Publications by authors named "Ville Pettilä"

228 Publications

Fluid management in patients with acute kidney injury - A post-hoc analysis of the FINNAKI study.

J Crit Care 2021 May 6;64:205-210. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: Whether positive fluid balance among patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) stems from decreased urine output, overzealous fluid administration, or both is poorly characterized.

Materials And Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of the prospective multicenter observational Finnish Acute Kidney Injury study including 824 AKI and 1162 non-AKI critically ill patients.

Results: We matched 616 AKI (diagnosed during the three first intensive care unit (ICU) days) and non-AKI patients using propensity score. During the three first ICU days, AKI patients received median [IQR] of 11.4 L [8.0-15.2]L fluids and non-AKI patients 10.2 L [7.5-13.7]L, p < 0.001 while the fluid output among AKI patients was 4.7 L [3.0-7.2]L and among non-AKI patients 5.8 L [4.1-8.0]L, p < 0.001. In AKI patients, the median [IQR] cumulative fluid balance was 2.5 L [-0.2-6.0]L compared to 0.9 L [-1.4-3.6]L among non-AKI patients, p < 0.001. Among the 824 AKI patients, smaller volumes of fluid input with a multivariable OR of 0.90 (0.88-0.93) and better fluid output (multivariable OR 1.12 (1.07-1.18)) associated with enhanced change of resolution of AKI.

Conclusions: AKI patients received more fluids albeit having lower fluid output compared to matched critically ill non-AKI patients. Smaller volumes of fluid input and higher fluid output were associated with better AKI recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2021.05.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Restrictive fluid management versus usual care in acute kidney injury (REVERSE-AKI): a pilot randomized controlled feasibility trial.

Intensive Care Med 2021 Jun 7;47(6):665-673. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Intensive Care, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose: We compared a restrictive fluid management strategy to usual care among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who had received initial fluid resuscitation.

Methods: This multicenter feasibility trial randomized 100 AKI patients 1:1 in seven ICUs in Europe and Australia. Restrictive fluid management included targeting negative or neutral daily fluid balance by minimizing fluid input and/or enhancing urine output with diuretics administered at the discretion of the clinician. Fluid boluses were administered as clinically indicated. The primary endpoint was cumulative fluid balance 72 h from randomization.

Results: Mean (SD) cumulative fluid balance at 72 h from randomization was - 1080 mL (2003 mL) in the restrictive fluid management arm and 61 mL (3131 mL) in the usual care arm, mean difference (95% CI) - 1148 mL (- 2200 to - 96) mL, P = 0.033. Median [IQR] duration of AKI was 2 [1-3] and 3 [2-7] days, respectively (median difference - 1.0 [- 3.0 to 0.0], P = 0.071). Altogether, 6 out of 46 (13%) patients in the restrictive fluid management arm and 15 out of 50 (30%) in the usual care arm received renal replacement therapy (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.16-0.91), P = 0.043. Cumulative fluid balance at 24 h and 7 days was lower in the restrictive fluid management arm. The dose of diuretics was not different between the groups. Adverse events occurred more frequently in the usual care arm.

Conclusions: In critically ill patients with AKI, a restrictive fluid management regimen resulted in lower cumulative fluid balance and less adverse events compared to usual care. Larger trials of this intervention are justified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-021-06401-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Fluid balance-adjusted creatinine in diagnosing acute kidney injury in the critically ill.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often diagnosed based on plasma creatinine (Cr) only. Adjustment of Cr for cumulative fluid balance due to potential dilution of Cr and subsequently missed Cr-based diagnosis of AKI has been suggested, albeit the physiological rationale for these adjustments is questionable. Furthermore, whether these adjustments lead to a different incidence of AKI when used in conjunction with urine output (UO) criteria is unknown.

Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of the Finnish Acute Kidney Injury study. Hourly UO and daily plasma Cr were measured during the first 5 days of intensive care unit admission. Cr values were adjusted following the previously used formula and combined with the UO criteria. Resulting incidences and mortality rates were compared with the results based on unadjusted values.

Results: In total, 2044 critically ill patients were analyzed. The mean difference between the adjusted and unadjusted Cr of all 7279 observations was 5 (±15) µmol/L. Using adjusted Cr in combination with UO and renal replacement therapy criteria resulted in the diagnosis of 19 (1%) additional AKI patients. The absolute difference in the incidence was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3%-1.6%). Mortality rates were not significantly different between the reclassified AKI patients using the full set of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.

