Publications by authors named "Vincent Di Martino"

116 Publications

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with hepatic angiomyolipoma: A literature review.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 May;27(19):2299-2311

Department of Hepatology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besançon 25030, France.

First reported in 1976, hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is a rare mesenchymal liver tumor occurring mostly in middle-aged women. Diagnosis of the liver mass is often incidental on abdominal imaging due to the frequent absence of specific symptoms. Nearly 10% of HAMLs are associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. HAML contains variable proportions of blood vessels, smooth muscle cells and adipose tissue, which renders radiological diagnosis hazardous. Cells express positivity for HMB-45 and actin, thus these tumors are integrated into the group of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors. Typically, a HAML appears on magnetic resonance imaging (or computed tomography scan) as a hypervascular solid tumor with fatty areas and with washout, and can easily be misdiagnosed as other liver tumors, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma. The therapeutic strategy is not clearly defined, but surgical resection is indicated for symptomatic patients, for tumors showing an aggressive pattern (, changes in size on imaging or high proliferation activity and atypical epithelioid pattern on liver biopsy), for large (> 5 cm) biopsy-proven HAML, and if doubts remain on imaging or histology. Conservative management may be justified in other conditions, since most cases follow a benign clinical course. In summary, the correct diagnosis of HAML is challenging on imaging and relies mainly on pathological findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v27.i19.2299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130035PMC
May 2021

Decreased maximal cortisol secretion rate in patients with cirrhosis: Relation to disease severity.

JHEP Rep 2021 Jun 19;3(3):100277. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background & Aims: Hepatic enzymes play a major role in the metabolic elimination of cortisol, and reduced rates of cortisol clearance have been consistently observed in patients with chronic liver disease. It is less clear whether there are concomitant abnormalities of adrenocortical function in patients with cirrhosis. In the present study, we sought to assess adrenocortical function in patients with cirrhosis using measures of free cortisol appearance and elimination rates that are independent of serum concentrations of cortisol binding proteins.

Methods: analysis used computer-assisted numerical and modelling methods with serial total and free cortisol concentration data to obtain rates of free cortisol appearance and elimination. Rate parameters were obtained in 114 patients with chronic liver disease, including Child-Pugh (CP) ≤8 (n = 53) and CP >8 (n = 61).

Results: Maximal cortisol secretion rate (CSR) was significantly decreased ( = 0.01) in patients with cirrhosis with CP >8 (0.28 nM/s; 95% CI 0.24-0.34) compared with those with CP ≤8 (0.39 nM/s; 95% CI 0.33-0.46), and CSR was negatively correlated with CP score (r = -0.19,  = 0.01). Free cortisol elimination rate was significantly ( = 0.04) decreased in the CP >8 group (0.16 ± 0.20 min) compared with that in the CP ≤8 group (0.21 ± 0.21 min), and free cortisol elimination rates were negatively correlated with CP score (r = -0.23,  = 0.01). A significant correlation between CSR and free cortisol elimination rate (r = 0.88, <0.001) was observed.

Conclusions: CSR and free cortisol elimination rates were significantly reduced according to severity of cirrhosis. In contrast to stimulated total cortisol concentrations, CSR estimates were independent of cortisol-binding protein concentrations. Results provide additional evidence of subnormal adrenocortical function in patients with cirrhosis.

Lay Summary: We applied numerical analytic methods to characterise adrenocortical function in patients with varying stages of chronic liver disease. We found that patients with more severe cirrhosis have decreased rate of free cortisol elimination and decreased maximal cortisol secretion rate, which is a measure of adrenocortical function. In contrast to conventional measures of adrenocortical function, those obtained using numerical methods were not affected by variation in corticosteroid binding globulin and albumin concentrations. We conclude that patients with cirrhosis demonstrate measurable abnormalities of adrenocortical function, evidence of which supports aspects of the hepatoadrenal syndrome hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2021.100277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121968PMC
June 2021

The Current Status of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor to Treat Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 08 15;41(3):298-307. Epub 2021 May 15.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine II, Leipzig University Medical Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) have a devastating prognosis and therapeutic options are limited. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes immune and stem cells and possess immune-modulatory and proregenerative capacities. In this review, we aim to define the current evidence for the treatment with G-CSF in end-stage liver disease. Several smaller clinical trials in patients with different severity grades of end-stage liver disease have shown that G-CSF improves survival and reduces the rate of complications. Adequately powered multicenter European trials could not confirm these beneficial effects. In mouse models of ACLF, G-CSF increased the toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory response which led to an increase in mortality. Adding a TLR4 signaling inhibitor allowed G-CSF to unfold its proregenerative properties in these ACLF models. These data suggest that G-CSF requires a noninflammatory environment to exert its protective properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1723034DOI Listing
August 2021

Small Annexin V-Positive Platelet-Derived Microvesicles Affect Prognosis in Cirrhosis: A Longitudinal Study.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 04 28;12(5):e00333. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, INSERM, Etablissement Français du Sang Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR 1098, Interactions Hôte-Greffon-Tumeur/Ingénierie Cellulaire et Génique, LipSTIC LabEx, Etablissement Français du Sang Bourgogne Franche-Comté, INSERM, CIC-1431, Plateforme de BioMonitoring, Besançon, France.

Introduction: Microvesicles (MVs) with procoagulant properties may favor liver parenchymal extinction, then cirrhosis-related complications and mortality. In a longitudinal cohort of cirrhotic patients, we measured plasma levels of platelet-derived MVs (PMVs), endothelial-derived MVs, and red blood cell-derived MVs, expressing phosphatidylserine (annexin V-positive [AV+]) or not, and evaluated their impact on Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and transplant-free survival.

Methods: MVs were quantified using flow cytometry in plasma from 90 noninfected cirrhotic patients and 10 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. Impact of plasma microvesicle levels on 6-month transplant-free survival was assessed using log-rank tests and logistic regression.

