Publications by authors named "Vimala Vemireddi"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Best Practices: Documentation of Sexual Maturity by Microscopic Evaluation in Nonclinical Safety Studies.

Toxicol Pathol 2021 Mar 4:192623321990631. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

510456Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Limited, Allschwil, Switzerland.

The sexual maturity status of animals in nonclinical safety studies can have a significant impact on the microscopic assessment of the reproductive system, the interpretation of potential test article-related findings, and ultimately the assessment of potential risk to humans. However, the assessment and documentation of sexual maturity for animals in nonclinical safety studies is not conducted in a consistent manner across the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology convened an international working group of pathologists and nonclinical safety scientists with expertise in the reproductive system, pathology nomenclature, and Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data requirements. This article describes the best practices for documentation of the light microscopic assessment of sexual maturity in males and females for both rodent and nonrodent nonclinical safety studies. In addition, a review of the microscopic features of the immature, peripubertal, and mature male and female reproductive system and general considerations for study types and reporting are provided to aid the study pathologist tasked with documentation of sexual maturity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623321990631DOI Listing
March 2021

Repeated Dose Toxicity Study and Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Studies of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Candidate Vaccine in Rabbits and Rats.

Int J Toxicol 2021 Mar-Apr;40(2):125-142. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

33139GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections, and vaccines are needed to treat young children and older adults. One of GSK's candidate vaccines for RSV contains recombinant RSVPreF3 protein maintained in the prefusion conformation. The differences in immune function of young children and older adults potentially require different vaccine approaches. For young children, anti-RSV immunity can be afforded during the first months of life by vaccinating the pregnant mother during the third trimester with unadjuvanted RSVPreF3, which results in protection of the infant due to the transplacental passage of anti-RSV maternal antibodies. For older adults with a waning immune response, the approach is to adjuvant the RSVPreF3 vaccine with AS01 to elicit a more robust immune response.The local and systemic effects of biweekly intramuscular injections of the RSVPreF3 vaccine (unadjuvanted, adjuvanted with AS01, or coadministered with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) was tested in a repeated dose toxicity study in rabbits. After three intramuscular doses, the only changes observed were those commonly related to a vaccine-elicited inflammatory reaction. Subsequently, the effects of unadjuvanted RSVPreF3 vaccine on female fertility, embryo-fetal, and postnatal development of offspring were evaluated in rats and rabbits. There were no effects on pregnancy, delivery, lactation, or the pre- and postnatal development of offspring.In conclusion, the RSVPreF3 vaccine was well-tolerated locally and systemically and was not associated with any adverse effects on female reproductive function or on the pre- and postnatal growth and development of offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1091581820985782DOI Listing
February 2021

International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND): Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Minipig.

Toxicol Pathol 2021 Jan;49(1):110-228

Toxicology & Pathology Consulting, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in most tissues and organs from the minipig used in nonclinical safety studies. Some of the lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for lesions in laboratory animals will provide a common language among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623320975373DOI Listing
January 2021

Atypical presentation and pathogenesis of a macaque lymphocryptoviral-associated B-cell lymphoma in a cynomolgus monkey.

Vet Clin Pathol 2020 Mar 3;49(1):130-136. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Genentech, A Member of the Roche Group, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

We report the unique pathogenesis and presentation of a rapidly progressive B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old female cynomolgus monkey on day 50 of a 13-week toxicity study. Clinical pathology evaluation revealed a marked leukocytosis with bicytopenia. A serum protein electrophoresis was consistent with monoclonal gammopathy. The architecture of the lymph node, spleen, and thymus were variably effaced by neoplastic cells, which also infiltrated other tissues. Immunohistochemistry of the affected tissues confirmed a predominant population of CD20+, CD79a+, CD3-, CD68-, and CD34-neoplastic cells. The full data best support a diagnosis of Stage V lymphoma. Nextgen sequencing and negative prestudy serology results suggested a recent infection by macaque lymphocryptovirus (mLCV) with a unique transcriptional profile comparable with a rarely observed direct LCV infection model. This infection model might be associated with a temporary lack of an LCV antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell adaptive immune response. Consistent with the established mechanisms of LCV-related lymphoproliferation, MYC and BCL2L11 gene expression were increased and decreased, respectively. While there was no overt immunosuppression, immunophenotyping revealed the index animal had a relatively low NK cell count, which further decreased by >50% on day 24 of the study. In addition to the temporary lack of adaptive immunity, the low NK cell counts were suggestive of an impaired innate immunity to control the virally-transformed cells and the subsequent unchecked lymphoproliferation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Stage V lymphoma with a unique pathogenesis in an otherwise immunocompetent cynomolgus monkey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12822DOI Listing
March 2020

Testicular Fibrous Hypoplasia in Cynomolgus Monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis): An Incidental, Congenital Lesion.

