Publications by authors named "Vincent G Bird"

70 Publications

Percutaneous Removal of Retained Metallic Ureteral Stent with a Looped Polytetrafluoroethylene-Coated Guidewire.

J Endourol Case Rep 2020 29;6(4):328-331. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Urology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Ureteral stricture disease is a troubling urologic issue that can be managed with surgical reconstruction or, more conservatively, with chronic nephrostomy tubes or ureteral stents. These indwelling tubes require exchanges and are prone to complications such as encrustation or stent failure. Metallic ureteral stents are designed to be more resistant to extrinsic compression and allow for exchanges at longer intervals. However, encrustation or tissue ingrowth can occur with these stents as well. The removal of encrusted or embedded metallic ureteral stents poses a difficult clinical scenario. We present a case of an encrusted metallic stent embedded in a proximal ureteral stricture requiring percutaneous endoscopic removal with a novel looped-wire technique. A 50-year-old Caucasian man with bilateral ureteral stricture disease, managed with chronic indwelling metallic stents, failed retrograde removal on the right during routine exchange. Staged procedures with percutaneous nephrostomy, followed by combined percutaneous antegrade and retrograde endoscopy were required to observe and access the embedded stent. The exposed metallic surface was unable to be grasped by available instruments through flexible endoscopy. Under endoscopic control with fluoroscopic guidance, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-coated guidewire was looped around the metallic stent. With gentle traction on the wire loop, the embedded stent curl was delivered out of the stricture and into the renal pelvis from where it was extracted carefully with graspers inserted through a rigid nephroscope. Follow-up antegrade fluoroscopic studies with contrast showed no extravasation. Percutaneous removal of metallic stents retained within the ureter has unique challenges. We present a novel method of extraction of a retained metallic stent with a looped PTFE-coated guidewire, which may safely and effectively be used in complex situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cren.2020.0115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803208PMC
December 2020

The impact of the number of lifetime stone events on quality of life: results from the North American Stone Quality of Life Consortium.

Urolithiasis 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Urology, University of California Irvine, 333 City Blvd W, Suite 2100, Orange, CA, 92868, USA.

To evaluate the impact of chronic stone recurrence on an individual's quality of life using the validated Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life (WISQOL) questionnaire. We collected cross-sectional data on patients with kidney stones from 14 institutions in North America. A stone event was defined as renal colic, stone-related procedure or emergency department visit. The regression analyses using general linear models and pairwise comparison determined the impact of the number of stone events on quality of life. The median number of stone events among the 2205 patients who completed the questionnaire was 3 (IQR 1-6). The mean total score was 107.4 ± 28.7 (max 140 points). The number of lifetime stone events was an independent predictor of lower quality of life (p < 0.001), specifically, score declined significantly beyond five events. Compared with patients who experienced a single stone event, there was a 0.4, 2.5, and 6.9 point decline in the adjusted mean WISQOL score after 2-5, 6-10, or > 10 events, respectively. The cumulative number of lifetime stone events was associated with a lower quality of life when more than five stone events were occurred. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to determine the underlying metabolic etiology of urolithiasis in the recurrent stone former, and the institution of a regimen to place their stone disease in remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00240-020-01238-yDOI Listing
January 2021

Estimating the health-related quality of life of kidney stone patients: initial results from the Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life Machine-Learning Algorithm (WISQOL-MLA).

BJU Int 2020 Nov 18. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Division of Urology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objective: To build the Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life Machine-Learning Algorithm (WISQOL-MLA) to predict urolithiasis patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on demographic, symptomatic and clinical data collected for the validation of the Wisconsin Stone Quality-of-Life (WISQOL) questionnaire, an HRQoL measurement tool designed specifically for patients with kidney stones.

Material And Methods: We used data from 3206 stone patients from 16 centres. We used gradient-boosting and deep-learning models to predict HRQoL scores. We also stratified HRQoL scores by quintile. The dataset was split using a standard 70%/10%/20% training/validation/testing ratio. Regression performance was evaluated using Pearson's correlation. Classification was evaluated with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC).

Results: Gradient boosting obtained a test correlation of 0.62. Deep learning obtained a correlation of 0.59. Multivariate regression achieved a correlation of 0.44. Quintile stratification of all patients in the WISQOL dataset obtained an average test AUROC of 0.70 for the five classes. The model performed best in identifying the lowest (0.79) and highest quintiles (0.83) of HRQoL. Feature importance analysis showed that the model weighs in clinically relevant factors to estimate HRQoL, such as symptomatic status, body mass index and age.

Conclusions: Harnessing the power of the WISQOL questionnaire, our initial results indicate that the WISQOL-MLA can adequately predict a stone patient's HRQoL from readily available clinical information. The algorithm adequately relies on relevant clinical factors to make its HRQoL predictions. Future improvements to the model are needed for direct clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15300DOI Listing
November 2020

Metabolic Syndrome Negatively Impacts Stone-Specific Quality of Life.

J Endourol 2020 11 3;34(11):1203-1208. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic diseases that is linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. MetS has also been linked to increased nephrolithiasis. However, limited research has been conducted on MetS and its impact on stone-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study aims to examine the hypothesis that the presence of MetS is associated with decreased HRQOL. The Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life Questionnaire, a stone-specific HRQOL questionnaire, was used to survey 3051 patients with kidney stones. Medical history was collected from patients. These data were used to distinguish MetS patients from non-MetS patients. Among patients with current stones, a Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare HRQOL scores from MetS patients and non-MetS patients. HRQOL from patients with and without individual MetS components were also compared, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. Statistical comparison between MetS patients (median score 102/140) and non-MetS patients (median score 106/140) demonstrated a lower stone-specific HRQOL in patients with MetS ( = 0.049). Among individual MetS components, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or body mass index (BMI) >30 had significantly lower HRQOL than patients without DM or BMI <30 ( = 0.028 and  < 0.001, respectively). The multivariate analysis supported this trend as MetS remained a significant predictor of decreased HRQOL ( = 0.002) after controlling for other variables assessed. This study indicates an association between MetS and a lower stone-specific QOL. This has important implications for stone prevention strategies in patients with MetS. Clinical Trial Registration number: H14-01143.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0247DOI Listing
November 2020

The Impact of Ureteral Access Sheath Use on the Development of Abnormal Postoperative Upper Tract Imaging after Ureteroscopy.