Conclusion: Fluid balance-adjusted Cr resulted in little change in AKI incidence, and only minor differences in mortality between patients who changed category after adjustment and those who did not. Using adjusted Cr values to diagnose AKI does not seem worthwhile in critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13841DOI Listing
May 2021

Interleukin-6 Receptor Antagonists in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2021 04 25;384(16):1491-1502. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

From Imperial College London (A.C.G., F.A.-B.), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, St. Mary's Hospital (A.C.G.), Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (P.R.M., K.M.R.), University College London Hospital (R.H.), King's College London (M.S.-H.), and Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (M.S.-H.), London, University of Oxford (A. Beane) and NHS Blood and Transplant (L.J.E.), Oxford, and University of Bristol, Bristol (C.A.B.) - all in the United Kingdom; Monash University (A.D.N., A. Buzgau, A.C.C., A.M.H., S.P.M., J.C.P., C.G., S.A.W.) and Alfred Health (A.D.N., A.C.C.), Melbourne, VIC, Fiona Stanley Hospital (E. Litton, K.O.) and University of Western Australia (E. Litton), Perth, WA, University of Sydney and Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney (A.E.P.), and St. John of God Hospital, Subiaco, WA (S.A.W.) - all in Australia; University College Dublin, Dublin (A.D.N.); King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Y.M.A.); Hospital Raymond Poincaré (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris) and Université Paris Saclay-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSERM, Garches, and Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-Université Paris Saclay, Montigny-le-Bretonneux - all in France (D.A.); University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (W.B.-P., M.J.M.B., H.L.L., E.R., L.P.G.D.), and Radboudumc, Nijmegen (F.L.V.) - both in the Netherlands; Berry Consultants, Austin, TX (L.R.B., M.A.D., M.F., E. Lorenzi, A.M., C.T.S., R.J.L., S.B.); St. Michael's Hospital Unity Health (Z.B., J.C.M., M.S.S.) and University Health Network and University of Toronto (P.R.L.), Toronto, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (F.L.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver (S.M.), University of Alberta, Edmonton (W.I.S.), Université Laval, Québec City (A.F.T.), and University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (R.Z.) - all in Canada; Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany (F.M.B.); Auckland City Hospital (E.J.D., T.E.H., S.P.M., R.L.P., C.J.M.), Middlemore Hospital (S.C.M.), and University of Auckland (R.L.P.), Auckland, and Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, Wellington (T.E.H., S.P.M., A.M.T.) - all in New Zealand; University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium (H.G.); University of Oxford, Bangkok, Thailand (R.H.); National Intensive Care Surveillance, Colombo, Sri Lanka (R.H.); UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (C.M.H.) and University of Pittsburgh (K.M.L., F.B.M., B.J.M., S.K.M., C.W.S., D.C.A.), Pittsburgh; Queen's University Belfast and Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (D.F.M.); University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki (V.P.); and Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (R.J.L.).

Background: The efficacy of interleukin-6 receptor antagonists in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is unclear.

Methods: We evaluated tocilizumab and sarilumab in an ongoing international, multifactorial, adaptive platform trial. Adult patients with Covid-19, within 24 hours after starting organ support in the intensive care unit (ICU), were randomly assigned to receive tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight), sarilumab (400 mg), or standard care (control). The primary outcome was respiratory and cardiovascular organ support-free days, on an ordinal scale combining in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and days free of organ support to day 21. The trial uses a Bayesian statistical model with predefined criteria for superiority, efficacy, equivalence, or futility. An odds ratio greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both.

Results: Both tocilizumab and sarilumab met the predefined criteria for efficacy. At that time, 353 patients had been assigned to tocilizumab, 48 to sarilumab, and 402 to control. The median number of organ support-free days was 10 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) in the tocilizumab group, 11 (interquartile range, 0 to 16) in the sarilumab group, and 0 (interquartile range, -1 to 15) in the control group. The median adjusted cumulative odds ratios were 1.64 (95% credible interval, 1.25 to 2.14) for tocilizumab and 1.76 (95% credible interval, 1.17 to 2.91) for sarilumab as compared with control, yielding posterior probabilities of superiority to control of more than 99.9% and of 99.5%, respectively. An analysis of 90-day survival showed improved survival in the pooled interleukin-6 receptor antagonist groups, yielding a hazard ratio for the comparison with the control group of 1.61 (95% credible interval, 1.25 to 2.08) and a posterior probability of superiority of more than 99.9%. All secondary analyses supported efficacy of these interleukin-6 receptor antagonists.

