptone, 0.72 % NaH2PO4, and medium pH of 8.11, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental yield of CMCase and protease reached 473.01 and 4643 U/g, which were notably close to the predicted response (485.05 and 4710 U/g). These findings corresponded to an overall increase of 2.1- and 2.5-fold in CMCase and protease productions, respectively.

Conclusions: Utilization of cow dung for the production of enzymes is critical to producing multienzymes in a single fermentation step. Cow dung is available in large quantity throughout the year. This report is the first to describe simultaneous production of CMCase and protease using cow dung. This substrate could be directly used as the culture medium without any pretreatment for the production of these enzymes at an industrial scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-016-0481-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4804545PMC
March 2016

Cow dung is an ideal fermentation medium for amylase production in solid-state fermentation by .

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2015 Dec 1;13(2):111-117. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam 629 502, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Amylase production by IND4 was investigated by solid state fermentation (SSF) using cow dung substrate. The SSF conditions were optimized by using one-variable-at-a-time approach and two level full factorial design. Two level full factorial design demonstrated that moisture, pH, fructose, yeast extract and ammonium sulphate have significantly influenced enzyme production ( < 0.05). A central composite design was employed to investigate the optimum concentration of these variables affecting amylase production. Maximal amylase production of 464 units/ml of enzyme was observed in the presence of 100% moisture, 0.1% fructose and 0.01% ammonium sulphate. The enzyme production increased three fold compared to the original medium. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of amylase were found to be 8.0 and 50 °C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0-9.0) and showed 32% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 50 °C for 1 h. This is the first detailed report on the production of amylase by microorganisms using cow dung as the low cost medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2015.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299861PMC
December 2015

Haloalkaliphilic Streptomyces spp. AJ8 isolated from solar salt works and its' pharmacological potential.

AMB Express 2015 Dec 27;5(1):143. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari District, 629502, Tamilnadu, India,

Antagonistic Streptomyces spp. AJ8 was isolated and identified from the Kovalam solar salt works in India. The antimicrobial NRPS cluster gene was characterized by PCR, sequencing and predict the secondary structure analysis. The secondary metabolites will be extracted from different organic solvent extraction and studied the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticancer activities. In vitro antagonistic activity results revealed that, Streptomyces spp. AJ8 was highly antagonistic against Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila WPD1 and Candida albicans. The genomic level identification revealed that, the strain was confirmed as Streptomyces spp. AJ8 and submitted the NCBI database (KC603899). The NRPS gene was generated a single gene fragment of 781 bp length (KR491940) and the database analysis revealed that, the closely related to Streptomyces spp. SAUK6068 and S. coeruleoprunus NBRC15400. The secondary metabolites extracted with ethyl acetate was effectively inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth at the ranged between 7 and 19.2 mm of zone of inhibition. The antiviral activity results revealed that, the metabolite was significantly (P < 0.001) controlled the killer shrimp virus white spot syndrome virus at the level of 85 %. The metabolite also suppressed the L929 fibroblast cancer cells at 35.7 % viability in 1000 µg treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-015-0143-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4549370PMC
December 2015

ELISA based quantification of Pax6 expression in the developing Zebrafish embryos.

Ann Neurosci 2015 Jul;22(3):171-5

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology (ICN), Centre for Marine Science and Technology (CMST), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari Dist-629502, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Transcription factors are the key regulators of metabolic pathways in the cells, tissues and organ development during embryogenesis. Pax6 is a transcription factor involved in vertebrate eye, brain and central nervous system formation during development.

Purpose: A reliable and sensitive assay for the spatiotemporal expression, quantification and detection of Pax6 is not available so far in zebrafish as a developmental model, hence the objective of this work is to develop quantitative assay in zebrafish embryos.

Methods: The Pax6 transcription factor was purified by heparin agarose affinity chromatography and DEAE cellulose chromatography techniques from the developing zebrafish embryos. The purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting using Pax6 mouse monoclonal antibody. The standard graph was plotted for Pax6 and the expressions in seventeen developmental stages were quantified by indirect ELISA.