J Urol 2020 11 27;204(5):976-981. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Urology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Purpose: Ureteral access sheaths are commonly used during ureteroscopy to facilitate stone removal, improve visibility and maintain low intrarenal pressures. However, the use of a ureteral access sheath can cause ureteral wall ischemia and ureteral tears, potentially increasing the risk of postoperative ureteral stricture and obstruction. We studied the impact of ureteral access sheath use on postoperative imaging studies. Secondary objectives included studying the impact of other intraoperative parameters on postoperative imaging studies.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of cases that underwent ureteroscopy for nephroureterolithiasis across 2 high volume institutions between January 2012 and September 2016. Patient demographics, cumulative stone size, operative time, use of ureteral access sheath, laser lithotripsy, basket extraction, preoperative ureteral stent and postoperative ureteral stent placement were extracted from the electronic medical record. Findings of followup renal ultrasound, kidney-ureter-bladder x-ray and/or computerized tomography at approximately 8 weeks after surgery were recorded.

Results: A total of 1,332 ureteroscopies were performed with 1,060 cases (79.6%) returning for routine upper tract imaging after ureteroscopy. Postoperative hydronephrosis was noted following 127 cases (12.0%). Factors predicting presence of hydronephrosis after ureteroscopy include lower body mass index (p=0.0016), greater cumulative stone size (p=0.0003), increased operative time (p <0.0001), preoperative ureteral stent (OR 1.49, p=0.0299) and postoperative ureteral stent placement (OR 6.43, p=0.0031). Postoperative hydronephrosis was not associated with use of ureteral access sheath, age, laser lithotripsy or basket extraction.

Conclusions: Use of ureteral access sheath did not have a significant impact on development of postoperative hydronephrosis, suggesting ureteral access sheath is safe for use during ureteroscopy. Ureteral strictures remain rare following ureteroscopy, seen in only 1.0% of our cohort. With an observed prevalence of hydronephrosis of 12.0% on followup imaging at 8 weeks, routine upper tract imaging after ureteroscopy remains a valuable prognostic tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001147DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluation of Patient Factors That Influence Predictive Formulas for Determining Ureteral Stent Length When Compared to Direct Measurement.

J Endourol 2020 Aug 22;34(8):805-810. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Urology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

To compare direct ureteral length measurements with predictive formulas used for the preoperative assessment of ureteral length, and to evaluate patient factors that impact the accuracy of these predictive formulas. Patients undergoing ureteral stenting for benign and malignant indications were included. Clinical factors analyzed were gender, race, height, weight, prior abdominal or pelvic surgery, radiation therapy, pelvic organ prolapse (POP), laterality, hydronephrosis, and pre-existing ureteral stent. Three predictive formulas and a common height-based formula were used. Direct ureteral measurements were obtained with a ruled 5F ureteral catheter. Predictive formulas were compared with direct ureteral measurements using scatterplot and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate patient factors associated with ≥2 cm deviation from direct ureteral measurements. A total of 108 patients (134 ureters) were analyzed. All predictive formulas correlated poorly with direct ureteral measurements, although as much as 60% of ureteral stent lengths were accurately predicted. Several patient factors significantly impacted accuracy of formulas: male gender ( = 0.04), POP ( = 0.05), body mass index (BMI) ≥25 ( = 0.03), and pre-existing ureteral stent ( = 0.05). Our study suggests that predictive formulas for ureteral stent length have poor accuracy when compared to direct measurement, especially for patients with elevated BMI and POP. Our institution considers direct ureteral measurement the gold standard for determining ureteral stent length-a method that is universally applicable and independent of patient factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0066DOI Listing
August 2020

The effect of travel distance on health-related quality of life for patients with nephrolithiasis.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Apr 5;14(4):99-104. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Introduction: Urolithiasis causes a significant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patients with kidney stones have high levels of stress and anxiety. Symptom resolution often requires treatment. Travel distance is a barrier to care but little is known about its effects on HRQOL. We hypothesize that increased distance to treatment site is associated with decreased HRQOL.

Methods: Patients with a history of stones were enrolled at 11 tertiary centers as part of the QOL Stone Consortium of North America. HRQOL data were obtained using the Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire (WISQOL). We calculated distance between patient and treatment site using national ZIP codes. We used linear models to evaluate the effect of distance on HRQOL, while also considering demographics data, stones/symptom status, and distance.

Results: Of the 1676 enrolled patients, 52% were male, 86% non-Latino White, and the mean age was 53 years. Mean distance to treatment site was 63.3 km (range 0-3774), with 74% reporting current stones and 45% current symptoms. WISQOL score and distance were negatively correlated for patients reporting current stones and symptoms (p=0.0010). Linear modelling revealed decreased WISQOL scores for patients with symptoms as distance increased from treatment site (p=0.0001), with a 4.7-point decrease for every 100 km traveled.

Conclusions: Stone disease imposes significant burden on patients' HRQOL due to a variety of factors. Patients with active stone symptoms report worse HRQOL with increased distance to their treatment site. Possible etiologies include travel burden, increased disease burden, decreased healthcare use, and delays in care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7124174PMC
April 2020

Long-term Recurrence Rates in Uric Acid Stone Formers With or Without Medical Management.

