Publications by authors named "Vincent Egan"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Hexaco-60, the Dark Triad and Scholastic Cheating.

Psychol Rep 2020 Oct 22:33294120961071. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Previous studies have found inconsistent results regarding the personality predictors of scholastic cheating. This study investigated whether personality was a predictor of scholastic cheating using the HEXACO-60 personality inventory and the Dark Triad (DT). A sample of 252 students completed the online questionnaire. Results from a one-way ANOVA showed that scholastic cheating was more common in associate degree/diploma/foundation students and undergraduate students than postgraduate students. Year of study or student status (local or international students) had no effect on scholastic cheating. MANOVA showed that academic qualification, year of study, and student status had no effect on reasons for cheating. A structural equation model (SEM) found that scholastic cheating was positively predicted by unmitigated achievement and psychopathy. Psychopathy emerged as the strongest significant predictor of scholastic cheating. These results supported the view that dark personality is relevant for understanding scholastic cheating.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033294120961071DOI Listing
October 2020

Individual differences, ADHD, adult pathological demand avoidance, and delinquency.

Res Dev Disabil 2020 Oct 15;105:103733. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology, University of Nottingham, Yang Fujia Building, Jubilee Campus, Wollaton Road, Nottingham, NG8 1BB, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA) is a developmental disorder involving challenging behaviour clinically linked to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many of the problematic features of PDA are often seen in persons with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and impulsivity. ADHD and impulsivity are also common in the backgrounds of offenders.

Aims: Method and procedure: We examined if self-reported ASD, ADHD, impulsivity, and general personality traits such as low conscientiousness and low emotional stability predicted self-reported PDA scores, and which constructs contributed to the prediction of delinquency, recruiting 132 participants (mean age 34.6 years, SD = 10.9, range 18-68), of whom 126 cases had complete data.

Outcomes And Results: Many of these constructs, but particularly ADHD (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) were significant correlates of PDA, the correlation between ASD and PDA was small, and did not predict PDA. Multiple regression indicated that a combination of higher attention deficit, antagonism, and lower emotional stability predicted 65 % of an individual's PDA score, but that their PDA score did not contribute to the prediction of delinquency.

Conclusions And Implications: This research indicates that, for community adult populations, self-reported individual differences in ADHD, emotional instability, and antagonism appear to better predict PDA than ASD. The association PDA has with delinquency may reflect these constructs, which are also correlates of offending.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103733DOI Listing
October 2020

Neurological impact of emboli during adult cardiac surgery.

J Neurol Sci 2020 09 27;416:117006. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK; Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK; University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study draws on advances in Doppler ultrasound bubble sizing to investigate whether high volumes of macro-bubbles entering the brain during cardiac surgery increase the risk of new cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), ischemic MR lesions, or post-operative cognitive decline (POCD).

Methods: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound recordings were analysed to estimate numbers of emboli and macrobubbles (>100 μm) entering the brain during cardiac surgery. Logistic regression was used to explore the hypothesis that emboli characteristics affect the incidence of new brain injuries identified through pre- and post-operative MRI and neuropsychological testing.

Results: TCD, MRI, and neuropsychological test data were compared between 28 valve and 18 CABG patients. Although valve patients received over twice as many emboli per procedure [median: 1995 vs. 859, p = .004], and seven times as many macro-bubbles [median: 218 vs. 28, p = .001], high volumes of macrobubbles were not found to be significantly associated with new CMBs, new ischaemic lesions, or POCD. The odds of acquiring new CMBs increased by approximately 5% [95% CI: 1 to 10%] for every embolus detected in the first minute after the release of the aortic cross-clamp (AxC). Logistic regression models also confirmed previous findings that cardiopulmonary bypass time and valve surgery were significant predictors for new CMBs (both p = .03). Logistic regression analysis estimated an increase in the odds of acquiring new CMBs of 6% [95% CI: 1 to 12%] for every minute of bypass time over 91 mins.

Conclusions: This small study provides new information about the properties and numbers of bubbles entering the brain during surgery, but found no evidence to substantiate a direct link between large numbers of macrobubbles and adverse cognitive or MR outcome. Clinical Trial Registration URL - http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: 66022965.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718579PMC
September 2020

Corrigendum: The Forensic Restrictiveness Questionnaire: Development, Validation, and Revision.