Results: Microvesicle levels, mostly platelet-derived, were 2.5-fold higher in healthy volunteers compared with cirrhotic patients. Circulating small AV+ PMV levels were lower in cirrhotic patients (P = 0.014) and inversely correlated with MELD scores (R = -0.28; P = 0.0065). During 1-year follow-up, 8 patients died and 7 underwent liver transplantation. In the remaining patients, circulating microvesicle levels did not change significantly. Six-month transplant-free survival was lower in patients with low baseline small AV+ PMV levels (72.6% vs 96.2%; P = 0.0007). In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, ascites, esophageal varices, encephalopathy, clinical decompensation, total platelet counts, MELD score, and/or Child-Pugh C stage, patients with lower small AV+ PMV levels had a significant 5- to 8-fold higher risk of 6-month death or liver transplant. Other PMV levels did not impact on survival.

Discussion: Decreased circulating small AV+ PMV levels are associated with significantly lower transplant-free survival in cirrhotic patients independently of MELD score and platelet counts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084097PMC
April 2021

A pragmatic non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease receiving methotrexate therapy.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2020 Jan-Jun;44S:100003. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Service d'hépatologie et de soins intensifs digestifs, CHRU Jean-Minjoz, 25030 Besançon cedex, France.

Background And Aims: The reported hepatotoxicity of methotrexate underlines the need for a repeated non-invasive and reliable evaluation of liver fibrosis. We estimated, using a non-invasive strategy, the prevalence of significant liver fibrosis in patients treated by methotrexate and the predictors of significant fibrosis (fibrosis≥F2).

Methods: Fibrosis was prospectively evaluated using 9 non-invasive tests in consecutive patients with psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, or Crohn's disease. Significant fibrosis was assessed without liver biopsy by defining a "specific method" (result given by the majority of the tests) and a "sensitive method" (at least one test indicating a stage≥F2).

Results: One hundred and thirty-one patients (66 Psoriasis, 40 rheumatoid arthritis, and 25 Crohn's disease) were enrolled, including 83 receiving methotrexate. Seven tests were performed on average per patient, with a complete concordance in 75% of cases. Fibroscan® was interpretable in only 61% of patients. The best performances (AUROC>0.9) for predicting significant fibrosis were obtained by tests dedicated to steatohepatitis (FibroMeter NAFLD, NFS and FPI). The prevalence of fibrosis≥F2 according to the "specific" or the "sensitive" assessment of fibrosis was 10% and 28%, respectively. Methotrexate exposure did not influence the fibrosis stage. Factors independently associated with significant fibrosis according our "sensitive method" were age, male gender, and metabolic syndrome.

Conclusion: We provided a non-invasive approach for identifying liver fibrosis≥F2 by using 8 biochemical tests and Fibroscan®. In this population, the risk of significant fibrosis was related to age, male gender, and presence of metabolic syndrome, but was not influenced by methotrexate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clirex.2020.100003DOI Listing
November 2021

Early liver transplantation for corticosteroid non-responders with acute severe autoimmune hepatitis: The SURFASA score.

J Hepatol 2021 06 24;74(6):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Service des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, Lille, France.

Background & Aims: In acute severe autoimmune hepatitis (AS-AIH), the optimal timing for liver transplantation (LT) remains controversial. The objectives of this study were to determine early predictive factors for a non-response to corticosteroids and to propose a score to identify patients in whom LT is urgently indicated.

Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study (2009-2016). A diagnosis of AS-AIH was based on: i) Definite or probable AIH based on the simplified IAIHG score; ii) international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.5 and/or bilirubin >200 μmol/L; iii) No previous history of AIH; iv) Histologically proven AIH. A treatment response was defined as LT-free survival at 90 days. The evolution of variables from corticosteroid initiation (day-D0) to D3 was estimated from: Δ%3 = (D3-D0)/D0.

Results: A total of 128 patients were included, with a median age of 52 (39-62) years; 72% were female. Overall survival reached 88%. One hundred and fifteen (90%) patients received corticosteroids, with a LT-free survival rate of 66% at 90 days. Under multivariate analysis, D0-INR (odds ratio [OR] 6.85; 95% CI 2.23-21.06; p <0.001), Δ%3-INR ≥0.1% (OR 6.97; 95% CI 1.59-30.46; p <0.01) and Δ%3-bilirubin ≥-8% (OR 5.14; 95% CI 1.09-24.28; p <0.04) were predictive of a non-response. The SURFASA score: -6.80+1.92∗(D0-INR)+1.94∗(Δ%3-INR)+1.64∗(Δ%3-bilirubin), created by combining these variables, was highly predictive of LT or death (AUC = 0.93) (88% specificity; 84% sensitivity) with a cut-off point of <-0.9. Below this cut-off, the chance of responding was 75%. With a score higher than 1.75, the risk of dying or being transplanted was between 85% and 100%.

Conclusion: In patients with AS-AIH, INR at the introduction of corticosteroids and the evolution of INR and bilirubin are predictive of LT or death. Within 3 days of initiating corticosteroids, the SURFASA score can identify non-responders who require a referral for LT. This score needs to be validated in a prospective cohort.

Lay Summary: The management of patients with acute severe autoimmune hepatitis is highly challenging, particularly regarding their early referral for liver transplantation. We found that international normalized ratio at the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and the evolution of international normalized ratio and bilirubin values after 3 days of therapy were highly predictive of liver transplantation or death. We are thus proposing a score that combines these variables and identifies patients in whom liver transplantation is urgently required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.12.033DOI Listing
June 2021

Subclinical proximal tubulopathy in hepatitis B: The roles of nucleot(s)ide analogue treatment and the hepatitis B virus.

World J Hepatol 2020 Dec;12(12):1326-1340

Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille 59037, France.

Background: The recommended monitoring tools for evaluating nucleot(s)ide analogue renal toxicity, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and phosphatemia, are late markers of proximal tubulopathy. Multiple early markers are available, but no consensus exists on their use.

Aim: To determine the 24 mo prevalence of subclinical proximal tubulopathy (SPT), as defined with early biomarkers, in treated untreated hepatitis B virus (HBV)-monoinfected patients.

Methods: A prospective, non-randomized, multicenter study of HBV-monoinfected patients with a low number of renal comorbidities was conducted. The patients were separated into three groups: Naïve, starting entecavir (ETV) treatment, or starting tenofovir disoproxil (TDF) treatment. Data on the early markers of SPT, the eGFR and phosphatemia, were collected quarterly. SPT was defined as a maximal tubular reabsorption of phosphate/eGFR below 0.8 mmoL/L and/or uric acid fractional excretion above 10%. The prevalence and cumulative incidence of SPT at month 24 (M24) were calculated. Quantitative data were analyzed using analyses of variance or Kruskal-Wallis tests, whereas chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used to analyze qualitative data. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for any potential confounding factors.