Urology 2019 Sep 31;131:46-52. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Urology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Objective: To determine if medical therapy affects long-term clinical outcomes in uric acid stone formers (UASF).

Methods: We identified 53 UASF who had complete stone clearance following stone procedure by computed tomography (CT) and had ≥1 postoperative 24-hour urine collection and a clinical follow-up ≥6 months with a surveillance CT scan. Patients were divided into "adherent to medical therapy" (compliance with potassium citrate ± allopurinol verified by computerized pharmacy data) or nonadherent groups. Primary outcomes were CT stone recurrence rate and need for surgical stone intervention.

Results: We found 28 of 53 (53%) adherent and 25 of 53 (47%) nonadherent individuals (14 declined medication, 11 intolerant). With median follow-up of 24 months, no significant differences were noted between groups in regards to stone recurrence (32%; P = .99) or in 24-hour urine pH compared to baseline or follow-up (range 5.46-5.62; P = 0.06). Adherent patients, however, had smaller CT stone recurrence sizes (6.3 ± 3.8 vs 11.8 ± 6.2 mm, P = .02), were 28% less likely to require stone surgery compared to those without therapy (P <.01), and trended toward longer time intervals without recurrence (23.1 ± 18.8 vs 10.5 ± 7.5 months, P = .10) compared to nonadherents. Study confounders included a variety of medication dosages and adherences, limited nonadherent follow-up, and small study number.

Conclusion: UASF adherent to medical therapy had smaller recurrence sizes and fewer surgical interventions vs nonadherent, highlighting the protective role of potassium citrate in UA stone disease. The comparable urine pH and stone recurrence rates between groups, however, underscore areas for improvement in future UA stone prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.05.023DOI Listing
September 2019

Association of Patient Age and Gender with Kidney Stone Related Quality of Life.

J Urol 2019 08 8;202(2):309-313. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic , Cleveland , Ohio.

Purpose: Kidney stone formers have lower health related quality of life than nonstone formers. The North American Stone Quality of Life Consortium is a multicenter, longitudinal, prospective study of health related quality of life in patients with kidney stones using the WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life Questionnaire) with data on 2,052 patients from a total of 11 centers. This study is a subanalysis of cross-sectional data looking at the association of age, gender and race on health related quality of life of stone formers.

Materials And Methods: We performed multivariable analyses of ordinal logistic regression analyses to determine the impact of age, gender and race on health related quality of life, adjusting for other baseline covariates. The proportional odds assumption of ordinal logistic regression was checked. Total score and scores on 4 subdomains (social functioning, emotional functioning, stone related impact and vitality) were included.

Results: Median total score for all patients was 80.4. On multivariable analysis older patients had a significantly higher total health related quality of life score than younger patients (per 10-year increase OR 1.25, p <0.0001). Male patients had higher scores than females (OR 1.56, p = 0.0003) and nonCaucasian patients had lower health related quality of life than nonLatino Caucasian patients (OR 0.63, p = 0.0045).

Conclusions: Younger and female patients with kidney stones have lower health related quality of life than older and male patients, respectively. NonCaucasian patients with stones also have lower health related quality of life. The clinical impact of these findings might include future implications for patient counseling, including dietary and medical management of stone disease, and potential changes to the paradigm of the surgical management of stones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000291DOI Listing
August 2019

Low Income and Nonwhite Race are Strongly Associated with Worse Quality of Life in Patients with Nephrolithiasis.

J Urol 2019 07 7;202(1):119-124. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

University of California-San Francisco , San Francisco , California.

Purpose: Kidney stones are a source of significant morbidity which have been shown to negatively impact health related quality of life. We sought to understand the association between health related quality of life, socioeconomic status and race among patients with kidney stones.

Materials And Methods: Patients with stones at a total of 11 stone centers across the United States completed the WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire). The patient ZIP Code™ was used to estimate household income. A mixed effects regression model was constructed for analysis with ZIP Code as the random intercept.

Results: A total of 2,057 stone formers completed the WISQOL. Lower income was independently associated with significantly lower health related quality of life (β = 0.372, p = 0.014), as were nonwhite race (β = -0.299, p = 0.001), unemployed work status (β = -0.291, p = 0.008), female gender (β = -0.204, p <0.001), body mass index greater than 40 kg/m (β = -0.380, p <0.001), 5 or more medical comorbidities (β = -0.354, p = 0.001), severe recurrent stone formation (β = -0.146, p = 0.045), enrollment at an acute care visit, or a preoperative or postoperative appointment (β = -0.548, p <0.001) and recent stone symptoms (β = -0.892, p <0.001).

Conclusions: Lower income, nonwhite race and unemployed work status were independently associated with lower health related quality of life among patients with kidney stones. While clinical characteristics such as body mass and stone disease severity were also associated with health related quality of life, this study shows that socioeconomic factors are similarly important. Further research to understand the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status and race impact health may lend insight into methods to optimize clinical treatment of stone formers and patients with other chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000233DOI Listing
July 2019

The Effect of Thiazide and Potassium Citrate Use on the Health Related Quality of Life of Patients with Urolithiasis.

J Urol 2018 12 18;200(6):1290-1294. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

Purpose: To our knowledge it is unknown whether the benefits of medical management of urolithiasis outweigh the potential side effects of the medications used, including potassium citrate and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between potassium citrate or thiazides and overall stone related health related quality of life.

Materials And Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained on stone forming enrollees in the North American Stone Quality of Life Consortium. We used the WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life) questionnaire to compare health related quality of life between patients treated and not treated with potassium citrate or thiazide type diuretics. Additionally, the likelihood of gastrointestinal complaints was compared between those prescribed and not prescribed potassium citrate. The likelihood of fatigue and sexual complaints was also compared in those prescribed and not prescribed thiazides.