Results: The maximum expression of Pax6 was detected at 8 hpf (hours post fertilization) and it was quantified as 179 ng/embryo from the average total protein of 9.5 µg/embryo. The zebrafish Pax6 protein was detected as 48 kDa and confirmed by western blotting.

Conclusion: This study paves way to quantify the level of expression of proteins or transcription factors during early embryonic and larval development or embryogenesis using zebrafish as model system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5214/ans.0972.7531.220307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4481557PMC
July 2015

Chemical genetic effects of Sargassum wightii during embryonic development in zebrafish.

Indian J Pharmacol 2015 Mar-Apr;47(2):195-8

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Centre for Marine Science and Technology Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objective: Phenotype based small molecule discovery is a category of chemical genetic study. The aim of this study was to observe the phytochemical based genetic effects of Sargassum wightii during organogenesis in embryonic zebrafish.

Materials And Methods: The phytomolecules from S. wightii were extracted using organic solvents and treated with the 24 h old developing zebrafish embryos. The active extract was partially purified by column chromatography, C18 Sep-Pak column and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: Initially, cardiac bulging was found in 2 dpf to 3 dpf (days post fertilization), then bradycardia and tubular heart were observed in the next 8 h, which also showed the reduction in the heart beat rates. The phenotypic mutation effects of bre, has, dou yan, heg and you were observed in the 3 dpf and 4 dpf of the extract treated zebrafish embryos.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the phytomolecules from S. wightii exhibited potential molecular switches on the developmental process, which might have significant role in understanding the development based chemical genetic studies in zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.153429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4386130PMC
January 2016

Production of a compound against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Streptomyces rubrolavendulae ICN3 & its evaluation in zebrafish embryos.

Indian J Med Res 2014 Jun;139(6):913-20

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Centre for Marine Science & Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, India.

Background & Objectives: Antibiotic resistance in pathogens has become a serious problem worldwide. Therefore, the search for new antibiotics for drug resistanct pathogens is an important endeavor. The present study deals with the production of anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) potential of Streptomyces rubrolavendulae ICN3 and evaluation of anti-MRSA compound in zebrafish embryos.

Methods: The antibiotic production from S. rubrolavendulae ICN3 was optimized in solid state fermentation and extracted. The antagonistic activity was confirmed against MRSA and purified in silica gel column and reverse phase--HPLC with an absorption maximum at 215 nm. Minimal inhibitory concentration of the compound was determined by broth microdilution method. Zebrafish embryos were used to evaluate the extract/compound for its minimal inhibition studies, influences on heart beat rates, haematopoietic blood cell count and lethal dose values.

Results: Streptomyces rubrolavendulae ICN3 showed potent antagonistic activity against MRSA with a zone of 42 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated as 500 μg/ml of the crude extract and the purified C23 exhibited 2.5 μg/ml in in vitro assay. The LC 50 value of the anti MRSA compound C23 was calculated as 60.49 μg/ml and the MRSA treated embryos survived in the presence of purified compound C23 at a dose of 10 μg/ml.

Interpretation & Conclusions: Our results suggested that the compound was potent with less toxic effects in zebrafish embryonic model system for MRSA infection. Further structural evaluation and analysis in higher mammalian model system may lead to a novel drug candidate for drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165004PMC
June 2014

Statistical optimization of fibrinolytic enzyme production using agroresidues by Bacillus cereus IND1 and its thrombolytic activity in vitro.

Biomed Res Int 2014 9;2014:725064. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu 629 502, India.

