Publications by authors named "Vincent Auffret"

78 Publications

Epinephrine administration in venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients is associated with mortality: a retrospective cohort study.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Pontchaillou, University Hospital of Rennes, Rennes, France.

Aims: Knowledge about the impact of epinephrine on the outcome in venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients is limited, and existing data are conflicting.

Methods And Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a 1500 bed tertiary university hospital. Five hundred and eighty-nine VA-ECMO patients were analysed. The median age was 57 years [47-65], 68% of male. The major indications for ECMO were post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock (CS) (38%) and medical CS (36%). Two hundred and sixty-two (44.5%) patients received epinephrine alone or associated with another catecholamine while on ECMO. Baseline factors significantly associated with epinephrine administration were younger age, higher sequential organ failure assessment score, cardiac arrest at implantation, and intra-aortic balloon pump support at implantation, whereas medical CS and dobutamine administration were significantly associated with a lower risk of epinephrine administration. Epinephrine administration was independently associated with death [hazard ratio = 1.68 (1.44-2.23); P < 0.01]. A sensitivity analysis with propensity score inverse probability weighting in complete cases confirmed a significant association of epinephrine administration with death [hazard ratio = 1.69 (1.43-2.00); P < 0.001].

Conclusions: Among patients who required VA-ECMO, epinephrine administration was associated with an increased risk for death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13370DOI Listing
May 2021

Stroke Complicating Infective Endocarditis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(18):2276-2287

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Stroke is one of the most common and potentially disabling complications of infective endocarditis (IE). However, scarce data exist about stroke complicating IE after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with definite IE after TAVR complicated by stroke during index IE hospitalization.

Methods: Data from the Infectious Endocarditis after TAVR International Registry (including 569 patients who developed definite IE following TAVR from 59 centers in 11 countries) was analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to stroke occurrence during IE admission (stroke [S-IE] vs. no stroke [NS-IE]).

Results: A total of 57 (10%) patients had a stroke during IE hospitalization, with no differences in causative microorganism between groups. S-IE patients exhibited higher rates of acute renal failure, systemic embolization, and persistent bacteremia (p < 0.05 for all). Previous stroke before IE, residual aortic regurgitation ≥moderate after TAVR, balloon-expandable valves, IE within 30 days after TAVR, and vegetation size >8 mm were associated with a higher risk of stroke during the index IE hospitalization (p < 0.05 for all). Stroke rate in patients with no risk factors was 3.1% and increased up to 60% in the presence of >3 risk factors. S-IE patients had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (54.4% vs. 28.7%; p < 0.001) and overall mortality at 1 year (66.3% vs. 45.6%; p < 0.001). Surgical treatment was not associated with improved outcomes in S-IE patients (in-hospital mortality: 46.2% in surgical vs. 58.1% in no surgical treatment; p = 0.47).

Conclusions: Stroke occurred in 1 of 10 patients with IE post-TAVR. A history of stroke, short time between TAVR and IE, vegetation size, valve prosthesis type, and residual aortic regurgitation determined an increased risk. The occurrence of stroke was associated with increased in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates, and surgical treatment failed to improve clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.03.233DOI Listing
May 2021

Validation and reproducibility of a short food frequency questionnaire for cardiovascular prevention.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Service de Cardiologie, Université de Rennes, CHU Rennes, Inserm, LTSI U1099, 35000 Rennes, France.

Background: Diet strongly influences cardiovascular risk. Dietary evaluation is a major issue in cardiovascular prevention, but few simple tools are available. Our team previously validated a short food frequency questionnaire; a new version of this questionnaire (Cardiovascular Dietary Questionnaire 2 [CDQ-2]) is easier to complete and more reliable.

Aims: To validate CDQ-2 in comparison with the original version, and to test its reproducibility.

Methods: CDQ-2 has 17 closed-ended questions; it provides a global dietary score that is a combination of specific scores for saturated, monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids, and fruit and vegetables. CDQ-2 was validated against the original version in two groups, who completed both questionnaires: 99 patients with cardiovascular risk factors and 50 healthy subjects. Reproducibility was assessed with 27 health professionals who completed the questionnaire twice, with a 1-month interval.

Results: The correlation coefficients of the scores between the two questionnaires ranged from 0.65 (monounsaturated fatty acids) to 0.93 (fruit and vegetables) (all P<0.001). The percentage of subjects classified in the same quartile by both questionnaires ranged from 56% (omega-3 fatty acids) to 78% (fruit and vegetables). The percentage of subjects classified in the same or adjacent quartile ranged from 91% to 99%. The intraclass correlation coefficients, which assessed reproducibility, ranged from 0.61 (fruit and vegetables) to 0.88 (saturated fatty acids) (P<0.001).

Conclusions: This new version of the short dietary questionnaire shows good reproducibility and correlations with the original version; use and reliability are improved, which makes CDQ-2 a valuable tool for cardiovascular prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.12.008DOI Listing
April 2021

ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(17):2187-2199

Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Among patients with acute coronary syndrome following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), those presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are at highest risk.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of STEMI after TAVR.