Toxicol Pathol 2017 06 2;45(4):536-543. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

2 Envigo (formerly Huntingdon Life Sciences), East Millstone, New Jersey, USA.

Testicular fibrous hypoplasia is an incidental lesion characterized by replacement of the testicular parenchyma by mature collagen. A retrospective survey of hematoxylin and eosin-stained testicular sections from 722 purpose-bred Asian and 90 Mauritian cynomolgus monkeys from 56 safety assessment studies conducted between 1999 and 2011 was performed. The incidence of the lesion increased markedly over time. No cases occurred between 1999 and 2004. Between 2005 and 2009, the incidence ranged between 8.1% and 11.0% of the monkeys examined and then rose to 26.1% in 2010 and 30.9% in 2011. Overall, the lesion was identified in 10.94% of Asian monkeys with the highest incidence in animals originating from China and Vietnam; severity ranged from minimal to severe and it occurred unilaterally (38.5%) and bilaterally (61.5%). In Mauritian monkeys, the lesion was predominantly minimal in severity, bilateral in distribution, and affected 6.6% of the animals examined. The lesion occurred regardless of sexual maturation status but when present in mature monkeys was often associated with cystic tubular atrophy of the seminiferous epithelium. Based on the morphological characteristics of the lesion and the unilateral/bilateral distribution, the lesion is considered to be a congenital or developmental abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623317709539DOI Listing
June 2017

Pigs in Toxicology: Breed Differences in Metabolism and Background Findings.

Toxicol Pathol 2016 06 4;44(4):575-90. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Zoological Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA.

Both a rodent and a nonrodent species are required for evaluation in nonclinical safety studies conducted to support human clinical trials. Historically, dogs and nonhuman primates have been the nonrodent species of choice. Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety as an alternate nonrodent species. The pig is an appropriate option for these toxicology studies based on metabolic pathways utilized in xenobiotic biotransformation. Both similarities and differences exist in phase I and phase II biotransformation pathways between humans and pigs. There are numerous breeds of pigs, yet only a few of these breeds are characterized with regard to both xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and background pathology findings. Some specific differences in these enzymes based on breed and sex are known. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is also a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences between commonly used breeds. Here, the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are compared between humans and pigs, and minipig background pathology changes are reviewed with emphasis on breed differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623316639389DOI Listing
June 2016

Background Pathological Changes in Minipigs: A Comparison of the Incidence and Nature among Different Breeds and Populations of Minipigs.

Toxicol Pathol 2016 Apr 3;44(3):325-37. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

MPI Research, Mattawan, Michigan, USA.

Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety assessment of small molecules, biopharmaceutical agents, and medical devices as an alternate nonrodent species. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences in incidence between commonly used breeds. This article is a collaborative effort between multiple organizations to define and document lesions found in the common breeds of minipigs used for toxicological risk assessment in North America (NA) and the European Union (EU). We retrospectively assessed 10 years of historical control data from several institutions located in NA and EU, covering the period of 2004-2015. Here we report the background lesions with consideration of breed and geographical location. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting spontaneous background lesions in commonly used breeds of swine in both NA and EU. This report serves as a resource to pathologists and will aid in interpretation of findings and differentiation of background from test article-related changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623315611762DOI Listing
April 2016

Primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a cat.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2009 Nov-Dec;45(6):291-5

Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 South Huntington Avenue, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 02130-4803, USA.

Primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma causing stricture was diagnosed in a cat via endoscopy and computed tomography. Difficulty in making this diagnosis via endoscopic biopsy alone is described. Although balloon dilatation was unsuccessful, supportive care via gastrostomy tube feeding and administration of piroxicam successfully allowed a 16-week survival from the time of presentation and a 4-week survival from the onset of treatment with piroxicam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/0450291DOI Listing
January 2010

Systemic nocardiosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

J Vet Diagn Invest 2007 May;19(3):326-9

Purdue University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, 406 South University Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

Systemic infection by Nocardia asteroides was diagnosed in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). At necropsy, the animal had enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes, pleural and peritoneal effusions, and numerous, multifocal to coalescing, yellow, firm nodules with inspissated pus in the lung, pleura, omentum, liver, heart, adrenal glands, and left kidney. Microscopically, the nodules consisted of foci of pyogranulomatous inflammation. Microscopic lesions were present in the grossly affected organs as well as spleen and brain. Sections stained with Gram and modified Fite-Faraco histochemical stains had numerous gram-positive, variably acid fast, beaded and branching filamentous organisms in the necrotic centers. N. asteroides was isolated from the lung, bronchial lymph nodes, liver, and left kidney. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of systemic N. asteroides infection in a reindeer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870701900320DOI Listing
May 2007

Polypoid uterine leiomyosarcomas in a sheep.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2007 May;19(3):309-12

Purdue University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, 406 South University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in the uterus surgically removed from a 3-year-old pet Suffolk ewe with a history of bleeding from the vulva, spontaneous lactation, and nursing behavior. The uterus contained multiple well-circumscribed, soft, intraluminal polypoid masses of variable sizes (0.5-4 cm). The masses were red, with white, smooth, and glistening cut surfaces. Histologically they comprised variably dense sheets of moderately pleomorphic, plump spindle cells embedded in richly vascularized stroma. The mitotic index was usually low (0-1/high-power field), but in some polyps there were up to 10 mitoses/high-power field. Neoplastic cells stained positive for alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) by immunohistochemistry. Ultrastructural features of neoplastic cells included the presence of basal lamina, scant microfilaments, contracted nuclei with blunt ends, and flat intercellular junctions. Uterine leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed based on cellular morphology and atypia and positive immunohistochemistry for alpha-SMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870701900316DOI Listing
May 2007