Results: Of the 1,511 subjects, including 787 males and 724 females, 279 were on potassium citrate and 238 were on thiazides at study enrollment. Patients prescribed potassium citrate had higher health related quality of life in each domain vs those not prescribed potassium citrate (p <0.001). Patients prescribed thiazides had higher health related quality of life in each domain compared to those not prescribed thiazide (all p <0.01). Those prescribed potassium citrate were less likely than those not prescribed potassium citrate to report nausea, stomach upset or cramps (OR 0.57, p <0.001). Patients prescribed thiazides were less likely than those not prescribed thiazides to report fatigue (OR 0.63, p = 0.004) or reduced sexual interest and/or activity (OR 0.64, p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Among stone formers the use of potassium citrate and thiazides was associated with better health related quality of life across all WISQOL domains without an increased likelihood of gastrointestinal complaints and fatigue or sexual complaints, respectively. These findings may be useful when counseling patients regarding the initiation of potassium citrate or thiazides for medical management of nephrolithiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2018.06.023DOI Listing
December 2018

The Urology Applicant: An Analysis of Contemporary Urology Residency Candidates.

Urology 2018 05 2;115:51-58. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Electronic address:

Objective: To better understand today's urology applicant.

Methods: All 2016 Urology Residency Match applicants to the study-participating institutions were provided a survey via email inquiring about their paths to urology, their career aspirations, how they evaluate a training program, and how they perceive residency programs evaluate them.

Results: Of a possible 468 applicants registered for the match, 346 applicants completed the survey. Only 8.7% had a mandatory urology rotation, yet 58.4% believed that a mandatory urology rotation would influence their career decision. Most applicants (62.1%) spent more than 8 weeks on urology rotations, and 79.2% completed 2 or more away rotations. Applicants were attracted to urology by the diversity of procedures, prior exposure to the field, and the mix of medicine and surgery, with mean importance scores of 4.70, 4.52, and 4.45 of 5, respectively. Female applicants were more likely to be interested in pediatric urology, trauma or reconstructive urology, and female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Significant differences in survey results were noted when applicants were separated by gender. Three-fourths of respondents (75.7%) applied to more than 50 residency programs. Applicants ranked operative experience, interactions with current residents, and relationships between faculty and residents as the most important criteria when evaluating training programs. Of the subspecialties, 62.1% of applicants expressed most interest in urologic oncology. At this stage in their career, a significant majority (83.5%) expressed interest in becoming academic faculty.

Conclusion: This study provides new information that facilitates a more comprehensive understanding of today's urology applicants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2017.10.065DOI Listing
May 2018

The Effect of Continued Low Dose Aspirin Therapy in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

J Urol 2018 03 26;199(3):748-753. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Department of Urology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Purpose: Aspirin is often stopped prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy due to concern about the surgical bleeding risk. There is evidence that discontinuing aspirin perioperatively increases thromboembolic events and continuing it may be safe. We assessed the effect of continuing low dose aspirin through percutaneous nephrolithotomy and its effect on surgical and safety outcomes.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 285 consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies performed between 2012 and 2015 at our institution. We compared outcomes and complications in patients who continued 81 mg aspirin daily to those in patients not receiving aspirin.

Results: A total of 67 patients (24.5%) were maintained on low dose aspirin and 207 (75.5%) were not on aspirin. The aspirin group was older (66 vs 52 years), included more tobacco users (58.2% vs 31.4%) and had a higher ASA® (American Society of Anesthesiologists®) score (2.9 vs 2.5, all p <0.001). There was no difference in mean S.T.O.N.E. (size, topography [stone location], obstruction, number of stones and evaluation of HU) score (7.6 vs 7.7, p = 0.71) or blood loss (44 vs 54 ml, p = 0.151). There was no difference in residual stone fragment size, including 0 to 2 mm in 65.3% vs 61.4% of aspirin vs no aspirin cases, 3 to 4 mm in 19.4% vs 16.2% and greater than 4 mm in 15.3% vs 22.4% (p = 0.407). Length of stay and the change in hemoglobin, hematocrit and creatinine were similar. There was no difference in the readmission rate (14.9% vs 12.6%, p = 0.618) or the total complication rate (34.4% vs 26.6%, p = 0.221). There was also no difference in the number of major complications (10.4% vs 5.8%, p = 0.193), bleeding complications (3.0% vs 2.9%, p = 0.971) and the transfusion rate (1.5% vs 1.0%, p = 0.57).

Conclusions: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy appears effective and safe in patients who continue low dose aspirin perioperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2017.10.034DOI Listing
March 2018

Age, Body Mass Index, and Gender Predict 24-Hour Urine Parameters in Recurrent Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers.

J Endourol 2017 Dec;31(12):1335-1341

1 Department of Urology, University of Florida College of Medicine , Gainesville, Florida.

Introduction And Objective: Despite guidelines, routine 24-hour urine testing is completed in <10% of high-risk, recurrent stone formers. Using surrogates for metabolic testing, such as key patient characteristics, could obviate the cost and burden of this test while providing information needed for proper stone prevention counseling.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 392 consecutive patients from 2007 to 2014 with ≥2 lifetime stone episodes, >70% calcium oxalate by mineral analysis, and ≥1 24-hour urine collection. We compared mean 24-hour urine values by age in decades. We used logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to assess the predictive ability of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities to detect abnormal 24-hour urine parameters.

Results: The mean age of the cohort was 51 ± 16 years. Older age was associated with greater urinary oxalate (p-trend <0.001), lower urinary uric acid (UA) (p-trend = 0.007), and lower urinary pH (p-trend <0.001). A nonlinear association was noted between age and urinary calcium or citrate (calcium peaked at 40-49 years, p = 0.03; citrate nadired at 18-29 years, p = 0.001). ROC analysis of age, gender, and BMI to predict 24-hour urine abnormalities performed the best for hyperuricosuria (area under the curve [AUC] 0.816), hyperoxaluria (AUC 0.737), and hypocitraturia (AUC 0.740). Including diabetes mellitus or hypertension did not improve AUC significantly.