Methods: This was a multicenter study including 118 patients presenting with STEMI at a median of 255 days (interquartile range: 9 to 680 days) after TAVR. Procedural features of STEMI after TAVR managed with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were compared with all-comer STEMI: 439 non-TAVR patients who had primary PCI within the 2 weeks before and after each post-TAVR STEMI case in 5 participating centers from different countries.

Results: Median door-to-balloon time was higher in TAVR patients (40 min [interquartile range: 25 to 57 min] vs. 30 min [interquartile range: 25 to 35 min]; p = 0.003). Procedural time, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product, and contrast volume were also higher in TAVR patients (p < 0.01 for all). PCI failure occurred more frequently in patients with previous TAVR (16.5% vs. 3.9%; p < 0.001), including 5 patients in whom the culprit lesion was not revascularized owing to coronary ostia cannulation failure. In-hospital and late (median of 7 months [interquartile range: 1 to 21 months]) mortality rates were 25.4% and 42.4%, respectively (20.6% and 38.2% in primary PCI patients), and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42 to 6.43; p = 0.004), Killip class ≥2 (HR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.37 to 5.49; p = 0.004), and PCI failure (HR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.42 to 7.31; p = 0.005) determined an increased risk.

Conclusions: STEMI after TAVR was associated with very high in-hospital and mid-term mortality. Longer door-to-balloon times and a higher PCI failure rate were observed in TAVR patients, partially due to coronary access issues specific to the TAVR population, and this was associated with poorer outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.03.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Electrophysiological Study-Guided Permanent Pacemaker Implantation in Patients With Conduction Disturbances Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Univ Rennes, CHU Rennes, Inserm, LTSI - UMR1099, F 35000 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

Conduction disturbances remain common following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Aside from high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB), their optimal management remains elusive. Invasive electrophysiological studies (EPS) may help stratify patients at low or high risk of HAVB allowing for an early discharge or permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation among patients with conduction disturbances. We evaluated the safety and diagnostic performances of an EPS-guided PPM implantation strategy among TAVI recipients with conduction disturbances not representing absolute indications for PPM. All patients who underwent TAVI at a single expert center from June 2017 to July 2020 who underwent an EPS during the index hospitalization were included in the present study. False negative outcomes were defined as patients discharged without PPM implantation who required PPM for HAVB within 6 months of the initial EPS. False positive outcomes were defined as patients discharged with a PPM with a ventricular pacing percentage <1% at follow-up. A total of 78 patients were included (median age 83.5, 39% female), among whom 35 patients (45%) received a PPM following EPS. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the EPS-guided PPM implantation strategy were 100%, 89.6%, 81.5%, and 100%, respectively. Six patients suffered a mechanical HAVB during EPS and received a PPM. These 6 patients showed PPM dependency at follow-up. In conclusion, an EPS-guided PPM implantation strategy for managing post-TAVI conduction disturbances appears effective to identify patients who can be safely discharged without PPM implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.03.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Temporal Trends, Characteristics, and Outcomes of Infective Endocarditis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Procedural improvements combined with the contemporary clinical profile of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may have influenced the incidence and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) following TAVR. We aimed to determine the temporal trends, characteristics, and outcomes of IE post-TAVR.

Methods: Observational study including 552 patients presenting definite IE post-TAVR. Patients were divided in 2 groups according to the timing of TAVR (historical cohort [HC]: before 2014; contemporary cohort [CC]: after 2014).

Results: Overall incidence rates of IE were similar in both cohorts (CC vs HC: 5.45 vs 6.52 per 1000 person-years; P = .12), but the rate of early IE was lower in the CC (2.29‰ vs 4.89‰, P < .001). Enterococci were the most frequent microorganism. Most patients presented complicated IE ( CC: 67.7%; HC: 69.6%; P = .66), but the rate of surgical treatment remained low (CC: 20.7%; HC: 17.3%; P = .32). The CC exhibited lower rates of in-hospital acute kidney injury (35.1% vs 44.6%; P = .036) and in-hospital (26.6% vs 36.4%; P = .016) and 1-year (37.8% vs 53.5%; P < .001) mortality. Higher logistic EuroScore, Staphylococcus aureus etiology, and complications (stroke, heart failure, and acute renal failure) were associated with in-hospital mortality in multivariable analyses (P < .05 for all).

Conclusions: Although overall IE incidence has remained stable, the incidence of early IE has declined in recent years. The microorganism, high rate of complications, and very low rate of surgical treatment remained similar. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were high but progressively decreased over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1941DOI Listing
March 2021

Oral Anticoagulation Continuation Throughout TAVR: High Risk-High Reward or Marginal Gains?

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 01 23;14(2):145-148. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Université de Rennes 1, CHU Rennes Service de Cardiologie, Inserm LTSI U1099, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.10.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Percutaneous Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation With the PASCAL Device: A Full Grasp of the Pathology?