Results: Of the 196 patients analyzed, 138 (84 naïve, 28 starting ETV, and 26 starting TDF) had no SPT at inclusion. At M24, the prevalence of SPT was not statistically different between naïve and either treated group (21.1% 30.7%, 0.42 and 50.0% 30.7%, = 0.32 for ETV and TDF, respectively); no patient had an eGFR lower than 50 mL/min/1.73 m² or phosphatemia less than 0.48 mmoL/L. In the multivariate analysis, no explanatory variables were identified after adjustment. The cumulative incidence of SPT over 24 mo (25.5%, 13.3%, and 52.9% in the naïve, ETV, and TDF groups, respectively) tended to be higher in the TDF group the naïve group (hazard ratio: 2.283, = 0.05). SPT-free survival at M24 was 57.6%, 68.8%, and 23.5% for the naïve, ETV, and TDF groups, respectively. The median survival time without SPT, evaluated only in the TDF group, was 5.9 mo.

Conclusion: The prevalence and incidence of SPT was higher in TDF-treated patients compared to naïve patients. SPT in the naïve population suggests that HBV can induce renal tubular toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v12.i12.1326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772739PMC
December 2020

Relevance of platelet-derived microvesicles in cirrhosis: The debate remains open.

J Hepatol 2021 02 2;74(2):488-490. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Service d'hépatologie et EA 4266, CHU Jean Minjoz et Université de Franche Comté, 25000 Besançon, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.10.029DOI Listing
February 2021

Fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 11 11;52(9):1503-1515. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Dijon, France.

Background: Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism have been reported in cirrhosis, but the role of FAs in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. Biomarkers are a promising means to explore the associations between exogenous intake or endogenous production of FAs and cancer risk.

Aim: To estimate the relationship between fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes and HCC risk in cirrhotic patients METHODS: The "CiRCE" case-control study recruited cirrhotic patients from six French hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Cases were cirrhotic patients with HCC (n = 349); controls were cirrhotic patients without HCC at inclusion (n = 550). FA composition of phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes was determined by high performance gas chromatography. Odds ratios for HCC risk according to FA concentrations were estimated with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: HCC patients were older and more often men (P < 0.001). In both groups, saturated FAs represented more than 39% of all FAs in erythrocyte membranes, mono-unsaturated FAs around 14%, and polyunsaturated FAs around 46%. High levels of C15:0 + C17:0, C20:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6 and C20:2 n-6 were associated with higher risk of HCC. The levels of C18:0 and C20:4 n-6 were lower in HCC cases than in controls.

Conclusions: The FA composition of erythrocyte membranes differed according to the presence of HCC with higher levels of saturated FAs, linoleic and eicosadienoic acids, and lower levels of stearic and arachidonic acids. These alterations may reflect particular dietary patterns and/or altered FA metabolism. Further investigations are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16022DOI Listing
November 2020

Personalized surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis - using machine learning adapted to HCV status.

J Hepatol 2020 12 29;73(6):1434-1445. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier de La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service d'Hépatologie, Paris.

Background & Aims: Refining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance programs requires improved individual risk prediction. Thus, we aimed to develop algorithms based on machine learning approaches to predict the risk of HCC more accurately in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, according to their virological status.

Methods: Patients with compensated biopsy-proven HCV-related cirrhosis from the French ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort were included in a semi-annual HCC surveillance program. Three prognostic models for HCC occurrence were built, using (i) Fine-Gray regression as a benchmark, (ii) single decision tree (DT), and (iii) random survival forest for competing risks survival (RSF). Model performance was evaluated from C-indexes validated externally in the ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort (n = 668 enrolled between 08/2012-01/2014).

Results: Out of 836 patients analyzed, 156 (19%) developed HCC and 434 (52%) achieved sustained virological response (SVR) (median follow-up 63 months). Fine-Gray regression models identified 6 independent predictors of HCC occurrence in patients before SVR (past excessive alcohol intake, genotype 1, elevated AFP and GGT, low platelet count and albuminemia) and 3 in patients after SVR (elevated AST, low platelet count and shorter prothrombin time). DT analysis confirmed these associations but revealed more complex interactions, yielding 8 patient groups with varying cancer risks and predictors depending on SVR achievement. On RSF analysis, the most important predictors of HCC varied by SVR status (non-SVR: platelet count, GGT, AFP and albuminemia; SVR: prothrombin time, ALT, age and platelet count). Externally validated C-indexes before/after SVR were 0.64/0.64 [Fine-Gray], 0.60/62 [DT] and 0.71/0.70 [RSF].

Conclusions: Risk factors for hepatocarcinogenesis differ according to SVR status. Machine learning algorithms can refine HCC risk assessment by revealing complex interactions between cancer predictors. Such approaches could be used to develop more cost-effective tailored surveillance programs.

Lay Summary: Patients with HCV-related cirrhosis must be included in liver cancer surveillance programs, which rely on ultrasound examination every 6 months. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening is hampered by sensitivity issues, leading to late cancer diagnoses in a substantial number of patients. Refining surveillance periodicity and modality using more sophisticated imaging techniques such as MRI may only be cost-effective in patients with the highest HCC incidence. Herein, we demonstrate how machine learning algorithms (i.e. data-driven mathematical models to make predictions or decisions), can refine individualized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.052DOI Listing
December 2020

Sustained Remission After Treatment Withdrawal in Autoimmune Hepatitis: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 06 30;66(6):2107-2117. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Reims University Hospital, 51092, Reims, France.

Background: In patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), relapse rates between 25 and 100% after treatment withdrawal have been reported. The optimal strategy for immunosuppressive treatment withdrawal is controversial.

Aim: To identify the predictive factors of histological remission and to assess the relapse rate after treatment withdrawal in AIH patients with prolonged biochemical response.

Methods: Patients with AIH and sustained biochemical remission on first-line treatment were retrospectively included. Histological response was defined as complete regression of interface hepatitis and lobular necrosis and no or minimal portal inflammation and relapse as any elevation of serum aminotransferase or gammaglobulin/IgG levels.

