Publications by authors named "Vincent Jeanne"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Introducing Hepatitis B Birth Dose Vaccines into the Infant Immunization Program in Burkina Faso: Study Protocol for a Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial (NéoVac Study).

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 1;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Unité d'Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France.

To achieve global hepatitis elimination by 2030, it is critical to prevent the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Since 2009, the WHO has recommended administering hepatitis B vaccine to all neonates within 24 h of birth to prevent MTCT. However, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa only provide hepatitis B immunization at the age of 6, 10, and 14 weeks or 8, 12, and 16 weeks using a combined vaccine. To accelerate the introduction of the hepatitis B birth dose vaccine (HepB-BD) into sub-Saharan Africa, it is critical to establish to what extent the addition of HepB-BD can further reduce HBV transmission in areas where three-dose infant vaccination has been implemented. We therefore designed a study to evaluate the impact, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of incorporating the HepB-BD into the routine immunization program in a real-life field condition in Burkina Faso, where the hepatitis B vaccination is currently scheduled at 8-12-16 weeks. Through a multidisciplinary approach combining epidemiology, anthropology, and health economics, the Neonatal Vaccination against Hepatitis B in Africa (NéoVac) study conducts a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in rural areas of the Hauts-Bassins Region. The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04029454). A health center is designated as a cluster, and the introduction of HepB-BD will be rolled out sequentially in 24 centers. Following an initial period in which no health center administers HepB-BD, one center will be randomly allocated to incorporate HepB-BD. Then, at a regular interval, another center will be randomized to cross from the control to the intervention period, until all 24 centers integrate HepB-BD. Pregnant women attending antenatal care will be systematically invited to participate. Infants born during the control period will follow the conventional immunization schedule (8-12-16 weeks), while those born in the interventional period will receive HepB-BD in addition to the routine vaccines (0-8-12-16 weeks). The primary outcome, the proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity in infants aged at 9 months, will be compared between children born before and after HepB-BD introduction. The study will generate data that may assist governments and stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa to make evidence-based decisions about whether to add HepB-BD into the national immunization programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227098PMC
June 2021

Analytical validation of hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) using dried blood spots (DBS).

J Viral Hepat 2021 05 1;28(5):837-843. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Laboratoire de Virologie, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Limited access to nucleic acid testing (NAT) to quantify HBV DNA levels, an essential tool to determine anti-HBV treatment eligibility, represents a significant barrier to scale up HBV diagnostic services in resource-limited countries. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has the potential to become an affordable alternative because of its low cost (US$ <15/assay) and strong correlation with HBV DNA levels in treatment-naïve patients. However, the current assay requires plasma or serum. To further facilitate its application to decentralized settings, we developed and evaluated a standardized procedure to quantify HBcrAg using dried blood spots as a tool to diagnose HBV-infected people with high viraemia. We evaluated the following elution method optimized to quantify HBcrAg: suspension of a punched blood-soaked disc (11 mm) of Whatman 903 Protein Saver Card in 450 µL of PBS 0.05% Tween 20, followed by an incubation for 4 h at room temperature and a centrifugation at 10,000 g for 10 minutes. 150 µL of DBS eluate was used to quantify HBcrAg using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (LUMIPULSE G600II, Fujirebio). The limit of detection of dried blood spot HBcrAg in relation with HBV DNA levels was 19,115 IU/mL across the five major HBV genotypes (A/B/C/D/E). A strong linear correlation was confirmed between dried blood spot HBcrAg and HBV DNA levels (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) in samples with high viral loads (range: 3.7-7.0 log IU/mL). The coefficient of variation ranged between 4.0-11.2% for repeatability and 3.9-12.2% for reproducibility. Analytical specificity was 100% (95% CI: 83.9-100%) in HBV-negative samples. Using our elution method, it may be possible to identify HBV-infected patients with high viraemia who need antiviral therapy using dried blood spot and HBcrAg. A large-scale clinical validation is warranted in resource-limited countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247985PMC
May 2021

Combination of PURE-DNA extraction and LAMP-DNA amplification methods for accurate malaria diagnosis on dried blood spots.

Malar J 2018 Oct 22;17(1):373. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, 162-8655, Japan.

Background: Malaria is one of the most important parasitic infectious diseases for which almost half of the world's population is at risk. Although several diagnostic methods are now available to detect the infection, more sensitive and applicable tests are still required in the field. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method is a DNA amplification tool in which the DNA amplification can be achieved by incubation at a stable temperature. A malaria detection kit based on this methodology has already been commercialized and is being used in some countries. The kit includes two reaction tubes: one targeting the common Plasmodium genus (Pan tube) and the other specifically targeting Plasmodium falciparum (Pf tube). In parallel, a simple DNA extraction method, the procedure for ultra rapid extraction (PURE), which can produce a DNA solution suitable for the LAMP reaction without the use of a centrifuge, has also become available. In this study, the sensitivity of the combination of the PURE and LAMP methods (PURE-LAMP) was evaluated with archived dried clinical blood samples of imported malaria cases, including P. falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae.