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 12;13(23):2779-2781

Univ Rennes, CHU Rennes, Inserm, LTSI - UMR 1099, Rennes, France; CHU Rennes, Service de Cardiologie, Rennes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.09.057DOI Listing
December 2020

Similarity measures and attribute selection for case-based reasoning in transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(9):e0238463. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Univ Rennes, CHU Rennes, Inserm, LTSI-UMR 1099, Rennes, France.

In a clinical decision support system, the purpose of case-based reasoning is to help clinicians make convenient decisions for diagnoses or interventional gestures. Past experience, which is represented by a case-base of previous patients, is exploited to solve similar current problems using four steps-retrieve, reuse, revise, and retain. The proposed case-based reasoning has been focused on transcatheter aortic valve implantation to respond to clinical issues pertaining vascular access and prosthesis choices. The computation of a relevant similarity measure is an essential processing step employed to obtain a set of retrieved cases from a case-base. A hierarchical similarity measure that is based on a clinical decision tree is proposed to better integrate the clinical knowledge, especially in terms of case representation, case selection and attributes weighting. A case-base of 138 patients is used to evaluate the case-based reasoning performance, and retrieve- and reuse-based criteria have been considered. The sensitivity for the vascular access and the prosthesis choice is found to 0.88 and 0.94, respectively, with the use of the hierarchical similarity measure as opposed to 0.53 and 0.79 for the standard similarity measure. Ninety percent of the suggested solutions are correctly classified for the proposed metric when four cases are retrieved. Using a dedicated similarity measure, with relevant and weighted attributes selected through a clinical decision tree, the set of retrieved cases, and consequently, the decision suggested by the case-based reasoning are substantially improved over state-of-the-art similarity measures.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238463PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470320PMC
October 2020

Determinants and Impact of Heart Failure Readmission Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 07;13(7):e008959

Université de Rennes 1, CHU Rennes Service de Cardiologie, Inserm LTSI U1099, F 35000 Rennes, France (V.A., A.B., G.L., M.B., E.D., E.G., A.L., S.S., M.L.G., D.B., H.L.B.).

Background: Heart failure (HF) readmission is common post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Nonetheless, limited data are available regarding its predictors and clinical impact. This study evaluated the incidence, predictors, and impact of HF readmission within 1-year post-TAVR, and assessed the effects of the prescription of HF therapies at discharge on the risk of HF readmission and death.

Methods: Patients included in the TAVR registry of a single expert center from 2009 to 2017 were analyzed. Competing-risk and Cox regressions were performed to identify predictors of HF readmission and death.

Results: Among 750 patients, 102 (13.6%) were readmitted for HF within 1-year post-TAVR. Overall, 53 patients (7.1%) experienced late readmissions (>30 days post-TAVR), and 17 (2.3%) had multiple readmissions. In ≈30% of readmissions, no trigger could be identified. Predominant causes of readmissions were changes in medication/nonadherence and supraventricular arrhythmia. Independent predictors of HF readmission included diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, previous acute HF, grade III or IV aortic regurgitation, and pulmonary hypertension both at discharge from the index hospitalization but not HF therapies. Overall, HF readmission did not significantly impact all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36 [95% CI, 0.99-1.85]). However, late (HR, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.30-2.78]) and multiple HF readmissions (HR, 2.10 [95% CI,1.17-3.76]) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Prescription of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors at discharge was associated with a lower rate of all-cause mortality, especially among patients receiving doses of 25% to <50% (HR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.48-0.94]) and 75% to 100% (HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.37-0.98]) of the optimal daily dose.

Conclusions: HF readmission is common within 1-year of TAVR. Late and multiple HF readmissions associate with an increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality. Baseline comorbidities (diabetes, chronic lung disease, previous acute HF) and echocardiographic findings at discharge (grade III or IV aortic regurgitation, pulmonary hypertension) identified patients at high risk of HF readmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.008959DOI Listing
July 2020

Long-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in failed bioprosthetic valves.

Eur Heart J 2020 08;41(29):2731-2742

Dipartimento di Scienze Cardiologiche Toraciche e Vascolari, Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Giustiniani, 2 - 35128 Padova, Italy.

Aims: Due to bioprosthetic valve degeneration, aortic valve-in-valve (ViV) procedures are increasingly performed. There are no data on long-term outcomes after aortic ViV. Our aim was to perform a large-scale assessment of long-term survival and reintervention after aortic ViV.

Methods And Results: A total of 1006 aortic ViV procedures performed more than 5 years ago [mean age 77.7 ± 9.7 years; 58.8% male; median STS-PROM score 7.3% (4.2-12.0)] were included in the analysis. Patients were treated with Medtronic self-expandable valves (CoreValve/Evolut, Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) (n = 523, 52.0%), Edwards balloon-expandable valves (EBEV, SAPIEN/SAPIEN XT/SAPIEN 3, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) (n = 435, 43.2%), and other devices (n = 48, 4.8%). Survival was lower at 8 years in patients with small-failed bioprostheses [internal diameter (ID) ≤ 20 mm] compared with those with large-failed bioprostheses (ID > 20 mm) (33.2% vs. 40.5%, P = 0.01). Independent correlates for mortality included smaller-failed bioprosthetic valves [hazard ratio (HR) 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.13)], age [HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.01-1.45)], and non-transfemoral access [HR 1.43 (95% CI 1.11-1.84)]. There were 40 reinterventions after ViV. Independent correlates for all-cause reintervention included pre-existing severe prosthesis-patient mismatch [subhazard ratio (SHR) 4.34 (95% CI 1.31-14.39)], device malposition [SHR 3.75 (95% CI 1.36-10.35)], EBEV [SHR 3.34 (95% CI 1.26-8.85)], and age [SHR 0.59 (95% CI 0.44-0.78)].