Front Psychiatry 2020;11:128. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

School of Law and Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00805.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053423PMC
February 2020

Perceptions of Restrictiveness in Forensic Mental Health: Do Demographic, Clinical, and Legal Characteristics Matter?

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2020 07 24;64(9):994-1012. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

University of Nottingham, UK.

Where safe, forensic mental health systems should provide care in the least restrictive environment possible. Doing so can maximize patient autonomy and empowerment while minimizing unnecessary social disconnection and stigmatization. This study investigated whether patients' perceptions of restrictiveness were associated with demographic, clinical, and legal characteristics. The Forensic Restrictiveness Questionnaire (FRQ) was used to measure perceptions of restrictiveness in 235 patients in low-, medium-, and high-secure settings in England. The results showed that restrictiveness scores were significantly higher for patients who experienced an adverse event in the past week or were diagnosed with a personality disorder compared to those with a mental illness. A regression analysis suggested that only diagnosis was predictive of FRQ scores when controlling for perceptions of ward atmosphere and quality of life. Age, length of stay, ethnicity, level of security, legal section, and offence type were not associated with FRQ scores. Future research should investigate the roles that individual symptoms, insight into illness, mood, personality, and expectations of care have in influencing perceptions of restrictiveness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X20902050DOI Listing
July 2020

Apostates as a Hidden Population of Abuse Victims.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jan 12:886260519898428. Epub 2020 Jan 12.

University of Nottingham, UK.

The term "apostate" describes the term used by the religious to describe individuals raised within religious families who once identified as religious, but who have ceased to believe in the existence of God, gods or follow their religious belief, and now identify as non-religious. Given the strong feelings families can have about the rejection of their shared faith, and the difficulty that police forces may have in identifying and understanding the complexities of violence toward the apostate, this study sought to examine the possibility that apostates represent a hidden population of abuse victims within religious households. We recruited 228 persons (102 males, 119 females) from an online survey with the support of "Faith to Faithless"-a service within Humanists UK, which supports people that leave their religious faith. Individuals were screened using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale to quantify their experience of assault and negotiation. It was found that persons who identified as apostates experienced more assault (i.e., harmful violence) than non-religious persons. Within this sample, Muslim apostates were significantly more likely to be victimized than Christian apostates. Disclosure of being abused for identifying as an apostate within a religious household to law enforcement was extremely uncommon, thereby preventing detection or prosecution of abusive acts committed by family members and limiting public awareness of this issue. These results are discussed in the context of the broader culture of honor-based () violence, which occurs across the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East, and North Africa, and is also seen in some Protestant Christian subcultures, and common to all Abrahamic religions, rather than Islam alone. This study highlights that within a multicultural society, there remain hidden populations of abuse victims who are vulnerable due to religious, cultural, and traditional constraints made by abusive family members.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519898428DOI Listing
January 2020

The Forensic Restrictiveness Questionnaire: Development, Validation, and Revision.

Front Psychiatry 2019 15;10:805. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

School of Law and Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Forensic psychiatric care is often practiced in closed institutions. These highly regulated, secure, and prescriptive environments arguably reduce patient autonomy, self-expression, and personhood. Taken together these settings are restrictive as patients' active participation in clinical, organizational, community, and personal life-worlds are curtailed. The consequences of patients' experiences of restrictiveness have not been explored empirically. This study aimed to develop a psychometrically-valid measure of experiences of restrictiveness. This paper presents the development, validation, and revision of the Forensic Restrictiveness Questionnaire (FRQ). In total, 235 patients recruited from low, medium, and high secure hospitals across England completed the FRQ. The dimensionality of the 56-item FRQ was tested using Principle Axis Factor Analysis and parallel analysis. Internal consistency was explored with Cronbach's α. Ward climate (EssenCES) and quality of life (FQL-SV) questionnaires were completed by participants as indicators of convergent validity. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Cronbach's α guided the removal of items that did not scale adequately. The analysis indicated good psychometric properties. EFA revealed a unidimensional structure, suggesting a single latent factor. Convergent validity was confirmed as the FRQ was significantly negatively correlated with quality of life (Spearman's = -0.72) and ward climate (Spearman's = -0.61). Internal consistency was strong (α = 0.93). Forty-one items were removed from the pilot FRQ. The data indicate that a final 15-item FRQ is a valid and internally reliable measure. The FRQ offers a novel and helpful method for clinicians and researchers to measure and explore forensic patients' experiences of restrictiveness within secure hospitals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872494PMC
November 2019

Empathy at the Heart of Darkness: Empathy Deficits That Bind the Dark Triad and Those That Mediate Indirect Relational Aggression.