Conclusions: In our recurrent calcium oxalate cohort, age significantly impacted urinary calcium, oxalate, citrate, and pH. Along with gender and BMI, age can be used to predict key 24-hour urine stone risk results. These data lay the foundation for a risk prediction tool, which could be a surrogate for 24-hour urine results in recurrent stone formers, who are unwilling or unable to complete metabolic testing. Further validation of these findings is needed in other stone populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2017.0352DOI Listing
December 2017

as an Etiologic Agent of Nephrolithiasis in Deep Water Divers.

J Endourol Case Rep 2017 1;3(1):4-6. Epub 2017 Jan 1.

Department of Biology, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Florida , Gainesville, Florida.

A number of occupations and professions may be associated with unique hazards relevant to urologic care. We relate the presentation, care, and the occupational hazard of urinary tract infection (UTI), presenting as cystitis and pyelonephritis, with stone formation in a scuba diver. The patient voiced concern that his diving suit malfunction was related to his UTI and stone disease. We review the risk of UTI in the diving environment. We also report the development of infection-related stone in this case. Our evaluation included consultation with an expert in diving and associated equipment. Careful installation of P-valves in dry suits, proper maintenance, and monitoring for leakage improved post-dive hygiene, and proper maintenance of P-valve tubing and diving equipment may decrease the incidence of these complications described. Urologists treating UTI and stone disease should be aware of this occupation-related hazard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cren.2016.0117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5248537PMC
January 2017

Evaluating Region of Interest Measurement Strategies to Characterize Upper Urinary Tract Stones on Computerized Tomography.

J Urol 2017 03 27;197(3 Pt 1):715-722. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Department of Urology, University of Florida College of Medicine (VMN), Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Purpose: Computerized tomography imaging is regularly used to assess stone HU values as a surrogate for stone composition and fragility. Techniques for measuring HU values are unstandardized, leading to high variability. We investigated several region of interest measurement strategies to quantify this variability.

Materials And Methods: Patients from an institutional database who underwent preoperative computerized tomography, surgical stone extraction and stone composition analysis were identified. HU measurements were made of each patient stone using transverse/coronal slices in the abdominal/bone windows with 4 region of interest techniques, including 1) the maximum diameter region of interest, 2) the maximum diameter region of interest at all stone inclusive slices, 3) 2 equal-sized, nonoverlapping circular regions of interest and 4) 3 to 5 smaller nonoverlapping regions of interest randomly placed on the stone. Stones that were 80% or greater pure by composition were separately analyzed.

Results: A total of 172 patients were included in study. Mean ± SD stone size was 19.3 ± 15.6 mm. On subtype analysis 51 stones were calcium oxalate monohydrate, 9 were calcium oxalate dihydrate, 7 were calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite/brushite and 16 were uric acid. Mean HU values in the abdominal window for all stones identified by region of interest techniques 1 to 4 were 457 ± 253, 351 ± 210, 581 ± 363 and 587 ± 329, respectively. The distribution of means significantly differed across region of interest techniques, planes and windows when considering all stones together (p <0.0001), stones with greater than 80% calcium oxalate dihydrate (p = 0.0113) and greater than 80% calcium oxalate monohydrate (p <0.0001), and uric acid stones (p <0.0001).

Conclusions: HU values obtained to assess stone density vary depending on window, plane and region of interest technique. We recommend that clinicians select a single region of interest measurement technique and use it consistently to minimize interinstitutional variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2016.10.066DOI Listing
March 2017

Validation and Reliability of the Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life Questionnaire.

J Urol 2017 05 23;197(5):1280-1288. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Purpose: WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire) is a disease specific, health related quality of life measure designed for patients who form kidney stones. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the external and convergent validity of WISQOL and assess its psychometric properties.

Materials And Methods: At the WISQOL creation site (development sample) and at 8 geographically diverse centers in the United States and Canada (consortium sample) patients with a history of kidney stones were recruited. Item response option variability, correlation patterns and internal consistency were compared between samples. Convergent validity was assessed by patients who completed both WISQOL and SF-36v2® (36-Item Short Form Health Survey, version 2).

Results: Results were analyzed in 1,609 patients, including 275 in the development sample and 1,334 in the consortium sample. Response option variability patterns of all items were acceptable. Internal WISQOL consistency was acceptable. Intersample score comparisons revealed few differences. For both samples the domain-total WISQOL score correlations exceeded 0.86. Item level analyses demonstrated suitable variation, allowing for discriminatory scoring. At the time that they completed WISQOL, patients with stones and stone related symptoms scored lowest for health related quality of life. Patients with stones but no symptoms and those with no stones scored higher. The convergent validity substudy confirmed the ability of WISQOL to identify stone specific decrements in health related quality of life that were not identified on SF-36v2.

Conclusions: WISQOL is internally consistent and discriminates among patients with different stone statuses and symptoms. WISQOL is externally valid across the North American population. It may be used for multicenter health related quality of life studies in kidney stone disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2016.11.097DOI Listing
May 2017

Geographic location is an important determinant of risk factors for stone disease.

Urolithiasis 2017 Oct 24;45(5):429-433. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA.