Conclusions: In critically ill patients with Covid-19 receiving organ support in ICUs, treatment with the interleukin-6 receptor antagonists tocilizumab and sarilumab improved outcomes, including survival. (REMAP-CAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02735707.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2100433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953461PMC
April 2021

Ensemble machine learning prediction and variable importance analysis of 5-year mortality after cardiac valve and CABG operations.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 10;11(1):3467. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Despite having a similar post-operative complication profile, cardiac valve operations are associated with a higher mortality rate compared to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations. For long-term mortality, few predictors are known. In this study, we applied an ensemble machine learning (ML) algorithm to 88 routinely collected peri-operative variables to predict 5-year mortality after different types of cardiac operations. The Super Learner algorithm was trained using prospectively collected peri-operative data from 8241 patients who underwent cardiac valve, CABG and combined operations. Model performance and calibration were determined for all models, and variable importance analysis was conducted for all peri-operative parameters. Results showed that the predictive accuracy was the highest for solitary mitral (0.846 [95% CI 0.812-0.880]) and solitary aortic (0.838 [0.813-0.864]) valve operations, confirming that ensemble ML using routine data collected perioperatively can predict 5-year mortality after cardiac operations with high accuracy. Additionally, post-operative urea was identified as a novel and strong predictor of mortality for several types of operation, having a seemingly additive effect to better known risk factors such as age and postoperative creatinine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82403-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876023PMC
February 2021

Early prolonged neutrophil activation in critically ill patients with sepsis.

Innate Immun 2021 Feb 18;27(2):192-200. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Division of Anaesthesiology, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.

We hypothesised that plasma concentrations of biomarkers of neutrophil activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines differ according to the phase of rapidly evolving sepsis. In an observational study, we measured heparin-binding protein (HBP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL-6 and IL-8 in 167 sepsis patients on intensive care unit admission. We prospectively used the emergence of the first sepsis-associated organ dysfunction (OD) as a surrogate for the sepsis phase. Fifty-five patients (of 167, 33%) developed the first OD > 1 h before, 74 (44%) within ± 1 h, and 38 (23%) > 1 h after intensive care unit admission. HBP and MPO were elevated at a median of 12 h before the first OD, remained high up to 24 h, and were not associated with sepsis phase. IL-6 and IL-8 rose and declined rapidly close to OD emergence. Elevation of neutrophil activation markers HBP and MPO was an early event in the evolution of sepsis, lasting beyond the subsidence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine reaction. Thus, as sepsis biomarkers, HBP and MPO were not as prone as IL-6 and IL-8 to the effect of sample timing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425920980078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882810PMC
February 2021

Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels after out of hospital cardiac arrest are associated with neurological outcome.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):690. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Division of Intensive Care, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, PB 340, 00029, Helsinki, Finland.

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a marker associated with mitochondrial and cellular stress. Cardiac arrest causes mitochondrial stress, and we tested if FGF 21 would reflect the severity of hypoxia-reperfusion injury after cardiac arrest. We measured serum concentrations of FGF 21 in 112 patients on ICU admission and 24, 48 and 72 h after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable initial rhythm included in the COMACARE study (NCT02698917). All patients received targeted temperature management for 24 h. We defined 6-month cerebral performance category 1-2 as good and 3-5 as poor neurological outcome. We used samples from 40 non-critically ill emergency room patients as controls. We assessed group differences with the Mann Whitney U test and temporal differences with linear modeling with restricted maximum likelihood estimation. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the independent predictive value of FGF 21 concentration for neurologic outcome. The median (inter-quartile range, IQR) FGF 21 concentration was 0.25 (0.094-0.91) ng/ml in controls, 0.79 (0.37-1.6) ng/ml in patients at ICU admission (P < 0.001 compared to controls) and peaked at 48 h [1.2 (0.46-2.5) ng/ml]. We found no association between arterial blood oxygen partial pressure and FGF 21 concentrations. We observed with linear modeling an effect of sample timepoint (F 5.6, P < 0.01), poor neurological outcome (F 6.1, P = 0.01), and their interaction (F 3.0, P = 0.03), on FGF 21 concentration. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for relevant clinical covariates, higher average FGF 21 concentration during the first 72 h was independently associated with poor neurological outcome (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.32). We conclude that post cardiac arrest patients experience cellular and mitochondrial stress, reflected as a systemic FGF 21 response. This response is higher with a more severe hypoxic injury but it is not exacerbated by hyperoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80086-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804444PMC
January 2021

Causes of death for intensive care survivors with and without acute kidney injury in 5-year follow-up.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2020 Dec 1. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Study Group of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Oulu University Hospital and Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Background: Data on the causes of death and long-term mortality of intensive care unit-treated hospital survivors with acute kidney injury (AKI) are limited. The goal of this study was to analyze the causes of death among critically ill patients during a 5-year follow-up.

Methods: In this predetermined sub-study of a prospective, observational, multi-center cohort from the FINNAKI study, we analyzed 2436 patients who were discharged from the hospital. Statistics Finland provided the follow-up data and causes of death.