Front Psychiatry 2019 12;10:95. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

The dark triad (DT) traits-psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism-have collectively been linked to reduced empathy and increased aggression; however, their association with distinct empathic subtypes remains unclear; and unique links to indirect relational aggression (IRA) have not been delineated. Moreover, whether dark traits should be conceptualized individually, as a dyad or as a triad with a dark core centered around the absence of empathy is debated. The current study examines (i) whether impaired empathy indeed represents a common "dark core" binding Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, and (ii) this core explains associations between the dark traits and IRA. Participants ( = 301, 262 F/39 M) completed measures of the DT traits, cognitive and affective empathy components and IRA (Social Exclusion, Malicious Humor and Guilt Induction). The individual traits model without links between narcissism and IRA showed the best fit, suggesting that, at least in the context of IRA, the DT traits are best viewed as three independent personality traits. Distinct cognitive and affective empathy deficits and capacities are seen in the DT. Peripheral responsivity was the only type of empathy deficit associated with all dark traits, but unrelated to IRA. Psychopathy was the strongest indicator of impaired empathy and all IRAs; however, only online simulation, an affect-related cognitive empathy facet, partially mediated the relationships of psychopathy and Machiavellianism with IRA. Whilst the unique pathways for the dark triad traits suggest stronger alignment of psychopathy and Machiavellianism in their empathic deficits and indirect aggression; the data do not support the notion that an unempathic dark core underpinning all three traits drives indirect aggression. This is the first paper delineating the specific empathic deficits involved using a facet approach and their link to indirect forms of aggression. Results therefore inform theoretical models of aggression in the DT and offer some clarity on the debates surrounding the unempathic dark core in the DT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423894PMC
March 2019

Perioperative Cerebral Microbleeds After Adult Cardiac Surgery.

Stroke 2019 02;50(2):336-343

From the Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, United Kingdom (N.P., J.J., M.A.H., L.C., E.M.L.C.).

Background and Purpose- Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have been observed using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive deterioration, small vessel disease, and dementia. They are a well-known consequence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, chronic hypertension, and diffuse axonal injury, among other causes. However, the frequency and location of new CMBs postadult cardiac surgery, in association with cognition and perioperative risk factors, have yet to be studied. Methods- Pre- and postsurgery magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted images and neuropsychological tests were analyzed from a total of 75 patients undergoing cardiac surgery (70 men; mean age, 63±10 years). CMBs were identified by a neuroradiologist blinded to clinical details who independently assessed the presence and location of CMBs using standardized criteria. Results- New CMBs were identified in 76% of patients after cardiac surgery. The majority of new CMBs were located in the frontal lobe (46%) followed by the parietal lobe (15%), cerebellum (13%), occipital lobe (12%), and temporal lobe (8%). Patients with new CMBs typically began with a higher prevalence of preexisting CMBs ( P=0.02). New CMBs were associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times ( P=0.003), and there was a borderline association with lower percentage hematocrit ( P=0.04). Logistic regression analysis suggested a ≈2% increase in the odds of acquiring new CMBs during cardiac surgery for every minute of bypass time (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05; P=0.04). Postoperative neuropsychological decline was observed in 44% of patients and seemed to be unrelated to new CMBs. Conclusions- New CMBs identified using susceptibility-weighted images were found in 76% of patients who underwent cardiac surgery. CMBs were globally distributed with the highest numbers in the frontal and parietal lobes. Our regression analysis indicated that length of cardiopulmonary bypass time and lowered hematocrit may be significant predictors for new CMBs after cardiac surgery. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.isrctn.com . Unique identifier: 66022965.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354910PMC
February 2019

The Measurement of Adult Pathological Demand Avoidance Traits.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Feb;49(2):481-494