A potent fibrinolytic enzyme-producing Bacillus cereus IND1 was isolated from the Indian food, rice. Solid-state fermentation was carried out using agroresidues for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme. Among the substrates, wheat bran supported more enzyme production and has been used for the optimized enzyme production by statistical approach. Two-level full-factorial design demonstrated that moisture, supplementation of beef extract, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate have significantly influenced enzyme production (P < 0.05). A central composite design resulted in the production of 3699 U/mL of enzyme in the presence of 0.3% (w/w) beef extract and 0.05% (w/w) sodium dihydrogen phosphate, at 100% (v/w) moisture after 72 h of fermentation. The enzyme production increased fourfold compared to the original medium. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography, and casein-agarose affinity chromatography and had an apparent molecular mass of 29.5 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of fibrinolytic enzyme were found to be 8.0 and 60°C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0-9.0) and showed 27% ± 6% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 60°C for 1 h. In vitro assays revealed that the enzyme could activate plasminogen and significantly degraded the fibrin net of blood clot, which suggests its potential as an effective thrombolytic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/725064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070475PMC
March 2015

De-hairing protease production by an isolated Bacillus cereus strain AT under solid-state fermentation using cow dung: Biosynthesis and properties.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2014 Jan 6;21(1):27-34. Epub 2013 May 6.

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam 629 502, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Agro-industrial residues and cow dung were used as the substrate for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus cereus strain AT. The bacterial strain Bacillus cereus strain AT produced a high level of protease using cow dung substrate (4813 ± 62 U g(-1)). Physiological fermentation factors such as the incubation time (72 h), the pH (9), the moisture content (120%), and the inoculum level (6%) played a vital role in the enzyme bioprocess. The enzyme production improved with the supplementation of maltose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram analysis of the purified protease indicated an estimated molecular mass of 46 kDa. The protease enzyme was stable over a temperature range of 40-50 °C and pH 6-9, with maximum activity at 50 °C and pH 8. Among the divalent ions tested, Ca(2+), Na(+) and Mg(2+) showed activities of 107 ± 0.7%, 103.5 ± 1.3%, and 104.6 ± 0.9, respectively. The enzyme showed stability in the presence of surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and on various commercially available detergents. The crude enzyme effectively de-haired goat hides within 18 h of incubation at 30 °C. The enzymatic properties of this protease suggest its suitable application as an additive in detergent formulation and also in leather processing. Based on the laboratory results, the use of cow dung for producing and extracting enzyme is not cumbersome and is easy to scale up. Considering its cheap cost and availability, cow dung is an ideal substrate for enzyme bioprocess in an industrial point of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.04.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3937459PMC
January 2014

Statistical optimization of fibrinolytic enzyme production by Pseudoalteromonas sp. IND11 using cow dung substrate by response surface methodology.

Springerplus 2014 30;3:60. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam-629 502, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu India.

Fibrinolytic enzymes are agents that dissolve fibrin clots. These fibrinolytic agents have potential use to treat cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke. In the present article, a fibrinolytic enzyme producing Pseudoalteromonas sp. IND11 was isolated from the fish scales and optimized for enzyme production. Cow dung was used as a substrate for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme in solid-state culture. A two-level full factorial design was used for the screening of key ingredients while further optimization was carried out using the central composite design. Statistical analysis revealed that the second-order model is significant with model F-value of 6.88 and R (2) value of 0.860. Enzyme production was found to be high at pH 7.0, and the supplementation of 1% (w/w) maltose and 0.1% (w/w) sodium dihydrogen phosphate enhanced fibrinolytic enzyme production. The optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology resulted in a three-fold increase in the yield of fibrinolytic enzyme. This is the first report on production of fibrinolytic enzyme using cow dung substrate in solid-state fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3915052PMC
February 2014

Cynodon dactylon and Sida acuta extracts impact on the function of the cardiovascular system in zebrafish embryos.

J Biomed Res 2012 Mar;26(2):90-7

International Center for Nanobiotechnology (ICN), Center for Marine Science and Technology (CMST), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari Dist, Tamil Nadu 629502, India.