Results: Sixty-two patients were included. Forty-seven had a biopsy after a median biochemical response of 49.7 months. Twenty-five of them were histological responders. Independent predictors of histological remission were older age (OR = 1.1; CI 95%: 1.0; 1.2), mild-to-moderate fibrosis at diagnosis (OR = 8; CI: 1.4; 47.6) and aspartate aminotransferases < 0.6 × ULN (OR = 7.1; CI: 1.3; 36.7). Thirty-nine patients stopped therapy after a median biochemical response of 48.6 months. Twenty-four of them had a biopsy before treatment withdrawal: 21 were histological responders. The cumulative rate of relapse was 25% at 64 months.

Conclusions: This study indicates that older age, mild-to-moderate fibrosis at diagnosis and serum aspartate aminotransferases in the lower range of normal are independent predictors of histological response in AIH with prolonged biochemical response. The relapse rate after treatment withdrawal may be limited to 25% at 64 months when patients are selected on the basis of prolonged biochemical remission and, when available, histological response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06444-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Safety of TNF inhibitors in rheumatic disease in case of NAFLD and cirrhosis.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 08 11;50(4):544-548. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Rheumatology, CHRU Besançon - France; EA 4266 "Pathogens and inflammation, EPILAB", Université Bourgogne - Franche Comte, UFR SMP, Besançon, France.

The management of inflammatory rheumatic diseases has substantially changed in recent years, as has the profile of patients. The advent of biotherapies has been a revolution in rheumatology and the impact of co-morbidities in the management of these patients is now becoming increasingly important. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the most frequent comorbidities, and hepatic complications of MetS are not uncommon. MetS is responsible for Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by excessive hepatic fat accumulation. In extreme cases, progression to cirrhosis is possible. NAFLD ranks among the top three indications for liver transplantation. We review available data on the safety, especially the risk of infections, of TNF inhibitors (TNFi) in case of NAFLD and in case of liver cirrhosis, in patients with rheumatic disease. In cases of NAFLD without severe fibrosis, available data are reassuring and tend to show a beneficial effect of TNFi on hepatic tissue. In case of cirrhosis, data are conflicting. Further large, well-designed studies are needed to explore this specific issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.03.013DOI Listing
August 2020

Phase 3, Multicenter Open-Label study to investigate the efficacy of elbasvir and grazoprevir fixed-dose combination for 8 weeks in treatment-naïve, HCV GT1b-infected patients, with non-severe fibrosis.

Liver Int 2020 08 1;40(8):1853-1859. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Service de médecine digestive et hépato-biliaire CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: Genotype 1b is the most common HCV genotype worldwide, accounting for the largest proportion of infections in Europe, Russia, Latin America and Asia. Reducing treatment duration can improve adherence, reduce drug exposure and cost. Accordingly, we evaluated the efficacy of 8 weeks fixed-dose combination of grazoprevir-elbasvir in treatment-naïve patients, with non-severe fibrosis.

Methods: HCV mono-infected and treatment naïve patients with non-severe fibrosis (Fibroscan <9.5 kPa and Fibrotest  < 0.59) were enrolled in a study which included 117 patients. Genotyping by sequencing identified five patients with non-1b genotype (two GT1a, one GT1h, one GT1e and one GT1l). Thus, we included in the final analysis 112 GT1b patients. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with HCVRNA below the lower limit of quantification 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12).

Findings: Mean age was 54 ± 13 years, 31% were men and viral load was higher than 800.000 IU/mL in 70 of 112 patients (63%). Using Fibroscan , 100 had F0-1 fibrosis score. FIB-4 lower than 1.45 and APRI less than 1 was found in 74/112 (66%) and 107/112 (95%) patients respectively. Relapse occurred in three patients by week 12. These three patients had a viral load higher than 6 million IU/mL and NS5A Y93H RAS (resistance-associated substitution). Then, modified intention-to-treat SVR12 for patients with genotype 1b was 109/112 (97%). By week 24; five relapses were observed and all had the Y93H RAS at relapse. SVR12 was achieved in 100% of patients with a baseline viral load below 6 million and decreased to 98% (98/100) by follow-up week 24.

Interpretation: Naïve patients with genotype 1b and non-severe fibrosis can achieve an SVR12 of 97% and an SVR24 of 95%. Then, these patients can be treated with grazoprevir-elbasvir for 8 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14502DOI Listing
August 2020

Polymyalgia rheumatica occurrence under multikinase inhibitors (sorafenib and erlotinib) treatment.

Joint Bone Spine 2019 Oct 27;86(5):663-664. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Service de rhumatologie, CHRU de Besançon, 25030 Besançon, France; EA 4266 "pathogens and inflammation/EPILAB" université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 25000 Besançon, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2019.03.005DOI Listing
October 2019

Validation of Baveno VI Criteria for Screening and Surveillance of Esophageal Varices in Patients With Compensated Cirrhosis and a Sustained Response to Antiviral Therapy.

Gastroenterology 2019 03 13;156(4):997-1009.e5. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Hôpital Trousseau, Unité d'Hépatologie, CHRU de Tours.

Background & Aims: Management of patients with cirrhosis includes endoscopic screening and surveillance to detect esophageal varices (EV) and prevent bleeding. However, the Baveno VI guidelines recommend avoiding endoscopies for patients with liver stiffness measurements below 20 kPa and platelet counts above 150,000 (favorable Baveno VI status) and endoscopic assessment of patients with higher levels of liver stiffness and platelet counts (unfavorable Baveno VI status). We aimed to validate the Baveno VI guidelines, evaluating outcomes of patients in the ANRS-CO12 CirVir cohort with compensated cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, with or without a sustained response to antiviral therapy.

Methods: We performed an ancillary study using data from 891 patients in the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort, treated at 35 centers in France, with HCV or HBV infection and biopsy-proven cirrhosis, Child-Pugh A scores, no previous complications, and no hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent an endoscopic procedure and had interpretable liver stiffness measurements and platelet counts. Progression of portal hypertension (PHT) was defined as the onset of varices needing treatment (VNT) or PHT-related bleeding. An sustained response to antiviral therapy was defined as undetectable level of HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction assay (<50 IU/mL) 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR) or an undetectable level of HBV DNA. The primary aims were to validate the Baveno VI guidelines for screening and surveillance of EV in patients with compensated cirrhosis and to study the effects of an SVR on the progression of PHT.