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Pathological ("extreme") demand avoidance (PDA) involves obsessively avoiding routine demands and extreme emotional variability. It is clinically linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The observer-rated EDA Questionnaire (EDA-Q) for children was adapted as an adult self-report (EDA-QA), and tested in relation to personality and the short-form Autism Screening Questionnaire (ASQ). Study 1 (n = 347) found the EDA-QA reliable, univariate, and correlated with negative affect, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism, and ASQ scores. Study 2 (n = 191) found low agreeableness, greater Emotional Instability, and higher scores on the full ASQ predicted EDA-QA. PDA can screened for using this tool, occurs in the general population, and is associated with extremes of personality. Future studies will examine if PDA occurs in other clinical populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3722-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373319PMC
February 2019

The influence of impulsivity and the Dark Triad on self-reported aggressive driving behaviours.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Nov 13;120:130-138. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology, YANG Fujia Building, University of Nottingham, Wollaton Road, Nottingham, NG8 1BB, UK. Electronic address:

The present study tested the role of Dark Triad traits (DT; narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) as potential contributors to self-reported aggressive driving alongside driving anger, general aggression, impulsiveness, and attributions of malign driving intent. Members of the general community (N = 168) completed an online survey battery measuring these characteristics, and a proxy measure of aggressive driving. Regression analyses revealed that psychopathy, a history of physical aggression towards others, and the "progress impeded" aspect of driving anger, accounted for 50.8% of the variance in self-reported aggressive driving behaviours. The remaining variables were not significant. A structural equation model found all measures fitted into a single model in which impulsivity and the DT predicted general aggression, general aggression fully mediated the effect of the DT on driving anger, and general aggression and progress impedance predicted self-reported aggressive driving (GFI = 0.925). These results indicate tendencies toward expressing aggression physically, frustration at goals being impeded, and a callous, impulsive nature can predispose an individual to aggressive driving behaviours. Implications of these findings and recommendations for research are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.08.010DOI Listing
November 2018

Childhood Bullying, Paranoid Thinking and the Misappraisal of Social Threat: Trouble at School.

School Ment Health 2018 22;10(1):26-34. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Centre for Family and Forensic Psychology, Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG81BB England, UK.

Experiences of bullying predict the development of paranoia in school-age adolescents. While many instances of psychotic phenomena are transitory, maintained victimization can lead to increasingly distressing paranoid thinking. Furthermore, paranoid thinkers perceive threat in neutral social stimuli and are vigilant for environmental risk. The present paper investigated the association between different forms of bullying and paranoid thinking, and the extent to which school-age paranoid thinkers overestimate threat in interpersonal situations. Two hundred and thirty participants, aged between eleven and fourteen, were recruited from one secondary school in the UK. Participants completed a series of questionnaires hosted on the Bristol Online Survey tool. All data were collected in a classroom setting in quiet and standardized conditions. A significant and positive relationship was found between experiences of bullying and paranoid thinking: greater severity of bullying predicted more distressing paranoid thinking. Further, paranoid thinking mediated the relationship between bullying and overestimation of threat in neutral social stimuli. Exposure to bullying is associated with distressing paranoid thinking and subsequent misappraisal of threat. As paranoid thinkers experience and threat, the phenomena may persist.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12310-017-9238-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830450PMC
November 2017

A Case Study Approach to Reducing the Risks of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE).

J Child Sex Abus 2017 Oct 31;26(7):769-784. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

a Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology, Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine , University of Nottingham , Nottingham , UK.

The risk of child sexual exploitation is a growing concern, both within community and child care settings. Within community services working with vulnerable young people, the risks of exploitation are pervasive and present a constant management problem for professionals. This makes the need for focused educational interventions within such settings all the more vital. This case study aims to describe the assessment, formulation, intervention, and outcomes of a young female considered to be at risk of sexual exploitation. It was hypothesised that, after completion of a psychoeducational group designed to enhance knowledge and skills around child sexual exploitation, positive outcomes would be seen in psychometric assessment, risk-taking behavior, and risk awareness. Results demonstrated no clinically significant change for measures of impulsivity, resourcefulness, or self-reported difficulties. A significant increase was seen for self-reported self-esteem, and all outcomes revealed a positive direction of change. Observational accounts of behavioral and attitudinal change produced more positive results, revealing an increase in prosocial behaviors and a reduction in risk-taking behaviors. Outcomes are discussed in relation to the individual's history and the residential care environment. Implications for future research and practice are outlined, and the study limitations are considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2017.1360428DOI Listing
October 2017

Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

Psych J 2016 Dec;5(4):263-274

Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pchj.151DOI Listing
December 2016

The SAPAS, Personality Traits, and Personality Disorder.