Conclusions: The size of the original failed valve may influence long-term mortality, and the type of the transcatheter valve may influence the need for reintervention after aortic ViV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa544DOI Listing
August 2020

Response by Vincent et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Balloon-Expandable Versus Self-Expanding Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Propensity-Matched Comparison From the FRANCE-TAVI Registry".

Circulation 2020 Jun 15;141(24):e910-e911. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Institut Coeur Poumon, Cardiology, Department of Interventional Cardiology for Coronary, Valves and Structural Heart Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, France (F.V., C.D., N.D., A.C., S.P., E.V.B.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047270DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of length of stay after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation with SAPIEN 3 prosthesis: A French multicentre prospective observational trial.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Jun - Jul;113(6-7):391-400. Epub 2020 May 14.

Normandie University, UNIROUEN, INSERM U1096, Department of Cardiology, Rouen University Hospital, FHU REMOD-VHF, 76000 Rouen, France.

Background: Complications decrease after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and early discharge is feasible and safe in selected populations.

Aims: To evaluate length of stay (LOS) and reasons for prolonged hospitalisation after transfemoral TAVI in unselected patients.

Methods: Patients with severe aortic stenosis, who had transfemoral TAVI with the SAPIEN 3 prosthesis using exclusively local anaesthesia, were prospectively and consecutively included at five French high-volume centres. LOS was calculated from TAVI procedure to discharge. Reasons for prolonged hospitalisation (i.e.>3 days) were evaluated.

Results: Between 2017 and 2018, 293 patients were included, with a mean age of 82.4±6.5 years and a mean logistic EuroSCORE of 13.7±9.0%. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.4%. The median LOS was 5 (3-7) days, and varied considerably between centres (from 2 to 7 days). Sixty-four (21.8%) patients were discharged within 3 days after transfemoral TAVI. Reported reasons for prolonged hospitalisation were complications in 62.2%, loss of autonomy in 3.1%, discharge refusal in 2.2% and logistical reasons in 0.9%. In 31.6% of cases, the investigators reported no apparent reasons.

Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LOS after transfemoral TAVI, using the SAPIEN 3 prosthesis and a minimalist approach, varies considerably between centres. In almost a third of cases, hospitalisation was prolonged without any apparent reason. Efforts should be made to educate centres to reduce LOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2019.11.010DOI Listing
September 2020

The 50-year-old pulmonary artery catheter: the tale of a foretold death?

ESC Heart Fail 2020 06 20;7(3):783-785. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

PhyMedExp, Université de Montpellier, INSERM, CNRS, Cardiology Department, CHU de Montpellier, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261538PMC
June 2020

An Optimized Approach for Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Comprehensive Review and Current Evidence.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2020 08 7;21(8):1034-1040. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Device iterations and technical refinements have enabled transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) to be offered as a routine interventional procedure in many centers with high reproducibility and success. The concept of a streamlined procedure with appropriate procedural optimization, namely "optimized approach," has become increasingly relevant, aimed at minimizing perioperative burden and promoting early recovery. Relatively high device costs may be mitigated by reducing length of hospital stay and resource utilization. This review summarizes current evidence of components related to the optimization process during transfemoral TAVI. It is important to customize the procedure specific to each patient for its optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2019.12.032DOI Listing
August 2020

Conduction disturbances following trancatheter aortic valve implantation: increasing the 'pace' towards prospective evidence.

Eur Heart J 2020 08;41(29):2782-2784

Université de Rennes 1, Service de Cardiologie CHU Rennes, INSERM LTSI U1099, Rennes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz957DOI Listing
August 2020

Percutaneous closure of paravalvular leak after transcatheter valve implantation in mitral annular calcification.

EuroIntervention 2020 Apr;15(17):1518-1519

Department of Cardiology, Univ. Rennes 1, CHU Rennes, Inserm, LTSI - UMR 1099, Rennes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-19-00744DOI Listing
April 2020

Analysis of weather exposure 7 days before occurrence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Jan 18;113(1):22-30. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Service de cardiologie, hôpital Cavale Blanche, CHRU Brest, 29200 Brest, France. Electronic address:

Background: Several studies have highlighted the relationship between weather patterns and the occurrence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Aim: To evaluate the statistical association between the occurrence of STEMI and meteorological variables over the preceding 7 days.

Methods: This was a retrospective study, using prespecified data from the ORBI (Breton Regional Observatory on Myocardial Infarction) registry, which includes all consecutive patients hospitalized for STEMI in the geographical area of Brest, France. Over a 7-year period, we compared the number of STEMIs per week with the mean values of meteorological variables over the preceding 7 days.