Results: During the follow-up, 765 (31%) patients died, of whom 295 (39%) had AKI and 73 (9.5%) had received renal replacement therapy. More than half of the deaths in both the non-AKI and AKI groups occurred after the 1 year follow-up (58% vs. 54%, respectively). The three most common causes of death in AKI were cardiovascular diseases (36%), malignancies (21%), and neurological diseases (11%). In early deaths (<90 days) cardiovascular causes were more prevalent in AKI patients compared to non-AKI (38% vs 25%, P = .037.) In six cases (0.8%), the main cause of death was kidney disease, out of which five were in the AKI group. In patients with cardiovascular causes, the median time to death was shorter in AKI patients compared to non-AKI patients (508 vs 816 days, P = .018).

Conclusion: Cardiovascular causes and malignancies account for more than half of the causes of death in patients who had suffered AKI, while death from kidney disease after AKI is rare. Early cardiovascular deaths are more prevalent in AKI compared to non-AKI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13754DOI Listing
December 2020

Continuous intravenous infusion of enoxaparin controls thrombin formation more than standard subcutaneous administration in critically ill patients. A sub-study of the ENOKSI thromboprophylaxis RCT.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021 01 16;65(1):109-115. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, PO Box 2000, Tampere, 33521, Finland.

Introduction: Standard subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) thromboprophylaxis yields low anti-factor Xa activity in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the study was to assess coagulation status in ICU patients randomized to receive enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis either as a standard subcutaneous bolus (SCB) or continuous intravenous infusion (CII) for 3 consecutive days after the initiation of LMWH thromboprophylaxis.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-eight patients were studied by conventional coagulation variables: prothrombin fragment F 1+2 (F 1+2) representing FXa inhibition and antithrombin (AT). Additionally, 18 patients were analyzed by the thrombin generation assay-calibrated automated thrombogram (TGA-CAT). Blood samples were collected before the initiation of the LMWH thromboprophylaxis (ie, baseline), at 51 h, and at 72 h.

Results: At beginning, no differences in coagulation biomarkers were observed. The levels of F 1+2 were significantly lower at 51 and 72 h in the CII group than in the SCB group. AT levels increased during the follow-up in the CII group, unlike in the SCB group. TGA-CAT was poor in some patients overall. In a subset of patients at 51 h lag time (4.3 vs 7.5 min, respectively, P < 0.05) and time to peak (7.7 vs 14.3 min, respectively, P < 0.05) were prolonged in the SCB group. At 72 h, however, peak thrombin was lower in the CII than in the SCB group: 271 vs 356 nM, respectively (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis administered by CII inhibited more prominently FXa and preserved better the AT level, compared with standard subcutaneous care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13697DOI Listing
January 2021

Neurofilament light as an outcome predictor after cardiac arrest: a post hoc analysis of the COMACARE trial.

Intensive Care Med 2021 Jan 27;47(1):39-48. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Emergency Care and Services, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: Neurofilament light (NfL) is a biomarker reflecting neurodegeneration and acute neuronal injury, and an increase is found following hypoxic brain damage. We assessed the ability of plasma NfL to predict outcome in comatose patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We also compared plasma NfL concentrations between patients treated with two different targets of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO), arterial oxygen tension (PaO), and mean arterial pressure (MAP).

Methods: We measured NfL concentrations in plasma obtained at intensive care unit admission and at 24, 48, and 72 h after OHCA. We assessed neurological outcome at 6 months and defined a good outcome as Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1-2 and poor outcome as CPC 3-5.

Results: Six-month outcome was good in 73/112 (65%) patients. Forty-eight hours after OHCA, the median NfL concentration was 19 (interquartile range [IQR] 11-31) pg/ml in patients with good outcome and 2343 (587-5829) pg/ml in those with poor outcome, p < 0.001. NfL predicted poor outcome with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.00) at 24 h, 0.98 (0.97-1.00) at 48 h, and 0.98 (0.95-1.00) at 72 h. NfL concentrations were lower in the higher MAP (80-100 mmHg) group than in the lower MAP (65-75 mmHg) group at 48 h (median, 23 vs. 43 pg/ml, p = 0.04). PaCO and PaO targets did not associate with NfL levels.

Conclusions: NfL demonstrated excellent prognostic accuracy after OHCA. Higher MAP was associated with lower NfL concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06218-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782453PMC
January 2021

Optimum Blood Pressure in Patients With Shock After Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiac Arrest.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 08;76(7):812-824

Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Emergency Medicine and Services, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: In patients with shock after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the optimal level of pharmacologic support is unknown. Whereas higher doses may increase myocardial oxygen consumption and induce arrhythmias, diastolic hypotension may reduce coronary perfusion and increase infarct size.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the optimal mean arterial pressure (MAP) in patients with AMI and shock after cardiac arrest.