J Pers Disord 2017 06 7;31(3):385-398. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology, University of Nottingham.

Many argue that current categorical personality disorder (PD) classification systems should be more dimensional and consider personality traits. The present study examined whether a brief PD screening tool, the Standardized Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) primarily screened for traits of low emotional stability, low extraversion, and low agreeableness, rather than PD per se. A general community sample (n = 237) completed the SAPAS, a personality trait measure, and the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) screening questionnaire. Regressions showed that the SAPAS provided substantial incremental validity over personality trait scores in predicting total IPDE scores, indicating that the SAPAS captures variance unique to PD, rather than just extremes of general disposition. The SAPAS is an empirically valid rapid PD screen for nonclinical populations, correctly identifying 78% of individuals who screen positively for PD on the IPDE. However, the SAPAS was not effective for screening antisocial PD, limiting its utility in forensic settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2016_30_259DOI Listing
June 2017

Paranoid thinking, cognitive bias and dangerous neighbourhoods: Implications for perception of threat and expectations of victimisation.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2016 Mar 19;62(2):123-32. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Paranoid thinking is prevalent in the non-clinical population and cognitive mechanisms of heuristic reasoning and jumping to conclusions bias contributes to its formation and maintenance.

Aims: This study investigated the degree to which paranoia, perceived environmental risk, heuristic reasoning and jumping to conclusions bias (measured with the beads task) contribute to misinterpretation of neutral stimuli, and whether this informed judgements regarding vulnerability to threat and crime. It is also investigated whether impulsiveness is a confounding factor on the beads task.

Methods: Two hundred participants were recruited using a snowball-sampling method for a quantitative cross-sectional study. Participants reported demographic information, three psychometric questionnaires and two experimental tasks via an online paradigm hosted by the Bristol Online Survey tool.

Results: Participants with high paranoia scores perceived their environment to be more dangerous than those with low scores. Participants with high paranoia scores also overestimated threat in neutral stimuli and had high expectations of future victimisation. Jumping to conclusions on the beads task did not predict fear of crime outcomes, but was predicted by impulsivity.

Conclusion: Participants who demonstrated paranoid thinking were more likely to reside in perceived dangerous neighbourhoods and overestimate threat. While this could indicate a paranoid heuristic, it is a potentially rational response to prior experiences of crime and victimisation. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764015599998DOI Listing
March 2016

Impact of perioperative infarcts after cardiac surgery.

Stroke 2015 Mar 3;46(3):680-6. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

From the Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom (N.P., M.A.H., C.B., J.J., K.M., E.C.); Leicester NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom (N.P., E.C.); University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom (M.A.H., C.B., J.M., E.C.); and Faculty of Psychology and Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom (V.E.).

Background And Purpose: Brain injury after cardiac surgery is a serious concern for patients and their families. The purpose of this study was to use 3-T fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI to characterize new and preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and to test whether the accumulation of new ischemic lesions adversely affects cognition.

Methods: Digital comparison of before and after fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI images was performed for 77 cardiac surgery patients. The burden of preexisting versus new ischemic lesions was quantified and compared with the results of baseline and postoperative neuropsychological testing.

Results: After surgery, new lesions were identified in 31% of patients, averaging 0.5 lesions per patient (67 mm(3) [0.004%] of brain tissue). Patients with preexisting lesions were 10× more likely to receive new lesions after surgery than patients without preexisting lesions. Preexisting ischemic lesions were observed in 64% of patients, averaging 19.4 lesions (1542 mm(3) [0.1%] of brain tissue). New lesions in the left hemisphere were significantly smaller and more numerous (29 lesions; median volume, 44 mm(3); volume range, 5-404 mm(3)) than those on the right (10 lesions; median volume, 128 mm(3); volume range, 13-1383 mm(3)), which is consistent with a cardioembolic source of particulate emboli. Overall, the incidence of postoperative cognitive decline was 46% and was independent of whether new lesions were present.