Results: Overall, 7517 patients with STEMI were recorded in the ORBI registry between January 2009 and January 2016. After exclusion of patients not living in the geographical area of interest, 742 patients were included. The weekly incidence of STEMI ranged from 0 to 7 (median 2, interquartile range 1-3). In the univariate analysis, air temperature (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005-1.01 per 1°C decrease; P=0.03) and atmospheric pressure (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06 per 1 hPa increase; P=0.008) were associated with the weekly incidence of STEMI. In the multivariable analysis, air temperature (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 per 1°C decrease; P=0.01), atmospheric pressure (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08 per 1 hPa increase; P<0.001) and duration of humidity>80% (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.15 per 1hour increase; P=0.007) in the previous 7 days were associated with the occurrence of STEMI.

Conclusions: In this specific geographical area, occurrence of STEMI was statistically associated with a decrease in air temperature, an increase in atmospheric pressure and an increase in humidity over the preceding 7-day period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2019.09.012DOI Listing
January 2020

Balloon-Expandable Versus Self-Expanding Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Propensity-Matched Comparison From the FRANCE-TAVI Registry.

Circulation 2020 01 16;141(4):243-259. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Clinique du Tonkin, Service de Cardiologie, Villeurbanne, France (D.C.).

Background: No randomized study powered to compare balloon expandable (BE) with self expanding (SE) transcatheter heart valves (THVs) on individual end points after transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been conducted to date.

Methods: From January 2013 to December 2015, the FRANCE-TAVI nationwide registry (Registry of Aortic Valve Bioprostheses Established by Catheter) included 12 141 patients undergoing BE-THV (Edwards, n=8038) or SE-THV (Medtronic, n=4103) for treatment of native aortic stenosis. Long term mortality status was available in all patients (median 20 months; interquartile range, 14 to 30). Patients treated with BE-THV (n=3910) were successfully matched 1:1 with 3910 patients treated with SE-THV by using propensity score (25 clinical, anatomical, and procedural variables) and by date of the procedure (within 3 months). The first coprimary outcome was ≥ moderate occurrence of paravalvular regurgitation or in-hospital mortality, or both. The second coprimary outcome was 2-year all-cause mortality.

Results: In propensity-matched analyses, the incidence of the first coprimary outcome was higher with SE-THV (19.8%) compared with BE-THV (11.9%; relative risk, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.46-1.91]; <0.0001). Each component of the outcome was also higher in patients receiving SE-THV: ≥ moderate paravalvular regurgitation (15.5% versus 8.3%; relative risk, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.63-2.22]; <0.0001) and in hospital mortality (5.6% versus 4.2%; relative risk, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.07-1.66]; =0.01). During follow up, all cause mortality occurred in 899 patients treated with SE-THV (2-year mortality, 29.8%) and in 801 patients treated with BE-THV (2-year mortality, 26.6%; hazard ratio, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.06-1.29]; =0.003). Similar results were found using inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity score analysis.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that use of SE-THV was associated with a higher risk of paravalvular regurgitation and higher in-hospital and 2-year mortality compared with use of BE-THV. These data strongly support the need for a randomized trial sufficiently powered to compare the latest generation of SE-THV and BE-THV.

Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01777828.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043785DOI Listing
January 2020

Management of aortic valve replacement according to the gradient across symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and its prognostic impact.

Echocardiography 2019 12 8;36(12):2136-2144. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Service de Cardiologie, Inserm LTSI-UMR1099, CHU Rennes, Université Rennes 1, Rennes, France.

Background: Treatment strategy for low-gradient (LG) aortic stenosis (AS) remains an unresolved issue. The presence of a low aortic gradient and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) might lead toward the underestimation of aortic stenosis severity and a more conservative management. We sought (a) to describe the nature and timing of intervention according to flow/gradient subgroups in patibents with LG-AS, (2) to determine the factors associated with the decision to intervene, and (c) to describe prognosis.

Methods And Results: One hundred and ten patients prospectively included in this study underwent a standardized clinical and imaging evaluation at inclusion and at 1-year follow-up. According to aortic flow, gradient and LVEF, patients were divided into 4 groups: LG-normal flow [n = 27], LG-low flow-low LVEF [n = 27], LG-low flow-normal LVEF [n = 16], and high gradient (HG) [n = 40]). 73% of patients underwent AVR 86 ± 59 days after the initial assessment. The HG subgroup had significantly higher intervention rates (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, four parameters were associated with the AVR: aortic gradient (HR 1.52 [1.10-2.11], P = .012), LVEF (HR 0.58 [0.40-0.85], P = .006), atrial fibrillation (HR 0.43 [0.021-0.87], P = .019), and NT-proBNP (HR 0.92[0.86-0.98), P = .008]. Patients operated earlier had better outcomes than those having a delayed AVR (P = .042). LG-AS patients had worse outcomes than HG-AS patients (P < .001).