Results: A total of 200 patients achieved an SVR (22.4%) (94 patients with HCV infection, 98 patients with HBV infection, and 8 patients with both); 80 of these patients had favorable Baveno VI status and none had VNT. Progression of PHT was studied in 548 patients; during a follow-up period of 61.2 months (interquartile range, 39.5-80.6 months), 105 of these patients (19.1%) had progression of PHT. Lack of an SVR and grade 1 EV were independently associated with progression of PHT. At the time of PHT progression, all patients had unfavorable Baveno VI status. Achieving favorable Baveno VI status after an SVR was associated with the absence of PHT progression. Favorable Baveno VI status and SVR were independently associated with survival.

Conclusions: In an analysis of data from a large cohort of patients with HBV- or HCV-associated cirrhosis in France, we validated the Baveno VI guidelines on screening and surveillance of PHT, even for patients who achieved a sustained response to antiviral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.11.053DOI Listing
March 2019

Impact of Cytomegalovirus Infection on the Outcome of Patients With Cirrhosis: A Preliminary Study.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2019 03;53(3):236-241

Hepatology Department.

Goals: The aims of this study were to evaluate whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-related mortality in cirrhotic patients.

Background: In cirrhotic patients, the determinants of HCC and liver-related death are imperfectly known. CMV infection, by its prooncogenic and proinflammatory properties, may favor both the development of HCC and deleterious systemic inflammation.

Study: In the 1178 patients included between June 2008 and December 2012 in the CIrrhose et Risque de Carcinome Hépatocellulaire dans le grand-Est (CIRCE) study, a French multicenter case-control study designed to identify risk factors of HCC among cirrhotic patients, we identified 432 patients with interpretable CMV serological status at baseline. They included 159 cases with HCC and 273 controls. We measured factors associated with HCC at baseline and subsequent HCC in controls, and predictors of overall and liver-related death in the whole study population.

Results: During a median follow-up of 31 months, 25 cases of HCC developed in controls, and 209 deaths (163 liver-related) were recorded. There were 247 (57.2%) CMV-seropositive patients. CMV seropositivity was not associated with more frequent HCC at baseline or during follow-up, but among CMV-positive patients with HCC, the proportion of multinodular, infiltrative, or metastatic tumors at diagnosis was higher (73.8% vs. 57.3%; P=0.029), inducing higher mortality (74% vs. 52% at 3 years; P=0.004). By Cox-regression adjusted for age, gender, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, HCC at baseline, and diabetes, CMV seropositivity independently predicted all-cause (hazard ratio=1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.94; P=0.013) and liver-related mortality (hazard ratio=1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.30; P=0.031).

Conclusions: In this preliminary study, CMV-seropositive cirrhotic patients were at higher risk of liver-related death caused by more aggressive HCCs or severe cirrhosis complications. These findings warrant confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001039DOI Listing
March 2019

Effects of Long-term Norfloxacin Therapy in Patients With Advanced Cirrhosis.

Gastroenterology 2018 12 23;155(6):1816-1827.e9. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Beaujon, Département Hospitalo-Universitaire UNITY, Service d'Hépatologie, Clichy, France.

Background & Aims: There is debate over the effects of long-term oral fluoroquinolone therapy in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment with the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin on survival of patients with cirrhosis.

Methods: We performed a double-blind trial of 291 patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis who had not received recent fluoroquinolone therapy. The study was performed at 18 clinical sites in France from April 2010 through November 2014. Patients were randomly assigned to groups given 400 mg norfloxacin (n = 144) or placebo (n = 147) once daily for 6 months. Patients were evaluated monthly for the first 6 months and at 9 months and 12 months thereafter. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality, estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, censoring spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, liver transplantation, or loss during follow-up.

Results: The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 6-month mortality was 14.8% for patients receiving norfloxacin and 19.7% for patients receiving placebo (P = .21). In competing risk analysis that took liver transplantation into account, the cumulative incidence of death at 6 months was significantly lower in the norfloxacin group than in the placebo group (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.99). The subdistribution hazard ratio for death at 6 months with norfloxacin vs placebo was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.93) in patients with ascites fluid protein concentrations <15 g/L and 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-4.57) in patients with ascites fluid protein concentrations ≥15 g/L. Norfloxacin significantly decreased the incidence of any and Gram-negative bacterial infections without increasing infections caused by Clostridium difficile or multiresistant bacteria.

Conclusions: In a randomized controlled trial of patients with advanced cirrhosis without recent fluoroquinolone therapy, norfloxacin did not reduce 6-month mortality, estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Norfloxacin, however, appears to increase survival of patients with low ascites fluid protein concentrations. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01037959.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.08.026DOI Listing
December 2018

What Is the True Relationship Between Spontaneous Portosystemic Shunts and Portopulmonary Hypertension in Cirrhotic Patients?

Gastroenterology 2018 11 15;155(5):1647-1648. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Service d'Hépatologie et de Soins Intensifs Digestifs, Hôpital Jean Minjoz, Besançon Cedex, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.02.047DOI Listing
November 2018

Accuracy of calprotectin using the Quantum Blue Reader for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhosis.

Hepatol Res 2019 Jan 4;49(1):72-81. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Hepatology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France.

Aim: We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the dosage of calprotectin in ascitic fluid (AF) using the Quantum Blue assay, for the prompt diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP).

Methods: We prospectively collected 236 AF samples from 119 cirrhotic patients hospitalized in two French centers between May 2016 and May 2017. Bloody and chylous/cloudy AF, and secondary peritonitis were excluded. SBP was diagnosed if neutrophils in AF were >250/mm using standard cytology. The Quantum Blue Reader selectively measured the calprotectin antigen (MRP8/14) in 12 min within the measurable range from 0.18 to 1.80 μg/mL; values outside this range were registered as 0.17 and 1.81 μg/mL.

Results: A total of 36 AF were considered as SBP (15.2%). SBP had higher median levels of calprotectin than non-SBP (1.81 vs. 0.25 μg/mL, P < 0.001). Calprotectin levels were positively correlated with neutrophils in AF (r = 0.57, P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), but not with the Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. The optimal threshold of calprotectin to diagnose SBP was set at 1.51 μg/mL (80th percentile of calprotectin), yielding sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 86.1%, 92.0%, 65.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Only one asymptomatic patient with SBP had a low calprotectin level, but a high serum C-reactive protein level that strongly suggested an ongoing infection. We also showed that intraclass correlation coefficients for inter- and intra-observer agreement were excellent, with 0.95 and 0.89, respectively.