Conclusions: New lesions after cardiac surgery added a small (≈4%) contribution to the burden of preexisting cerebrovascular disease and did not seem to affect cognitive function.

Clinical Trial Registration Url: http://public.ukcrn.org.uk. Unique identifier:

Ukcrn Id: 11702.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007533DOI Listing
March 2015

Impact of perioperative infarcts after cardiac surgery.

Stroke 2015 Mar 3;46(3):680-6. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

From the Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom (N.P., M.A.H., C.B., J.J., K.M., E.C.); Leicester NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom (N.P., E.C.); University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom (M.A.H., C.B., J.M., E.C.); and Faculty of Psychology and Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom (V.E.).

Background And Purpose: Brain injury after cardiac surgery is a serious concern for patients and their families. The purpose of this study was to use 3-T fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI to characterize new and preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and to test whether the accumulation of new ischemic lesions adversely affects cognition.

Methods: Digital comparison of before and after fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI images was performed for 77 cardiac surgery patients. The burden of preexisting versus new ischemic lesions was quantified and compared with the results of baseline and postoperative neuropsychological testing.

Results: After surgery, new lesions were identified in 31% of patients, averaging 0.5 lesions per patient (67 mm(3) [0.004%] of brain tissue). Patients with preexisting lesions were 10× more likely to receive new lesions after surgery than patients without preexisting lesions. Preexisting ischemic lesions were observed in 64% of patients, averaging 19.4 lesions (1542 mm(3) [0.1%] of brain tissue). New lesions in the left hemisphere were significantly smaller and more numerous (29 lesions; median volume, 44 mm(3); volume range, 5-404 mm(3)) than those on the right (10 lesions; median volume, 128 mm(3); volume range, 13-1383 mm(3)), which is consistent with a cardioembolic source of particulate emboli. Overall, the incidence of postoperative cognitive decline was 46% and was independent of whether new lesions were present.

Conclusions: New lesions after cardiac surgery added a small (≈4%) contribution to the burden of preexisting cerebrovascular disease and did not seem to affect cognitive function.

Clinical Trial Registration Url: http://public.ukcrn.org.uk. Unique identifier:

Ukcrn Id: 11702.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007533DOI Listing
March 2015

Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading.

Child Abuse Negl 2014 Feb 23;38(2):252-60. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

Centre for Family and Forensic Psychology, University of Nottingham, Yang Fujia Building, Jubilee Campus, Wollaton Road, Nottingham NG8 1BB, UK.

Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.08.019DOI Listing
February 2014

Toward a neuropsychology of personality in sex offenders against children: an exploratory psychometric study.

J Child Sex Abus 2013 ;22(5):612-23

Department of Psychology, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain.

Little is known about the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and normal personality in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between personality traits and executive functioning in child molesters. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory was used to assess personality, and the Trail Making Test (parts A and B) was used to assess executive functioning in a sample of child molesters (n = 33). We found the time required to complete Trail Making Test part A significantly predicted Extraversion scores, whereas the time to complete Trail Making Test part B significantly predicted Openness scores. Brief measures of executive functioning can thus predict the score in Extraversion and Openness in child molesters. These personality traits may be related to the functioning of brain areas implicated in having to complete the Trail Making Test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2013.800933DOI Listing
January 2014

Toward a neuropsychology of personality in sex offenders against children: an exploratory psychometric study.

J Child Sex Abus 2013 ;22(5):612-23

Department of Psychology, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain.

Little is known about the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and normal personality in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between personality traits and executive functioning in child molesters. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory was used to assess personality, and the Trail Making Test (parts A and B) was used to assess executive functioning in a sample of child molesters (n = 33). We found the time required to complete Trail Making Test part A significantly predicted Extraversion scores, whereas the time to complete Trail Making Test part B significantly predicted Openness scores. Brief measures of executive functioning can thus predict the score in Extraversion and Openness in child molesters. These personality traits may be related to the functioning of brain areas implicated in having to complete the Trail Making Test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2013.800933DOI Listing
January 2014

A case series of twenty one maternal filicides in the UK.

Child Abuse Negl 2013 Oct 29;37(10):753-61. Epub 2013 Mar 29.

Edenfield Centre, Prestwich Hospital, Bury New Rd, Manchester M25 3BL, UK.