Methods: This study used patient-level pooled analysis of post-cardiac arrest patients with shock after AMI randomized in the Neuroprotect (Neuroprotective Goal Directed Hemodynamic Optimization in Post-cardiac Arrest Patients; NCT02541591) and COMACARE (Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen and Mean Arterial Pressure After Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation; NCT02698917) trials who were randomized to MAP 65 mm Hg or MAP 80/85 to 100 mm Hg targets during the first 36 h after admission. The primary endpoint was the area under the 72-h high-sensitivity troponin-T curve.

Results: Of 235 patients originally randomized, 120 patients had AMI with shock. Patients assigned to the higher MAP target (n = 58) received higher doses of norepinephrine (p = 0.004) and dobutamine (p = 0.01) and reached higher MAPs (86 ± 9 mm Hg vs. 72 ± 10 mm Hg, p < 0.001). Whereas admission hemodynamics and angiographic findings were all well-balanced and revascularization was performed equally effective, the area under the 72-h high-sensitivity troponin-T curve was lower in patients assigned to the higher MAP target (median: 1.14 μg.72 h/l [interquartile range: 0.35 to 2.31 μg.72 h/l] vs. median: 1.56 μg.72 h/l [interquartile range: 0.61 to 4.72 μg. 72 h/l]; p = 0.04). Additional pharmacologic support did not increase the risk of a new cardiac arrest (p = 0.88) or atrial fibrillation (p = 0.94). Survival with good neurologic outcome at 180 days was not different between both groups (64% vs. 53%, odds ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 3.22).

Conclusions: In post-cardiac arrest patients with shock after AMI, targeting MAP between 80/85 and 100 mm Hg with additional use of inotropes and vasopressors was associated with smaller myocardial injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.06.043DOI Listing
August 2020

Timing of Initiation of Renal-Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury.

N Engl J Med 2020 07;383(3):240-251

From the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta and Alberta Health Services, Edmonton (S.M.B.), the Division of Nephrology (R.W.), St. Michael's Hospital and the University of Toronto, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute (R.W., B.R.C., O.M.S., K.E.T.), Department of Medicine (R.W., O.M.S.), and Applied Health Research Centre (B.R.C., K.E.T.), St. Michael's Hospital, the Dalla Lana School of Public Health (K.E.T.), the Institute of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation (R.W., B.R.C.), University of Toronto, and the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto (N.K.J.A.), Toronto, the Department of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke and Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (F.L.), the Division of Critical Care, Juravinski Hospital, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (B.R.), and the Division of Nephrology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON (M.W.) - all in Canada; the Department of Intensive Care, Austin Hospital and Royal Melbourne Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University (R.B., A.D.N.), Melbourne, VIC, and the George Institute for Global Health, Concord Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (M.P.G., A.Y.W.) - both in Australia; the Institute of Primary Health Care, University of Bern, Bern (B.R.C.), and the Department of Critical Care Medicine, CHU Vaudois, Lausanne (A.G.S.) - both in Switzerland; Hôpital Louis Mourier (D.D.) and Université Léonard de Vinci (S.G.), INSERM Unité UMR S1155, Sorbonne Université and Université de Paris, Paris, Hôpital Avicenne, Bobigny (S.G.), and Hôpital Universitaire François Mitterrand, Lipness Team, INSERM Research Center Lipids, Nutrition, Cancer-Unité Mixte de Recherche 1231 and Laboratoire d'Excellence LipSTIC, Centre d'Investigation Clinique-Epidemiologie Clinique, CHU Dijon-Bourgogne, and INSERM Centre d'Investigation Clinique 1432, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon (J.-P.Q.) - all in France; the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (B.D.), and the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongda Hospital Southeast University, Nanjing (H.Q.) - both in China; the Department of Intensive Care, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium (E.A.H.); the Division of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (M.J.); Vita Salute San Raffaele University and IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (G.L.); the Divisions of Nephrology and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (K.D.L.); the Wellcome-Wolfson Institute for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University, and the Regional Intensive Care Unit, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (D.F.M.), and King's College London, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital, London (M.O.) - both in the United Kingdom; the Cardiothoracic and Vascular Intensive Care Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (S.P.M.), and the Medical Research Institute of New Zealand (S.P.M.) and the Intensive Care Unit, Wellington Regional Hospital and Medical Research Institute of New Zealand (P.Y.), Wellington - both in New Zealand; the Division of Nephrology, Bone and Mineral Metabolism, University of Kentucky, Lexington (J.A.N.); University College Dublin Clinical Research Centre at St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin (A.D.N.); the Division of Nephrology, University of Pittsburgh, and Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh (P.M.P.); the Department of Intensive Care, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki (V.P., S.V.); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil (F.T.); and the Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany (A.Z.).