Conclusions: The dosage of calprotectin in AF using the Quantum Blue assay is a rapid and reliable method of ruling out SBP in hospitalized cirrhotic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hepr.13239DOI Listing
January 2019

Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Direct Antiviral Therapy for HCV in Patients With Cirrhosis Included in Surveillance Programs.

Gastroenterology 2018 11 19;155(5):1436-1450.e6. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Hôpital de la Côte de Nacre, Service d'Hépatologie, Caen, France.

Background & Aims: Retrospective studies have found an unexpectedly high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis who received direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents. We analyzed data from the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort to compare the incidence of HCC in patients with cirrhosis who received DAA therapy vs patients treated with interferon (IFN).

Methods: Data were collected from 1270 patients with compensated biopsy-proven HCV-associated cirrhosis recruited from 2006 through 2012 at 35 centers in France. For descriptive purpose, patients were classified as follows: patients who received DAA treatment (DAA group, n = 336), patients who achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) following an IFN-based regimen (SVR-IFN group, n = 495), or patients who never received DAA treatment and never had an SVR following IFN therapy (non-SVR group, n = 439). The patients were included in HCC surveillance programs based on ultrasound examination every 6 months, and clinical and biological data were recorded. To account for confounding by indication due to differences in patient characteristics at treatment initiation, we constructed a time-dependent Cox regression model weighted by the inverse probability of treatment and censoring (IPTCW) to assess the treatment effects of DAA on time until HCC.

Results: Compared with patients in the SVR-IFN group, patients in the DAA group were older, higher proportions had diabetes or portal hypertension, and liver function was more severely impaired. The crude 3-year cumulative incidences of HCC were 5.9% in the DAA group, 3.1% in the SVR-IFN group, and 12.7% in the non-SVR group (overall P < .001; unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] for HCC 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.84; P = .030 for the DAA group vs the SVR-IFN group). HCC characteristics were similar among groups. Among patients with HCC, the DAA group received less-frequent HCC screening than the other 2 groups (P = .002). After Cox analyses weighted by the IPTCW, we found no statistically significant increase in risk of HCC associated with DAA use (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46-1.73; P = .73).

Conclusions: Analysis of data from the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort reveals that the apparent increase in HCC incidence observed in patients with cirrhosis treated with DAAs compared with patients who achieved SVR following an IFN therapy can be explained by patient characteristics (age, diabetes, reduced liver function) and lower screening intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.07.015DOI Listing
November 2018

Circulating levels of 3-hydroxymyristate, a direct quantification of endotoxaemia in noninfected cirrhotic patients.

Liver Int 2019 01 30;39(1):106-114. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Service d'Hépatologie, CHU Jean Minjoz, Besançon, France.

Background & Aims: The quantification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in biological fluids is challenging. We aimed to measure plasma LPS concentration using a new method of direct quantification of 3-hydroxymyristate (3-HM), a lipid component of LPS, and to evaluate correlations between 3-HM and markers of liver function, endothelial activation, portal hypertension and enterocyte damage.

Methods: Plasma from 90 noninfected cirrhotic patients (30 Child-Pugh [CP]-A, 30 CP-B, 30 CP-C) was prospectively collected. The concentration of 3-HM was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

Results: 3-HM levels were higher in CP-C patients (CP-A/CP-B/CP-C: 68/70/103 ng/mL, P = 0.005). Patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (n = 16; 113 vs 74 ng/mL, P = 0.012), diabetic patients (n = 22; 99 vs 70 ng/mL, P = 0.028) and those not receiving beta blockers (n = 44; 98 vs 72 ng/mL, P = 0.034) had higher levels of 3-HM. We observed a trend towards higher baseline levels of 3-HM in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (n = 7; 144 vs 76 ng/mL, P = 0.45) or SIRS (n = 10; 106 vs 75 ng/mL, P = 0.114). In multivariate analysis, high levels of 3-HM were associated with CP (OR = 4.39; 95%CI = 1.79-10.76) or MELD (OR = 8.24; 95%CI = 3.19-21.32) scores. Patients dying from liver insufficiency (n = 6) during a 12-month follow-up had higher baseline levels of 3-HM (106 vs 75 ng/mL, P = 0.089).

Conclusions: In noninfected cirrhotic patients, 3-HM arises more frequently with impairment of liver function, heavy alcohol consumption, diabetic status, nonuse of beta blockers and a trend towards poorer outcome is also observed. The direct mass measurement of LPS using 3-HM appears reliable to detect transient endotoxaemia and promising to manage the follow-up of cirrhotic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.13916DOI Listing
January 2019

Compliance With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Guidelines Associated With Increased Lead-Time Adjusted Survival of Patients With Compensated Viral Cirrhosis: A Multi-Center Cohort Study.

Gastroenterology 2018 08 3;155(2):431-442.e10. Epub 2018 May 3.

Hôpital de la Côte de Nacre, Service d'Hépatologie, Caen, France.

Background & Aims: Semi-annual surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recommended for patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine how compliance with HCC surveillance guidelines affects survival times of patients with hepatitis C virus- or hepatitis B virus-associated compensated cirrhosis who developed HCC.

Methods: We collected data from the prospective ANRS CO12 CirVir study, from March 2006 through June 2012, on 1671 patients with biopsy-proven viral cirrhosis and no previous liver complications who were undergoing surveillance for HCC at 35 centers in France. Only 216 patients who developed HCC during the follow-up period were included in the analysis. Patients were considered to be compliant with surveillance guidelines if the time between their last surveillance image evaluation and diagnosis of HCC were fewer than 7 months and noncompliant if this time was 7 months or longer.