Conclusion: Compared to HG-AS, LG-AS is less likely to benefit from an AVR and had a significantly worse outcome. Further interventional studies are needed to investigate the timing of AVR in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14531DOI Listing
December 2019

Infective Endocarditis Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Comparison of Balloon- Versus Self-Expandable Valves.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 11 7;12(11):e007938. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Background: No data exist about the characteristics of infective endocarditis (IE) post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) according to transcatheter valve type. We aimed to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with IE post-TAVR treated with balloon-expandable valve (BEV) versus self-expanding valve (SEV) systems.

Methods: Data from the multicenter Infectious Endocarditis After TAVR International Registry was used to compare IE patients with BEV versus SEV.

Results: A total of 245 patients with IE post-TAVR were included (SEV, 47%; BEV, 53%). The timing between TAVR and IE was similar between groups (SEV, 5.5 [1.2-15] months versus BEV, 5.3 [1.7-11.4] months; =0.89). Enterococcal IE was more frequent in the SEV group (36.5% versus 15.4%; <0.01), and vegetation location differed according to valve type (stent frame, SEV, 18.6%; BEV, 6.9%; =0.01; valve leaflet, SEV, 23.9%; BEV, 38.5%; =0.01). BEV recipients had a higher rate of stroke/systemic embolism (20.0% versus 8.7%, adjusted OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.04-5.82, =0.04). Surgical explant of the transcatheter valve (SEV, 8.7%; BEV, 13.8%; =0.21), and in-hospital death at the time of IE episode (SEV, 35.6%; BEV, 37.7%; =0.74) were similar between groups. After a mean follow-up of 13±12 months, 59.1% and 54.6% of the SEV and BEV recipients, respectively, had died (=0.66).

Conclusions: The characteristics of IE post-TAVR, including microorganism type, vegetation location, and embolic complications but not early or late mortality, differed according to valve type. These results may help to guide the diagnosis and management of IE and inform future research studies in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.119.007938DOI Listing
November 2019

Pharmacoinvasive Strategy Versus Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients ≥70 Years of Age.

Am J Cardiol 2020 01 11;125(1):1-10. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Cardiology and Vascular Diseases, Pontchaillou University Hospital, University of Rennes 1, Rennes, France; Center for Clinical Investigation 804, Signal and Image Treatment laboratory (LTSI), National Institute of Health and Medical Research U1099, Rennes, France.

The benefit-risk ratio of a pharmacoinvasive strategy (PI) in patients ≥70 years of age with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain resulting in its limited use in this population. This study compared efficacy and safety of PI with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Data from 2,841 patients (mean age: 78.1 ± 5.6 years, female: 36.1%) included in a prospective multicenter registry, and who underwent either PI (n = 269) or pPCI (n = 2,572), were analyzed. The primary end point was in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, stroke, and definite stent thrombosis. Secondary end points included all-cause death, major bleeding, net adverse clinical events, and the development of in-hospital Killip class III or IV heart failure. Propensity-score matching and conditional logistic regression were used to adjust for confounders. Within the matched cohort, rates of MACE was not statistically different between the PI (n = 247) and pPCI (n = 958) groups, (11.3% vs 9.0%, respectively, odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.94; p = 0.31). Secondary end points were comparable between groups at the exception of a lower rate of development of Killip class III or IV heart failure after PI. The rate of intracranial hemorrhage was significantly higher in the PI group (2.3% vs 0.0%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated no difference regarding in-hospital MACE following PI or pPCI in STEMI patients ≥70 years of age. An adequately-powered randomized trial is needed to precisely define the role of PI in this high-risk subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.09.044DOI Listing
January 2020

Prognostic value of the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram in sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: data from the REMY French register.

Europace 2020 01;22(1):139-148

Département de Cardiologie et Maladies Vasculaires, INSERM CMR970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center - PARCC, Paris, France.

Aims: To identify independent electrocardiogram (ECG) predictors of long-term clinical outcome based on standardized analysis of the surface ECG in a large multicentre cohort of patients with sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Methods And Results: Retrospective observational study from the REMY French HCM clinical research observatory. Primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, major non-fatal arrhythmic events, hospitalization for heart failure (HF), and stroke. Secondary endpoints were components of the primary endpoint. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors. Among 994 patients with HCM, only 1.8% had a strictly normal baseline ECG. The most prevalent abnormalities were inverted T waves (63.7%), P-wave abnormalities (30.4%), and abnormal Q waves (25.5%). During a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 2.0 years, a total of 272 major cardiovascular events occurred in 217 patients (21.8%): death or heart transplant in 98 (9.8%), major arrhythmic events in 40 (4.0%), HF hospitalization in 115 (11.6%), and stroke in 23 (2.3%). At multivariable analysis using ECG covariates, prolonged QTc interval, low QRS voltage, and PVCs of right bundle branch block pattern predicted worse outcome, but none remained independently associated with the primary endpoint after adjustment on main demographic and clinical variables. For secondary endpoints, abnormal Q waves independently predicted all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR) 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-4.47; P = 0.009] and prolonged QTc the risk of HF hospitalization (HR 1.006, 95% CI 1.001-1.011; P = 0.024).