Objective: This study reports a case-series study of 21 women from the United Kingdom convicted of the murder or manslaughter of their child (maternal filicide: MF). These cases were reviewed using data provided from police forces and from publicly available resources.

Methods: Content and thematic analysis and multidimensional scaling techniques were used to analyse the relationships between the variables present in the commission of the crimes.

Results: Mothers who killed their children could be categorised as emotionally driven and in despair at their situation, or rejecting their children due to perceiving them as a threat. Mothers who killed their babies (neonaticides) appeared to form two distinct subgroups: reluctant and detached neonaticidal offenders.

Conclusion: These findings offer an insight into the factors that may be of relevance in understanding how a mother may come to commit MF, and are interpreted in terms of disturbed attachment processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.02.008DOI Listing
October 2013

Barely legal: is attraction and estimated age of young female faces disrupted by alcohol use, make up, and the sex of the observer?

Br J Psychol 2009 May;100(Pt 2):415-27

Department of Psychology, Forensic Section, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

One 'reasonable ground' for unlawful sex with a minor is mistaken age. Alcohol consumption and make-up are often deemed further influences on impaired perception. Two hundred and forty persons in bars and cafes rated the attractiveness of composite faces of immature and mature females with and without additional makeup, alcohol users having their concurrent blood-alcohol level measured using a breathalyser. A non-sex-specific preference for immature faces over sexually mature faces was found. Alcohol and make-up did not inflate attractiveness ratings in immature faces. While alcohol consumption significantly inflated attractiveness ratings for participants viewing made-up sexually mature faces, greater alcohol consumption itself did not lead to overestimation of age. Although alcohol limited the processing of maturity cues in female observers, it had no effect on the age perceptions of males viewing female faces, suggesting male mate preferences are not easily disrupted. Participants consistently overestimated the age of sexually immature- and sexually mature-faces by an average of 3.5 years. Our study suggests that even heavy alcohol consumption does not interfere with age-perception tasks in men, so is not of itself an excuse for apparent mistaken age in cases of unlawful sex with a minor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000712608X357858DOI Listing
May 2009

Sexual offenders against children: the influence of personality and obsessionality on cognitive distortions.

Sex Abuse 2005 Jul;17(3):223-40

Department of Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Sexual offenders against children are generally inadequate in their social functioning and diverse in their psychopathology. The degree to which this inadequate functioning and psychopathology influences therapeutic interventions brings into question the belief that generic nonclinical programmatic treatment work is always appropriate for such a cohort. The Sex Offenders Assessment Package (SOAP) measures inadequate social functioning and sexual deviance, but has not been linked to broader individual differences and generic psychopathology. We collected information examining the relationship between the SOAP and standard measures of personality (the NEO-FFI) and obsessive-compulsiveness (MOCI) in a sample of 200 sexual offenders against children seen by the Probation Service. Factor analysis was used to reduce the SOAP to three reliable factors: emotional distress, cognitions supporting sex with children, and concern for others. These factors correlated respectively with higher Neuroticism and lower Extroversion; greater obsessive-compulsiveness on the MOCI, and trait Agreeableness, irrespective of whether or not one corrected for socially desirable responding. When partial correlation controlled for the influence of Neuroticism on the correlation between cognitions supporting sex with children and the MOCI, there was no change in the association between these variables. These results show that negative affect and obsessional tendencies are important underlying influences on the feelings and behavior of sexual offenders, that the obsessionality of the group is not attributable to Neuroticism, and suggest useful additional foci to enhance the treatment of this diverse clinical group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107906320501700301DOI Listing
July 2005

Case history of co-morbid Asperger's syndrome and paraphilic behaviour.

Med Sci Law 2002 Jul;42(3):237-44

East Midlands Centre for Forensic Mental Health, Arnold Lodge, Cordelia Close, Leicester LE5 0LE.

We report a case of a man with Asperger's syndrome, paraphilic behaviour and convictions for sexual offences. We describe his assessment within a secure mental health setting to determine issues of diagnosis, treatment and risk. We also highlight the difficulty in reducing the risk of further offending because of the apparent ineffectiveness of interventions for the small group with Asperger's syndrome and an offending history. Consequently, they are likely to face long periods in institutional settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002580240204200308DOI Listing
July 2002