Results: HCC was detected in 216 patients, at a median follow-up time of 59.7 months. Of these patients, 140 (80.5%) were Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0/A, 135 (69.9%) received first-line curative treatment (15 underwent transplantation, 29 underwent resection, 89 received percutaneous ablation, and 2 received resection and percutaneous ablation), and 129 (60.0%) were compliant with surveillance guidelines. Seventy-nine of the patients with HCC died; 49 deaths were associated with tumor progression. After lead-time adjustment, overall survival (OS) time was longer in patients compliant with surveillance guidelines (median OS time, 53.2 months) than noncompliant patients (median OS time, 25.4 months) (P = .0107); this difference remained significant even when we changed lead time assumptions. In multivariate analysis adjusted for a propensity score, compliance with HCC surveillance guidelines was associated with low tumor burden, allocation of curative treatment, and increased OS time compared with noncompliance (hazard ratio for OS, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-4.14; P = .0150).

Conclusions: In an analysis of data from the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort, we associated compliance with HCC surveillance guidelines (fewer than 7 months between image evaluations) with early diagnosis, allocation of curative treatment, and longer adjusted OS of patients with hepatitis C virus- or hepatitis B virus-associated compensated cirrhosis and a diagnosis of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.04.027DOI Listing
August 2018

Severe liver failure rather than cirrhosis is associated with mortality in patients with infectious endocarditis: a retrospective case-control study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 10;30(10):1216-1223

Department of Hepatology, CHRU Jean Minjoz, Besancon.

Background: Data on infectious endocarditis (IE) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are sparse. We aimed to describe the characteristics and predictors of mortality from IE in patients with LC.

Patients And Methods: Overall, 101 patients with LC and 101 controls with IE matched for sex, age, date of IE, and diabetes were retrospectively selected in 23 liver units between 2000 and 2013.

Results: Mean age was 60.8±10.5 and 60.6±11.5 years in LC and controls, respectively. Causes of cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A/B/C: 10.4%/41.7%/47.9%, MELD score: 17±7.8) were excess alcohol intake (79.6%), viral hepatitis (17.3%), and metabolic syndrome (14.3%). Previous history of cardiopathy was found in 24.8% of LC (prosthetic valve 8.9%) and 37.6% of controls (P=0.07). The most frequent bacteria involved were gram-positive cocci. LC had significantly fewer aminoglycosides (P=0.0007), rifamycin (P=0.03), and valve surgery (P=0.02) than controls. The proportion of patients who died following cardiac surgery was similar between the two groups (9.7% for LC vs. 8.7% for controls, P=1). In-hospital mortality for Child-Pugh C patients was significantly higher than controls (61.4 vs. 23%, P<0.001), but not for Child-Pugh A (33.3%) or B patients (25.0%). A Child-Pugh score of above C10 was the best predictor of in-hospital mortality. In LC, Child-Pugh score (odds ratio=1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.0; P=0.002) and history of decompensation (odds ratio=3.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-9.0; P=0.003) were independent predictive factors for in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion: Severe liver failure but not cirrhosis is the strongest predictive factor of mortality related to IE in LC. Use of aminosides and rifamycin should be reassessed in LC, and cardiac surgery should be considered for selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001155DOI Listing
October 2018

Extrahepatic cancers are the leading cause of death in patients achieving hepatitis B virus control or hepatitis C virus eradication.

Hepatology 2018 10 10;68(4):1245-1259. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Service d'Hépatologie, Hôpital d'Aix-en-Provence, Aix-En-Provence, France.

Data on extrahepatic cancers (EHCs) in compensated viral cirrhosis are limited. The objective of the prospective multicenter Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites virales CO12 CirVir cohort was to assess the occurrence of all clinical events in patients with compensated viral cirrhosis, including all types of cancer. Patients with the following inclusion criteria were enrolled in 35 French centers: (1) biopsy-proven hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis, (2) Child-Pugh A, or (3) absence of previous liver complications including primary liver cancer (PLC). Patients were followed up prospectively every 6 months. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated according to age and gender using 5-year periods. The impact of sustained viral response (SVR) in HCV patients and maintained viral suppression in HBV patients were assessed using time-dependent analysis. A total of 1,671 patients were enrolled between 2006 and 2012 (median age, 54.9 years; men, 67.3%; HCV, 1,323; HBV, 317; HCV-HBV, 31). Metabolic features and excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption were recorded in 15.2%, 36.4%, and 56.4% of cases, respectively. After a median follow-up of 59.7 months, 227 PLCs were diagnosed (5-year cumulative incidence [CumI] 13.4%) and 93 patients developed EHC (14 patients with lymphoid or related tissue cancer and 79 with solid tissue cancer; 5-year EHC CumI, 5.9%). Compared to the general French population, patients were younger at cancer diagnosis, with significantly higher risk of EHC in HCV patients (SMR, 1.31; 95 confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.64; P = 0.017) and after SVR (SMR = 1.57; 95% CI, 1.08-2.22; P = 0.013). EHC was the fourth leading cause of death in the whole cohort and the first in patients with viral control/eradication.

Conclusion: Compared to the general French population, HCV cirrhosis is associated with a higher risk of EHC and the first cause of death in patients with viral cirrhosis who achieve virological control/eradication. (Hepatology 2018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30034DOI Listing
October 2018

Prognostic value of viral eradication for major adverse cardiovascular events in hepatitis C cirrhotic patients.

Am Heart J 2018 04 7;198:4-17. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

AP-HP, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Service d'Hépatologie, Villejuif.

Background: The objective was to examine the role of a sustained virological response (SVR) on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with compensated hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis.

Methods: Patients with the following criteria were enrolled in 35 French centers: (1) biopsy-proven HCV cirrhosis; (2) Child-Pugh A; (3) positive viremia; and (4) no prior liver complication, and then prospectively followed. All patients received HCV treatment after inclusion. MACEs included stroke, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, cardiac arrest, and cardiovascular death. SVR, defined as negative viremia 12 weeks posttreatment, was considered as a time-dependent covariate, and its effect on MACE occurrence was assessed. The median follow up was 57.5 months, ending in December 2015.

Results: Sixty-two of 878 (7.1%) patients presented a total of 79 MACEs. The main predictive baseline factors of MACEs were Asian ethnic origin, history of MACEs, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, low serum albumin level, high total bilirubin level, and low platelet count. In multivariate analysis, SVR was associated with a decreased risk of MACEs (hazard ratio=0.35, 95% CI 0.09-0.97, P=.044), whereas Asian ethnic origin, arterial hypertension, smoking, and low serum albumin level remained predictive of MACE occurrence. The 5-year survival rate was 60.1% versus 87.5% in patients who did versus those who did not present a MACE (P<.001).