Background: Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill patients, many of whom receive renal-replacement therapy. However, the most effective timing for the initiation of such therapy remains uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a multinational, randomized, controlled trial involving critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an accelerated strategy of renal-replacement therapy (in which therapy was initiated within 12 hours after the patient had met eligibility criteria) or a standard strategy (in which renal-replacement therapy was discouraged unless conventional indications developed or acute kidney injury persisted for >72 hours). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 90 days.

Results: Of the 3019 patients who had undergone randomization, 2927 (97.0%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (1465 in the accelerated-strategy group and 1462 in the standard-strategy group). Of these patients, renal-replacement therapy was performed in 1418 (96.8%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 903 (61.8%) in the standard-strategy group. At 90 days, death had occurred in 643 patients (43.9%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 639 (43.7%) in the standard-strategy group (relative risk, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.09; P = 0.92). Among survivors at 90 days, continued dependence on renal-replacement therapy was confirmed in 85 of 814 patients (10.4%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 49 of 815 patients (6.0%) in the standard-strategy group (relative risk, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.43). Adverse events occurred in 346 of 1503 patients (23.0%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 245 of 1489 patients (16.5%) in the standard-strategy group (P<0.001).

Conclusions: Among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury, an accelerated renal-replacement strategy was not associated with a lower risk of death at 90 days than a standard strategy. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; STARRT-AKI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02568722.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2000741DOI Listing
July 2020

Glucocorticoids inhibit type I IFN beta signaling and the upregulation of CD73 in human lung.

Intensive Care Med 2020 10 19;46(10):1937-1940. Epub 2020 May 19.

Medicity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06086-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235433PMC
October 2020

Urine NGAL as a biomarker for septic AKI: a critical appraisal of clinical utility-data from the observational FINNAKI study.

Ann Intensive Care 2020 Apr 28;10(1):51. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, PO Box 340, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is released from kidney tubular cells under stress as well as from neutrophils during inflammation. It has been suggested as a biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients with sepsis. To evaluate clinical usefulness of urine NGAL (uNGAL), we post-hoc applied recently introduced statistical methods to a sub-cohort of septic patients from the prospective observational Finnish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study. Accordingly, in 484 adult intensive care unit patients with sepsis by Sepsis-3 criteria, we calculated areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) for the first available uNGAL to assess discrimination for four outcomes: AKI defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, severe (KDIGO 2-3) AKI, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) during the first 3 days of intensive care, and mortality at day 90. We constructed clinical prediction models for the outcomes and used risk assessment plots and decision curve analysis with predefined threshold probabilities to test whether adding uNGAL to the models improved reclassification or decision making in clinical practice.

Results: Incidences of AKI, severe AKI, RRT, and mortality were 44.8% (217/484), 27.7% (134/484), 9.5% (46/484), and 28.1% (136/484). Corresponding AUCs for uNGAL were 0.690, 0.728, 0.769, and 0.600. Adding uNGAL to the clinical prediction models improved discrimination of AKI, severe AKI, and RRT. However, the net benefits for the new models were only 1.4% (severe AKI and RRT) to 2.5% (AKI), and the number of patients needed to be tested per one extra true-positive varied from 40 (AKI) to 74 (RRT) at the predefined threshold probabilities.

Conclusions: The results of the recommended new statistical methods do not support the use of uNGAL in critically ill septic patients to predict AKI or clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-020-00667-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188747PMC
April 2020

Different applications of the KDIGO criteria for AKI lead to different incidences in critically ill patients: a post hoc analysis from the prospective observational SICS-II study.

Crit Care 2020 Apr 21;24(1):164. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and clinically relevant problem in critically ill patients. Various randomized controlled trials (RCT) have attempted to assess potentially beneficial treatments for AKI. Different approaches to applying the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria for AKI make a comparison of studies difficult. The objective of this study was to assess how different approaches may impact estimates of AKI incidence and whether the association between AKI and 90-day mortality varied by the approach used.

Methods: Consecutive acutely admitted adult intensive care patients were included in a prospective observational study. AKI was determined following the KDIGO criteria during the first 7 days of ICU admission. In this post hoc analysis, we assessed whether AKI incidence differed when applying the KDIGO criteria in 30 different possible methods, varying in (A) serum creatinine (sCr), (B) urine output (UO), and (C) the method of combining these two into an outcome, e.g., severe AKI. We assessed point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each incidence. Univariable regression was used to assess the associations between AKI and 90-day mortality.