Results: Using a nested PCR as the reference, 117 samples including 46 P. falciparum, 7 P. vivax, 9 P. ovale, 4 P. malariae, and 51 negative cases were tested. The PURE-LAMP Pan correctly identified 64 of the 66 positives and the 51 negatives. Among the Pan-positive samples 45 P. falciparum were also detected with the PURE-LAMP Pf. The PURE-LAMP Pan and PURE-LAMP Pf had respective sensitivities of 96.96% (95% CI 89.47-99.63) and 97.82% (95% CI 88.47-99.94) and common specificity of 1.

Conclusion: The PURE-LAMP system is accurate when used with dried blood spots and extendable to the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2527-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196555PMC
October 2018

No Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter and Artemisinin Resistance Mutations, Haiti.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 11;24(11):2124-2126

We obtained 78 human blood samples from areas in Haiti with high transmission of malaria and found no drug resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and Kelch 13 genes. We recommend maintaining chloroquine as the first-line drug for malaria in Haiti. Artemisinin-based therapy can be used as alternative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2411.180738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199976PMC
November 2018

A novel PCR-based system for the detection of four species of human malaria parasites and Plasmodium knowlesi.

PLoS One 2018 25;13(1):e0191886. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

A microscopy-based diagnosis is the gold standard for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a patient's blood. However, the detection of cases involving a low number of parasites and the differentiation of species sometimes requires a skilled microscopist. Although PCR-based diagnostic methods are already known to be very powerful tools, the time required to apply such methods is still much longer in comparison to traditional microscopic observation. Thus, improvements to PCR systems are sought to facilitate the more rapid and accurate detection of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, as well as P. knowlesi, which is a simian malaria parasite that is currently widely distributed in Southeast Asia. A nested PCR that targets the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of malaria parasites was performed using a "fast PCR enzyme". In the first PCR, universal primers for all parasite species were used. In the second PCR, inner-specific primers, which targeted sequences from P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi, were used. The PCR reaction time was reduced with the use of the "fast PCR enzyme", with only 65 minutes required to perform the first and second PCRs. The specific primers only reacted with the sequences of their targeted parasite species and never cross-reacted with sequences from other species under the defined PCR conditions. The diagnoses of 36 clinical samples that were obtained using this new PCR system were highly consistent with the microscopic diagnoses.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191886PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5785027PMC
March 2018

Design and implementation of a combined influenza immunization and tuberculosis screening campaign with simulation modelling.

J Eval Clin Pract 2015 Aug 26;21(4):727-34. Epub 2015 May 26.

Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA.

Rationale, Aims And Objectives: Design and implement a concurrent campaign of influenza immunization and tuberculosis (TB) screening for health care workers (HCWs) that can reduce the number of clinic visits for each HCW.

Method: A discrete-event simulation model was developed to support issues of resource allocation decisions in planning and operations phases.

Results: The campaign was compressed to100 days in 2010 and further compressed to 75 days in 2012 and 2013. With more than 5000 HCW arrivals in 2011, 2012 and 2013, the 14-day goal of TB results was achieved for each year and reduced to about 4 days in 2012 and 2013.

Conclusion: Implementing a concurrent campaign allows less number of visiting clinics and the compressing of campaign length allows earlier immunization. The support of simulation modelling can provide useful evaluations of different configurations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jep.12377DOI Listing
August 2015

Non-contact heart rate monitoring utilizing camera photoplethysmography in the neonatal intensive care unit - a pilot study.

Early Hum Dev 2013 Dec 14;89(12):943-8. Epub 2013 Oct 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Máxima Medical Center, Veldhoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Presently the heart rate is monitored in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with contact sensors: electrocardiogram or pulse oximetry. These techniques can cause injuries and infections, particularly in very premature infants with fragile skin. Camera based plethysmography was recently demonstrated in adults as a contactless method to determine heart rate.

Aim: To investigate the feasibility of this technique for NICU patients and identify challenging conditions.

Study Design And Participants: Video recordings using only ambient light were made of 19 infants at two NICUs in California and The Netherlands. Heart rate can be derived from these recordings because each cardiovascular pulse wave induces minute pulsatile skin color changes, invisible to the eye but measurable with a camera.

Results: In all infants the heart beat induced photoplethysmographic signal was strong enough to be measured. Low ambient light level and infant motion prevented successful measurement from time to time.

Conclusions: Contactless heart rate monitoring by means of a camera using ambient light was demonstrated for the first time in the NICU population and appears feasible. Better hardware and improved algorithms are required to increase robustness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.09.016DOI Listing
December 2013

Robust pulse rate from chrominance-based rPPG.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2013 Oct 4;60(10):2878-86. Epub 2013 Jun 4.

Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) enables contactless monitoring of the blood volume pulse using a regular camera. Recent research focused on improved motion robustness, but the proposed blind source separation techniques (BSS) in RGB color space show limited success. We present an analysis of the motion problem, from which far superior chrominance-based methods emerge. For a population of 117 stationary subjects, we show our methods to perform in 92% good agreement ( ±1.96σ) with contact PPG, with RMSE and standard deviation both a factor of 2 better than BSS-based methods. In a fitness setting using a simple spectral peak detector, the obtained pulse-rate for modest motion (bike) improves from 79% to 98% correct, and for vigorous motion (stepping) from less than 11% to more than 48% correct. We expect the greatly improved robustness to considerably widen the application scope of the technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2013.2266196DOI Listing
October 2013
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