Some regions are known to have an increased burden of urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is known to be affected by weather patterns, particularly high ambient temperatures. To identify geographic differences in risk factors, we compared metabolic information for 1254 patients in two geographically distinct regions, New York and Florida, with per sample adjustment for ambient weather. We observed that patients in New York were more likely to have low urine volume, but also lower total urinary calcium (168 vs 216 mg, p = 0.005), urate (376 vs 678 mg, p < 0.001), and phosphate (0.8 vs 0.9 g, p 0.007). Temperature was a predictor of urine pH (B = -0.07, p = 0.024). Geographic region was a predictive factor (p < 0.01) for urine calcium, volume, serum bicarbonate, and anion gap. Increased anion gap and serum HCO were also predicted by temperature (B = 0.065, p = 0.035). Interestingly, urine volume was not affected by temperature. Our finding that temperature is a determining factor of urine pH and anion gap may help to explain the finding that hot weather is associated with increases in urolithiasis. Anion gap has also been previously associated with poor health measures and represents an interesting target for future research. Geographic location may independently contribute to urine composition, through regional diets, sun exposure, and groundwater. This study highlights the impact geographic location plays in determining risk factors for stone disease and the value of regional knowledge to the treating physician in preventing stone disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00240-016-0928-zDOI Listing
October 2017

Multicenter External Validation and Comparison of Stone Scoring Systems in Predicting Outcomes After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

J Endourol 2016 05 5;30(5):594-601. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

1 Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Western University , London, Ontario, Canada .

Background And Purpose: Several scoring systems have recently emerged to predict stone-free rate (SFR) and complications after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We aimed to compare the most commonly used scoring systems (Guy's stone score, S.T.O.N.E. nephrolithometry, and CROES nomogram), assess their predictive accuracy for SFR and other postoperative variables, and develop a risk group stratification based on these scoring systems.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients who have had a PCNL at four academic institutions between 2006 and 2013. Primary outcome was SFR within 3 weeks of the surgery and secondary outcomes were operative time (OT), complications, and length of stay (LOS). We performed chi-squared, t-test, logistic, linear, and Poisson regressions, as well as receiver operating characteristics curve with area under the curve (AUC) calculation.

Results: We identified 586 patients eligible for analysis. Of these, 67.4% were stone free. Guy's, S.T.O.N.E., and CROES score were predictive of SFR on multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.398, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.056, 1.852, p = 0.019; OR: 1.417, 85% CI: 1.231, 1.631, p < 0.001; OR: 0.993, 95% CI: 0.988, 0.998, p = 0.004) and have similar predictive accuracy with AUCs of 0.629, 0.671, and 0.646, respectively. On multivariable linear regression, only S.T.O.N.E. was an independent predictor of longer OT (β = 14.556, 95% CI: 12.453, 16.660, p < 0.001). None of the scores were independent predictors of postoperative complications or a longer LOS. Poisson regression allowed for risk group stratification and showed the S.T.O.N.E. score and CROES nomogram to have the most distinct risk groups.

Conclusions: The three evaluated scoring systems have similar predictive accuracy of SFR. S.T.O.N.E. has additional value in predicting OT. Risk group stratification can be used for patient counseling. Further research is needed to identify whether or not any is superior to the others with regard to clinical usefulness and predictive accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2015.0700DOI Listing
May 2016

Calcium Oxalate Stone Fragment and Crystal Phagocytosis by Human Macrophages.

J Urol 2016 04 26;195(4 Pt 1):1143-51. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Purpose: In murine and human hyperoxaluric conditions macrophages can be seen surrounding renal calcium oxalate crystal deposits. We hypothesized that macrophages have a role in degrading and destroying these deposits. We investigated the inflammatory response and phagocytic mechanisms when macrophages were exposed to human kidney stones and inorganic crystals.

Materials And Methods: Human monocytes were differentiated into resting, fully differentiated macrophages by treatment with recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or GM-CSF (granulocyte M-CSF) for 6 days. After confirming phenotype by flow cytometry the macrophages were exposed for 20 hours to fragments of sterile human calcium oxalate stones or calcium oxalate crystals. Crystal uptake was determined, and supernatant cytokine and chemokine profiles were analyzed using antibody arrays. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was done to validate mRNA profile expression.

Results: Under direct vision fluorescence microscopy activated human macrophages were noted to surround stone fragments and synthesized crystals, and destroy them in a step-by-step process that involved clathrin mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis. An inflammatory cascade was released by macrophages, including the chemokines chemokine ligand (CCL)2, CCL3, interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), complement component C5/C5a and IL-8. Response patterns to stone and crystal material depended on macrophage phenotype and activation status.

Conclusions: In our in vitro study macrophages differentiated with M-CSF showed greater ability to phagocytize crystal deposits than those treated with GM-CSF. Following clathrin mediated endocytosis macrophages released a number of cytokines that are crucial for the inflammatory immune response. This suggests that tissue macrophages have an important role in preventing kidney stone disease by removing and digesting interstitial renal crystal deposits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.11.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882284PMC
April 2016

Changing Default Fluoroscopy Equipment Settings Decreases Entrance Skin Dose in Patients.

J Urol 2016 Apr 23;195(4 Pt 1):992-7. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Department of Urology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Purpose: Proper fluoroscopic education and protocols may reduce the patient radiation dose but few prospective studies in urology have been performed. Using optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters we tested whether fluoroscopy time and/or entrance skin dose would decrease after educational and radiation reduction protocols.

Materials And Methods: At default manufacturer settings fluoroscopy time and entrance skin dose were prospectively measured using optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters in patients undergoing ureteroscopy, retrograde pyelogram/stent or percutaneous nephrolithotomy with access for stone disease. A validated radiation safety competency test was administered to urology faculty and residents before and after web based, hands-on fluoroscopy training. Default fluoroscopy settings were changed from continuous to intermittent pulse rate and from standard to half-dose output. Fluoroscopy time and entrance skin dose were then measured again.

Results: The cohorts of 44 pre-protocol and 50 post-protocol patients with stones were similarly matched. The change in mean fluoroscopy time and entrance skin dose from pre-protocol to post-protocol was -0.6 minutes and -11.6 mGy (33%) for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (p = 0.62 and <0.001), 0.5 minutes and -0.1 mGy (34%) for ureteroscopy (p = 0.42 and 0.31), and 0.1 minute and -0.1 mGy (29%) for retrograde pyelogram/stent (p = 0.85 and 0.49, respectively). Urologist post-training test scores increased 30% from pretraining scores (p = 0.1).