Conclusion: The 12-lead surface ECG has no independent value to predict the primary outcome measure in patients with HCM. The 12-lead surface ECG has been widely used as a screening tool in HCM but its prognostic value remains poorly known. The value of baseline surface ECG to predict long-term clinical outcomes was studied in a cohort of 994 patients with sarcomeric HCM. The surface ECG has no significant additional value to predict outcome in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz272DOI Listing
January 2020

Early Ventricular Arrhythmias After LVAD Implantation Is the Strongest Predictor of 30-Day Post-Operative Mortality.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2019 08 19;5(8):944-954. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital, Dijon, France.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical significance, and predictors of early ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients.

Background: LVAD implantation is increasingly used in patients with end-stage heart failure. Early VAs may occur during the 30-day post-operative period, but many questions remain unanswered regarding their incidence and clinical impact.

Methods: This observational study was conducted in 19 centers between 2006 and 2016. Early VAs were defined as sustained ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation occurring <30 days post-LVAD implantation and requiring appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, external electrical shock, or medical therapy.

Results: A total of 652 patients (median age: 59.8 years; left ventricular ejection fraction: 20.7 ± 7.4%; HeartMate 2: 72.8%; HeartWare: 19.5%; Jarvik 2000: 7.7%) were included in the analysis. Early VAs occurred in 162 patients (24.8%), most frequently during the first week after LVAD implantation. Multivariable analysis identified history of VAs prior to LVAD and any combined surgery with LVAD as 2 predictors of early VAs. The occurrence of early VAs with electrical storm was the strongest predictor of 30-day post-operative mortality, associated with a 7-fold increase of 30-day mortality. However, in patients discharged alive from hospital, occurrence of early VAs did not influence long-term survival.

Conclusions: Early VAs are common after LVAD implantation and increase 30-day post-operative mortality, without affecting long-term survival. Further studies will be needed to analyze whether pre- or pre-operative ablation of VAs may improve post-operative outcomes. (Determination of Risk Factors of Ventricular Arrhythmias After Implantation of Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device With Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device [ASSIST-ICD]; NCT02873169).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2019.05.025DOI Listing
August 2019

Incidence, predictors, and clinical impact of electrical storm in patients with left ventricular assist devices: New insights from the ASSIST-ICD study.

Heart Rhythm 2019 10 27;16(10):1506-1512. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital, Dijon, France.

Background: Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) can occur after continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation as a single arrhythmic event or as electrical storm (ES) with multiple repetitive VA episodes.

Objective: We aimed at analyzing the incidence, predictors, and clinical impact of ES in LVAD recipients.

Methods: Patients analyzed were those included in the multicenter ASSIST-ICD observational study. ES was consensually defined as occurrence of ≥3 separate episodes of sustained VAs within a 24-hour interval.

Results: Of 652 patients with an LVAD, 61 (9%) presented ES during a median follow-up period of 9.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5-22.1) months. The first ES occurred after 17 (IQR 4.0-56.2) days post LVAD implantation, most of them during the first month after the device implantation (63%). The incidence then tended to decrease during the initial years of follow-up and increased again after the third year post LVAD implantation. History of VAs before LVAD implantation and heart failure duration > 84 months were independent predictors of ES. The occurrence of ES was associated with an increased early mortality since 20 patients (33%) died within the first 2 weeks of ES. Twenty-two patients (36.1%) presented at least 1 recurrence of ES, occurring 43.0 (IQR 8.0-69.0) days after the initial ES. Patients experiencing ES had a significantly lower 1-year survival rate than did those free from ES (log-rank, P = .039).

Conclusion: There is a significant incidence of ES in patients with an LVAD. The short-term mortality after ES is high, and one-third of patients will die within 15 days. Whether radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias improves outcomes would require further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.06.021DOI Listing
October 2019

Is there still a role for the intra-aortic balloon pump in the management of cardiogenic shock following acute coronary syndrome?

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2019 Dec 24;112(12):792-798. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Aix-Marseille Université, AP-HM, Mediterranean Association for Research and Studies in Cardiology (MARS Cardio), Centre for CardioVascular and Nutrition research (C2VN), Inserm 1263, INRA 1260, Cardiology Department, Hôpital Nord, 13000 Marseille, France.

The intra-aortic balloon pump has been widely used in the management of cardiogenic shock. Reducing cardiac afterload and myocardial oxygen consumption, and improving coronary blood flow, this safe and simple mechanical circulatory support has been considered the cornerstone of cardiogenic shock management for decades. However, because it failed to provide any clinical benefit in recent randomized trials, the latest guidelines discourage its routine use in this clinical setting. Moreover, new percutaneous circulatory supports providing greater haemodynamic improvement have recently been developed. Thus, intra-aortic balloon pump use has declined considerably in this clinical setting. However, the device does retain a minor role in cardiogenic shock management - mainly in the setting of mechanical complication of acute coronary syndrome, and for left ventricular unloading in patients treated with extracorporeal life support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2019.04.009DOI Listing
December 2019

Risk factors and prognostic impact of left ventricular assist device-associated infections.