The aim of the present study was to screen cardioactive herbs from Western Ghats of India. The heart beat rate (HBR) and blood flow during systole and diastole were tested in zebrafish embryos. We found that Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) induced increases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos with a HBR of (3.968±0.344) beats/s, which was significantly higher than that caused by betamethosone [(3.770±0.344) beats/s]. The EC50 value of C. dactylon was 3.738 µg/mL. The methanolic extract of Sida acuta (S. acuta) led to decreases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos [(1.877±0.079) beats/s], which was greater than that caused by nebivolol (positive control). The EC50 value of Sida acuta was 1.195 µg/mL. The untreated embryos had a HBR of (2.685±0.160) beats/s at 3 d post fertilization (dpf). The velocities of blood flow during the cardiac cycle were (2,291.667±72.169) µm/s for the control, (4,250±125.000) µm/s for C. dactylon and (1,083.333±72.169) µm/s for S. acuta. The LC50 values were 32.6 µg/mL for C. dactylon and 20.9 µg/mL for S. acuta. In addition, the extracts exhibited no chemical genetic effects in the drug dosage range tested. In conclusion, we developed an assay that can measure changes in cardiac function in response to herbal small molecules and determine the cardiogenic effects by microvideography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1674-8301(12)60017-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3597324PMC
March 2012

Cow dung: a potential biomass substrate for the production of detergent-stable dehairing protease by alkaliphilic Bacillus subtilis strain VV.

Springerplus 2012 22;1:76. Epub 2012 Dec 22.

International Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakkamangalam-629 502, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu India.

Cow dung, a cheap and easily available source of energy, was used as the substrate for the production of alkaline protease by solid-state fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis strain VV. In order to achieve the maximum yield of this enzyme, the following optimum process parameters are needed: fermentation period (72 h), pH (10.0), moisture content (140%), inoculum (25%), temperature (30-40°C), carbon source (2% (w/w) maltose) and nitrogen source (1% (w/w) urea). The protease was stable over a broad temperature range (30-50°C) and pH (8.0-10.0), with maximum activity at 50°C and pH 10.0. Among the divalent ions tested, Ca(2+) (0.01 M) increased enzyme activity. The purified protease, after being subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was found to have a molecular mass of 38.5 kDa. The enzyme was solvent-and surfactant-stable and showed activity even after 24 h incubation along with various commercially available detergents. This enzyme possessed dehairing properties for animal hide after 16 h of incubation at room temperature. From these results it is evident that cow dung is a potential substrate for the production of a detergent-stable, dehairing protease by B. subtilis. This enzyme has a lot of potential applications in the detergent and leather-processing industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-1-76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725921PMC
August 2013

Noise-induced hearing loss in French police officers.

Occup Med (Lond) 2009 Oct 3;59(7):483-6. Epub 2009 Jul 3.

UF de Pathologie Professionnelle et Santé au Travail (Occupational Health Department), Hôpital Sébastopol, Reims, France.

Background: There is a lack of data about police officers' hearing thresholds and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) associated with this occupation. In France, 129,000 national police officers, 96,000 state police force members and 16000 municipal police officers may be affected by occupational noise exposure.

Aims: To evaluate the association between police employment and NIHL.

Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional study using review of medical records. Audiometric and otological data and information on potential confounders were extracted from medical records. Global hearing loss and selective 4000 Hz hearing loss were analysed.

Results: Of total, 1692 subjects (887 policemen and 805 civil servants) participated in the study. After adjusting for potential cofounders, police officers were 1.4 times more likely to have a selective 4000 Hz hearing loss than civil servants (95% CI 1.1-1.9). This difference was greater between motorcycle police officers and civil servants (OR = 3; 95% CI 1.4-6.3).

Conclusions: These data suggest that occupational noise exposure in police work, particularly in motorcycle police officers, may induce hearing loss. Noise sources need to be more accurately defined to confirm high-level noise exposures, to better define significant sources of noise and to identify effective solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqp091DOI Listing
October 2009
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