Conclusions: In patients with compensated HCV-related cirrhosis, Asian ethnic origin, arterial hypertension, smoking, and low serum albumin are independent predictive factors of cardiovascular events, whereas an SVR is associated with a decreased rate of cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2017.10.024DOI Listing
April 2018

12 Weeks of a Ribavirin-Free Sofosbuvir and Nonstructural Protein 5A Inhibitor Regimen Is Enough to Treat Recurrence of Hepatitis C After Liver Transplantation.

Hepatology 2018 10;68(4):1277-1287

Pharmacology Unit, CHU Rennes, Rennes, France.

Sofosbuvir (SOF) combined with nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors has demonstrated its efficacy in treating a recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) after liver transplantation (LT). However, the duration of treatment and need for ribavirin (RBV) remain unclear in this population. Our aim was to determine whether LT recipients could be treated with an SOF + NS5A inhibitor-based regimen without RBV for 12 weeks post-LT. Between October 2013 and December 2015, 699 LT recipients experiencing an HCV recurrence were enrolled in the multicenter ANRS CO23 CUPILT cohort. We selected patients receiving SOF and NS5A inhibitor ± RBV and followed for at least 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation. The primary efficacy endpoint was a sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Among these 699 patients, 512 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Their main characteristics were: 70.1% genotype 1, 18.2% genotype 3, 21.1% cirrhosis, and 34.4% previously treated patients. We identified four groups of patients according to their treatment and duration: SOF + NS5A without RBV for 12 (156 patients) or 24 (239 patients) weeks; SOF + NS5A + RBV for 12 (47 patients) or 24 (70 patients) weeks. SVR12 values reached 94.9%, 97.9%, 95.7%, and 92.9%, respectively (P = 0.14). Only 20 patients experienced a treatment failure. Under multivariate analysis, factors such as fibrosis stage, previous treatment, HCV genotype, and baseline HCV viral load did not influence SVR12 rates in the four groups (P = 0.21). Hematological adverse events (AEs) were more common in the RBV group: anemia (P < 0.0001) and blood transfusion (P = 0.0001).

Conclusion: SOF + NS5A inhibitors without RBV for 12 weeks constituted reliable therapy for recurrent HCV post-LT with an excellent SVR12 whatever the fibrosis stage, HCV genotype, and previous HCV treatment. (Hepatology 2018; 00:000-000).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.29918DOI Listing
October 2018

Cost-effectiveness analysis of elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease patients in France.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(3):e0194329. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Ile-De-France URC ECO, Department of Public Health, Henri Mondor Hospital, Créteil, France.

Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) regimen in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment.

Design: This study uses a health economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating previously untreated and treatment experienced chronic hepatitis C patients who have severe and end stage renal disease with the elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen versus no treatment in the French context. The lifetime homogeneous markovian model comprises of forty combined health states including hepatitis C virus and chronic kidney disease. The model parameters were from a multicentre randomized controlled trial, ANRS CO22 HEPATHER French cohort and literature. 1000 Monte Carlo simulations of patient health states for each treatment strategy are used for probabilistic sensitivity analysis and 95% confidence intervals calculations. The results were expressed in cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained.

Patients: The mean age of patients in the HEPATHER French cohort was 59.6 years and 56% of them were men. 22.3% of patients had a F0 fibrosis stage (no fibrosis), 24.1% a F1 stage (portal fibrosis without septa), 7.1% a F2 stage (portal fibrosis with few septa), 21.4% a F3 stage (numerous septa without fibrosis) and 25% a F4 fibrosis stage (compensated cirrhosis). Among these HCV genotype 1 patients, 30% had severe renal impairment stage 4, 33% had a severe renal insufficiency stage 5 and 37% had terminal severe renal impairment stage 5 treated by dialysis.

Intervention: Fixed-dose combination of direct-acting antiviral agents elbasvir and grazoprevir compared to no-treatment.

Results: EBR/GZR increased the number of life years (6.3 years) compared to no treatment (5.1 years) on a lifetime horizon. The total number of QALYs was higher for the new treatment because of better utility on health conditions (6.2 versus 3.7 QALYs). The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) was of €15,212 per QALY gained for the base case analysis.

Conclusions: This cost-utility model is an innovative approach that simultaneously looks at the disease evolution of chronic hepatitis C and chronic kidney disease. EBR/GZR without interferon and ribavirin, produced the greatest benefit in terms of life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in treatment-naïve or experienced patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease including dialysis patients. Based on shape of the acceptability curve, EBR/GZR can be considered cost-effective at a willingness to pay of €20,000 /QALY for patients with renal insufficiency with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194329PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5854359PMC
July 2018

Direct-acting antiviral agent-based regimen for HCV recurrence after combined liver-kidney transplantation: Results from the ANRS CO23 CUPILT study.

Am J Transplant 2017 Nov 19;17(11):2869-2878. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Liver transplant and Hepatogastroenterology Unit, CHU Saint-Eloi, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with reduced patient survival following combined liver-kidney transplantation (LKT). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of second-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in this difficult-to-treat population. The ANRS CO23 "Compassionate use of Protease Inhibitors in Viral C Liver Transplantation" (CUPILT) study is a prospective cohort including transplant recipients with recurrent HCV infection treated with DAAs. The present work focused on recipients with recurrent infection following LKT. The study population included 23 patients. All patients received at least one NS5B inhibitor (sofosbuvir) in their antiviral regimen an average of 90 months after LKT. Ninety-six percent of recipients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) at week 12 (SVR12). In terms of tolerance, 39% of recipients presented with at least one serious adverse event. None of the patients experienced acute rejection during therapy and there were no deaths during follow-up. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased significantly from baseline to the end of therapy. However, this study did not show that the decline in GFR persisted over time or that it was directly related to DAAs. The DAA-based regimen is well tolerated with excellent results in terms of efficacy. It will become the gold standard for the treatment of recurrent HCV following LKT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14490DOI Listing
November 2017

Bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis

Rev Prat 2017 Sep;67(7):740-742

Service d'hépatologie et de soins intensifs digestifs, hôpital Jean-Minjoz, Besançon, France.

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September 2017
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