Results: A total of 1010 patients were included. Baseline creatinine was available in 449 (44%) patients. The incidence of any AKI ranged from 28% (95%CI 25-31%) to 75% (95%CI 72-77%) depending on the approach used. Methods to estimate missing baseline sCr caused a variation in AKI incidence up to 15%. Different methods of handling UO caused a variation of up to 35%. At 90 days, 263 patients (26%) had died, and all 30 variations were associated with 90-day mortality.

Conclusions: In this cohort of critically ill patients, AKI incidence varied from 28 to 75%, depending on the method used of applying the KDIGO criteria. A tighter adherence to KDIGO definitions is warranted to decrease the heterogeneity of AKI and increase the comparability of future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-02886-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175574PMC
April 2020

Two subphenotypes of septic acute kidney injury are associated with different 90-day mortality and renal recovery.

Crit Care 2020 04 15;24(1):150. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The pathophysiology of septic acute kidney injury is inadequately understood. Recently, subphenotypes for sepsis and AKI have been derived. The objective of this study was to assess whether a combination of comorbidities, baseline clinical data, and biomarkers could classify meaningful subphenotypes in septic AKI with different outcomes.

Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of the prospective Finnish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study cohort. We included patients admitted with sepsis and acute kidney injury during the first 48 h from admission to intensive care (according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome criteria). Primary outcomes were 90-day mortality and renal recovery on day 5. We performed latent class analysis using 30 variables obtained on admission to classify subphenotypes. Second, we used logistic regression to assess the association of derived subphenotypes with 90-day mortality and renal recovery on day 5.

Results: In total, 301 patients with septic acute kidney injury were included. Based on the latent class analysis, a two-class model was chosen. Subphenotype 1 was assigned to 133 patients (44%) and subphenotype 2 to 168 patients (56%). Increased levels of inflammatory and endothelial injury markers characterized subphenotype 2. At 90 days, 29% of patients in subphenotype 1 and 41% of patients in subphenotype 2 had died. Subphenotype 2 was associated with a lower probability of short-term renal recovery and increased 90-day mortality.

Conclusions: In this post hoc analysis, we identified two subphenotypes of septic acute kidney injury with different clinical outcomes. Future studies are warranted to validate the suggested subphenotypes of septic acute kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-02866-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161019PMC
April 2020

Urinary cell cycle arrest biomarkers and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) to detect acute kidney injury in the critically ill: a post hoc laboratory analysis on the FINNAKI cohort.

Crit Care 2020 04 10;24(1):144. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequently occurring syndrome in critically ill patients and is associated with worse outcomes. Biomarkers allow early identification and therapy of AKI which may improve outcomes. Urine chitinase 3-like protein 1 (uCHI3L1) was recently identified as a promising urinary biomarker for AKI. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance for AKI stage 2 or greater of uCHI3L1 in comparison with the urinary cell cycle arrest biomarkers urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2)•insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) measured by NephroCheck Risk®.

Methods: Post hoc laboratory study of the prospective observational FINNAKI study. Of this cohort, we included patients with stored admission urine samples and availability of serum creatinine at day 1 of admission. Patients who already had AKI stage 2 or 3 at ICU admission were excluded. AKI was defined and staged according to the KDIGO definition and staging system. The primary endpoint was AKI stage 2 or 3 at day 1. Biomarker performance was assessed by the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We assessed individual performance and different combinations of urine biomarkers.

Results: Of 660 included patients, 49 (7.4%) had AKI stages 2-3 at day 1. All urine biomarkers were increased at admission in AKI patients. All biomarkers and most combinations had AUCs < 0.700. The combination uCHI3L1•TIMP-2 was best with a fair AUC of 0.706 (0.670, 0.718). uCHI3L1 had a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 2.25 which was comparable to that of the NephroCheck Risk® cutoff of 2.0, while the negative LR of 0.53 was comparable to that of the NephroCheck Risk® cutoff of 0.3.

Conclusions: We found that uCHI3L1 and NephroCheck Risk® had a comparable diagnostic performance for diagnosis of AKI stage 2 or greater within a 24-h period in this multicenter FINNAKI cohort. In contrast to initial discovery and validation studies, the diagnostic performance was poor. Possible explanations for this observation are differences in patient populations, proportion of emergency admissions, proportion of functional AKI, rate of developing AKI, and observation periods for diagnosis of AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-02867-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149885PMC
April 2020

Noninterventional follow-up vs fluid bolus in RESPONSE to oliguria-The RESPONSE trial protocol and statistical analysis plan.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2020 09 28;64(8):1210-1217. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Oliguria is a frequent trigger for administering a fluid bolus, but the effect of fluid bolus in improving urine output is inadequately demonstrated. Here, we summarize the protocol and detailed statistical analysis plan of the randomized, controlled RESPONSE trial comparing follow-up as the experimental group and a 500 mL crystalloid fluid bolus as the control group for oliguria in critically ill oliguric patients.