Conclusions: Radiation safety training protocols improved clinical knowledge but did not significantly alter fluoroscopy time. Changing equipment default settings to intermittent pulse rate (12 frames per second) and half-dose lowered the entrance skin dose by 30% across all endourology patients but most significantly during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. To limit patient radiation exposure fluoroscopy default settings should be decreased before all endourology procedures and image equipment manufacturers should consider lowering standard default renal settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.10.088DOI Listing
April 2016

Prediction of single procedure success rate using S.T.O.N.E. nephrolithometry surgical classification system with strict criteria for surgical outcome.

Urology 2015 Jan;85(1):69-73

Department of Urology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the S.T.O.N.E. nephrolithometry scoring system for percutaneous nephrolithotomy using computerized tomography (CT) imaging with strict criteria for stone clearance.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed a cohort of 122 patients who consecutively underwent primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy from July 2010 to March 2012 at our university-based referral hospital. All patients routinely have preoperative and postoperative CT imaging for stone burden determination. Primary outcome (residual stone) was scored as 0-2, 3-4, and >4 mm. All S.T.O.N.E. nephrolithometry parameters were recorded and scored as per published definition. The t test was used for continuous variables, and the chi-square testing or the Fisher exact test (when counts were small) was used for categorical covariates. S.T.O.N.E. score correlation with stone-free status was analyzed by logistic regression.

Results: Nephrolithometry score ranged from 5 to 13 with a mean of 9.5. Postoperative CT for residual stone showed 67 (54.9%), 26 (21.3%), and 29 (23.8%) patients had 0-2, 3-4, and >4 mm residual stone, respectively. Mean nephrolithometry scores for residual stone of 0-2, 3-4, and >4 mm were 8.87, 9.73, and 10.79 respectively (P <.0001). There were 11 (9.8%) complications.

Conclusion: With use of strict CT imaging criteria for assessment of residual stone status, the S.T.O.N.E. scoring system is reproducible and predictive of treatment success. Further investigation is required to both validate this model and to determine if other predictive parameters will improve it as a predictive model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2014.09.010DOI Listing
January 2015

Low methodological and reporting quality of randomized, controlled trials of devices to treat urolithiasis.

J Urol 2014 Apr 19;191(4):988-93. Epub 2013 Oct 19.

Department of Urology, University of Florida and Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville (PD), Florida. Electronic address:

Purpose: We assessed the methodological and reporting quality of randomized, controlled trials of stone disease management and determined whether the reporting quality of randomized, controlled trials improved with time.

Materials And Methods: We systematically searched the literature for randomized, controlled trials of urolithiasis treatment. We developed and pilot tested a data extraction checklist based on CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) criteria as well as a clinical checklist relevant to urolithiasis, each scored as 0 to 25. Our primary outcome measures were the mean differences in CONSORT and clinical summary scores with time. We performed statistical hypothesis testing using the Student t-test with 2-sided α = 0.05 to compare scores between 2002 to 2006 and 2007 to 2011.

Results: A total of 104 randomized, controlled trials met study inclusion criteria. The most common procedure types studied were percutaneous nephrolithotomy (41.3%), ureteral stenting (28.8%) and shock wave lithotripsy (25.0%). Mean ± SE CONSORT summary scores were 11.4 ± 0.4 and 12.1 ± 0.3 in 2002 to 2006 and 2007 to 2011, respectively, with a mean difference of 0.7 (95% CI -0.3-1.6, p = 0.167). Mean clinical summary scores were 7.4 ± 0.5 and 9.3 ± 0.4 in 2002 to 2006 and 2007 to 2011, respectively, with a mean difference of 1.8 (95% CI 0.6-3.1, p = 0.004).

Conclusions: While the number of randomized, controlled trials of urological devices used to treat stone disease substantially increased with time, methodological and clinical reporting quality remains suboptimal. This compromises their credibility and warrants efforts to promote appropriate performance of future endourological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2013.10.067DOI Listing
April 2014

Editorial comment.

Authors:
Vincent G Bird

Urology 2013 Jun 17;81(6):1251-2. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2012.10.073DOI Listing
June 2013

Impact of body mass index and tumor location on the incidence of benign histology at the time of nephron-sparing surgery.

Int Urol Nephrol 2012 Oct 9;44(5):1319-24. Epub 2012 Jun 9.

Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: Gender, smoking history, patient age, and tumor size have been found to impact the likelihood of benign histology at the time of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Providing external validation of these variables and evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and tumor location on the likelihood of benign histology during NSS for T1 tumors were the objectives of this study.

Methods: Data were analyzed for consecutive patients undergoing NSS for T1 disease. Central tumors either were completely encircled by renal parenchyma, descended below the cortico-medullary junction, or were in direct opposition to the collecting system, renal sinus, or the hilar structures. Categorical variables were evaluated with chi-square test, and continuous variables were analyzed with independent sample t test. Logistic regression identified independent predictors of final pathology.

Results: NSS was performed in 316 patients, of whom 79 (24 %) had benign tumors. Patients with benign tumors were more likely to be female, to have a lower BMI, and to have peripheral tumors. On multivariate analysis, female gender (hazard ratio, 3.97; 95 % CI, 2.92-4.53, p < 0.001), peripheral tumor location (hazard ratio, 2.27; 95 % CI, 1.73-3.21, p = 0.014), and lower BMI (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95 % CI, 1.12-1.94, p = 0.015) were independently associated with benign histopathology at the time of surgical resection.