Am Heart J 2019 08 6;214:69-76. Epub 2019 May 6.

Department of Cardiology and cardiac surgery, University Hospital, Dijon, France.

Background: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-associated infections may be life-threatening and impact patients' outcome. We aimed to identify the characteristics, risk factors, and prognosis of LVAD-associated infections.

Methods: Patients included in the ASSIST-ICD study (19 centers) were enrolled. The main outcome was the occurrence of LVAD-associated infection (driveline infection, pocket infection, or pump/cannula infection) during follow-up.

Results: Of the 652 patients enrolled, 201 (30.1%) presented a total of 248 LVAD infections diagnosed 6.5 months after implantation, including 171 (26.2%), 51 (7.8%), and 26 (4.0%) percutaneous driveline infection, pocket infection, or pump/cannula infection, respectively. Patients with infections were aged 58.7 years, and most received HeartMate II (82.1%) or HeartWare (13.4%). Most patients (62%) had implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) before LVAD, and 104 (16.0%) had ICD implantation, extraction, or replacement after the LVAD surgery. Main pathogens found among the 248 infections were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 113' 45.4%), Enterobacteriaceae (n = 61; 24.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 34; 13.7%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 13; 5.2%), and Candida species (n = 13; 5.2%). In multivariable analysis, HeartMate II (subhazard ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.36; P = .031) and ICD-related procedures post-LVAD (subhazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-1.98; P = .031) were significantly associated with LVAD infections. Infections had no detrimental impact on survival.

Conclusions: Left ventricular assist device-associated infections affect one-third of LVAD recipients, mostly related to skin pathogens and gram-negative bacilli, with increased risk with HeartMate II as compared with HeartWare, and in patients who required ICD-related procedures post-LVAD. This is a plea to better select patients needing ICD implantation/replacement after LVAD implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.04.021DOI Listing
August 2019

Comparison of the Transarterial and Transthoracic Approaches in Nontransfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2019 05 8;123(9):1501-1509. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

University of Rennes 1, Cardiac, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Signal and Image Treatment laboratory (LTSI), National Institute of Health and Medical Research U1099, Rennes, France.

Transfemoral approach stands as the reference access-route for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Nonetheless, alternatives approaches are still needed in a significant proportion of patients. This study aimed at comparing outcomes between transthoracic-approach (transapical or transaortic) and transarterial-approach (transcarotid or subclavian) TAVI. Data from 191 consecutive patients who underwent surgical-approach TAVI from May 2009 to September 2017 were analyzed. Patients were allocated in 2 groups according to the approach. The primary end point was the 30-day composite of death of any cause, need for open surgery, tamponade, stroke, major or life-threatening bleeding, stage 2 or 3 acute kidney injury, coronary obstruction, or major vascular complications. During the study period, 104 patients underwent transthoracic TAVI (transapical: 60.6%, transaortic: 39.4%) whereas 87 patients underwent transarterial TAVI (subclavian: 83.9%, transcarotid: 16.1%). Logistic EuroSCORE I tended to be higher in transthoracic-TAVI recipients. In-hospital and 30-day composite end point rates were 25.0% and 11.5% (p = 0.025), and 26.0% and 14.9% (p = 0.075) for the transthoracic and transarterial cohorts, respectively. Propensity score-adjusted logistic regression demonstrated no significant detrimental association between the 30-day composite end point and transthoracic access (odds ratio 2.12 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 6.42; p = 0.18). Transarterial TAVI was associated with a shorter length of stay (median: 6 vs 7 days, p <0.001). TAVI approach was not an independent predictor of midterm mortality. In conclusion, nontransfemoral transarterial-approach TAVI is safe, feasible, and associated with comparable rates of major perioperative complications, and midterm mortality compared with transthoracic-approach TAVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.01.040DOI Listing
May 2019

Idiopathic/Iatrogenic Left Bundle Branch Block-Induced Reversible Left Ventricle Dysfunction: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 12;72(24):3177-3188

Université de Rennes1-Faculté de Médecine, Rennes, France; Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Rennes, France; LTSI-INSERM U1099, Rennes, France.

Idiopathic or iatrogenic left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a unique model of electro-mechanical ventricular dyssynchrony with concordant changes in electrical activation sequence and mechanical ventricle synchronization. In chronic animal models, isolated LBBB induces structural remodeling with progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Most abnormalities can be reverted after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In humans, 2 principal models of LBBB dyssynchronopathy can be observed: the chronic model of isolated LBBB and an acute iatrogenic model of new-onset LBBB after aortic valve interventions. Although epidemiological evidence and clinical data need to be strengthened, there is a strong presumption that they may lead to LBBB-induced cardiomyopathy and benefit from CRT to prevent progression to heart failure. A large cohort study with prospective follow-up would be required to better define actual incidence, evolution over time, and predisposing factors. Parallel randomized CRT clinical trials should be conducted in selected at-risk populations: namely, patients with persistent LBBB after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.09.069DOI Listing
December 2018