Conclusions: Prospectively identifying which T1 tumors are benign would have tremendous implications for the patient. Ours is the first study that has identified the impact of tumor location and BMI on the risk of benign histology. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these findings and incorporate these data into future nomograms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-012-0207-zDOI Listing
October 2012

Clinical, pathologic, and functional outcomes after nephron-sparing surgery in patients with a solitary kidney: a multicenter experience.

J Endourol 2012 Oct 6;26(10):1361-6. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background And Purpose: Surgical management of a renal neoplasm in a solitary kidney is a balance between oncologic control and preservation of renal function. We analyzed patients with a renal mass in a solitary kidney undergoing nephron-sparing procedures to determine perioperative, oncologic, and renal functional outcomes.

Patients And Methods: A multicenter study was performed from 12 institutions. All patients with a functional or anatomic solitary kidney who underwent nephron-sparing surgery for one or more renal masses were included. Tumor size, complications, and recurrence rates were recorded. Renal function was assessed with serum creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Results: Ninety-eight patients underwent 105 ablations, and 100 patients underwent partial nephrectomy (PN). Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was similar between the groups. Tumors managed with PN were significantly larger than those managed with ablation (P<0.001). Ablations were associated with a lower overall complication rate (9.5% vs 24%, P=0.01) and higher local recurrence rate (6.7% vs 3%, P=0.04). Eighty-four patients had a preoperative eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Among these patients, 19 (23%) fell below this threshold after 3 months and 15 (18%) at 12 months. Postoperatively, there was no significant difference in eGFR between the groups.

Conclusions: Extirpation and ablation are both reasonable options for treatment. Ablation is more minimally invasive, albeit with higher recurrence rates compared with PN. Postoperative renal function is similar in both groups and is not affected by surgical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2012.0114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3727568PMC
October 2012

Editorial comment.

Authors:
Vincent G Bird

Urology 2012 Feb;79(2):309; author reply 309

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2011.08.069DOI Listing
February 2012

Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in kidney tumors: molecular profiling of histological subtypes and association with metastasis.

J Urol 2012 Mar 15;187(3):827-33. Epub 2012 Jan 15.

Department of Urology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.

Purpose: Molecular characterization of renal cell carcinoma may help differentiate benign oncocytoma from malignant renal cell carcinoma subtypes and predict metastasis. Chemokines, eg IL-8 and chemokine receptors such as CXCR4 and 7, promote inflammation and metastasis. SDF-1 is a CXCR4 and 7 ligand with 6 known isoforms. We evaluated the expression of these chemokines and chemokine receptors in kidney specimens.

Materials And Methods: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction we measured mRNA levels of IL-8, CXCR4 and 7, and SDF1 isoforms α, β and γ in a total of 166 specimens from 86 patients, including 86 tumor samples and 80 matched normal kidney samples. Mean ± SD followup was 18.9 ± 12 months (median 19.5). Renal cell carcinoma specimens included the clear cell, papillary and chromophobe subtype in 65, 10 and 5 cases, respectively, and oncocytoma in 6. A total of 17 cases were positive for metastasis.

Results: Median CXCR4 and 7, and SFD1-γ levels were increased twofold to tenfold. SDF1-α and β were unchanged or lower in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary tumors than in normal tissue. Median SDF1-γ, IL-8, and CXCR4 and 7 were increased threefold to fortyfold in chromophobe tumors compared to oncocytoma. CXCR4 and 7 were increased in tumors less than 4 cm (mean 3,057 ± 2,230 and 806 ± 691) compared to oncocytoma (336 ± 325 and 201 ± 281, respectively, p ≤0.016). On multivariate analysis CXCR4 (p = 0.01), CXCR7 (p = 0.02) and SDF1-β (p = 0.005) were independently associated with metastasis. Combined CXCR7 plus SDF1-α and CXCR7 plus IL-8 markers showed the highest sensitivity (71% to 81%) and specificity (75% to 80%) of all individual or combined markers.

Conclusions: Chemokines and chemokine receptors differentiate renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. Combined SDF1-α plus CXCR7 and IL-8 plus CXCR7 markers have about 80% accuracy for predicting renal cell carcinoma metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2011.10.150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5221742PMC
March 2012

Factors that impact the outcome of minimally invasive pyeloplasty: results of the Multi-institutional Laparoscopic and Robotic Pyeloplasty Collaborative Group.

J Urol 2012 Feb 15;187(2):522-7. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose: We compared laparoscopic and robotic pyeloplasty to identify factors associated with procedural efficacy.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter trial incorporating 865 cases from 15 centers. We collected perioperative data including anatomical and procedural factors. Failure was defined subjectively as pain that was unchanged or worse per medical records after surgery. Radiographic failure was defined as unchanged or worsening drainage on renal scans or worsening hydronephrosis on computerized tomography. Bivariate analyses were performed on all outcomes and multivariate analysis was used to assess factors associated with decreased freedom from secondary procedures.

Results: Of the cases 759 (274 laparoscopic pyeloplasties with a mean followup of 15 months and 465 robotic pyeloplasties with a mean followup of 11 months, p <0.001) had sufficient data. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty, previous endopyelotomy and intraoperative crossing vessels were associated with decreased freedom from secondary procedures on bivariate analysis, with a 2-year freedom from secondary procedures of 87% for laparoscopic pyeloplasty vs 95% for robotic pyeloplasty, 81% vs 93% for patients with vs without previous endopyelotomy and 88% vs 95% for patients with vs without intraoperative crossing vessels, respectively. However, on multivariate analysis only previous endopyelotomy (HR 4.35) and intraoperative crossing vessels (HR 2.73) significantly impacted freedom from secondary procedures.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic and robotic pyeloplasty are highly effective in treating ureteropelvic junction obstruction. There was no difference in their abilities to render the patient free from secondary procedures on multivariate analysis. Previous endopyelotomy and intraoperative crossing vessels reduced freedom from secondary procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2011.09.158DOI Listing
February 2012