Methods: Our trial is an investigator-initiated, randomized, controlled, pilot trial conducted in three ICUs in two centers. We aim to randomize 1:1 altogether 130 hemodynamically stable oliguric patients either to a 2-hour follow-up without interventions or to receive a crystalloid bolus of 500 mL over 30 minutes. The primary outcome is the change in individual urine output during the 2-hour period compared to 2 hours preceding randomization. Doubling of the urine output is considered clinically significant. Additionally, we record the duration of oliguria, physiological and biochemical variables, adverse events, and the incidences of acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy.

Conclusions: Oliguria is a frequent trigger for potentially harmful fluid loading. Therefore, the RESPONSE trial will give information of the potential effect of fluid bolus on oliguria in critically ill patients.

Trial Registration: clinical.trials.gov, NCT02860572.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496618PMC
September 2020

Effect and safety of 4% albumin in the treatment of cardiac surgery patients: study protocol for the randomized, double-blind, clinical ALBICS (ALBumin In Cardiac Surgery) trial.

Trials 2020 Feb 28;21(1):235. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: In cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), large amounts of fluids are administered. CPB priming with crystalloid solution causes marked hemodilution and fluid extravasation. Colloid solutions may reduce fluid overload because they have a better volume expansion effect than crystalloids. The European Medicines Agency does not recommend the use of hydroxyethyl starch solutions (HES) due to harmful renal effects. Albumin solution does not impair blood coagulation but the findings on kidney function are conflicting. On the other hand, albumin may reduce endothelial glycocalyx destruction and decrease platelet count during CPB. No large randomized, double-blind, clinical trials have compared albumin solution to crystalloid solution in cardiac surgery.

Methods/design: In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comprising 1386 adult cardiac surgery patients, 4% albumin solution will be compared to Ringer's acetate solution in CPB priming and volume replacement up to 3200 mL during surgery and the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay. The primary efficacy outcome is the number of patients with at least one major adverse event (MAE) during 90 postoperative days (all-cause death, acute myocardial injury, acute heart failure or low output syndrome, resternotomy, stroke, major arrhythmia, major bleeding, infection compromising post-procedural rehabilitation, acute kidney injury). Secondary outcomes are total number of MAEs, incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiac death, acute myocardial injury, acute heart failure, arrhythmia), amount of each type of blood product transfused (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets), total fluid balance at the end of the intervention period, total measured blood loss, development of acute kidney injury, days alive without mechanical ventilation in 90 days, days alive outside intensive care unit at 90 days, days alive at home at 90 days, and 90-day mortality.

Discussion: The findings of this study will provide new evidence regarding efficacy and safety of albumin solution in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB.

Trial Registration: EudraCT (clinicaltrialsregister.eu) 2015-002556-27 Registered 11 Nov 2016 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02560519. Registered 25 Sept 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-4160-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048052PMC
February 2020

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Adult Circulatory Shock: A Systematic Review.

J Intensive Care Med 2020 Oct 20;35(10):943-962. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, 89593Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Circulatory shock affects every third patient in intensive care units and is associated with high mortality. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could serve as a means for monitoring tissue perfusion in circulatory shock.

Purpose: To assess the evidence of NIRS monitoring in circulatory shock, we conducted a systematic review of the literature.

Methods: The study protocol was registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). We searched PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, and EBM Reviews databases. The reference lists of included articles, last volumes of key journals, and NIRS monitor manufacturers' webpages were searched manually. Two reviewers independently selected included studies. The quality of studies was assessed. The qualitative synthesis was guided by 3 questions: First, does NIRS monitoring improve patient-centered outcomes in adult circulatory shock patient? Second, do NIRS-derived parameters predict patient-centered outcomes, such as mortality and organ dysfunction, and third, does NIRS monitoring give additional information to guide treatment decisions?

Main Results: Eighteen observational studies with 927 patients were included. Because of considerable clinical heterogeneity of the data, we were not able to perform a meta-analysis. Also, due to lack of randomized controlled trials, the first review question could not be answered. Based on the current review, baseline tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) however seems to predict mortality and identify patients with most severe forms of circulatory shock.

Conclusions: Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived StO2 can predict mortality in circulatory shock, but high-quality data on the impact of NIRS monitoring are lacking. Furthermore, the marked heterogeneity of the studies makes combining the results of individual studies difficult. Standardization of methodology and clinical randomized trials are needed before wider clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066620907307DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of Intravenous Interferon β-1a on Death and Days Free From Mechanical Ventilation Among Patients With Moderate to Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2020 02;323(8):725-733

Critical Care, University College London Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust and National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality. Interferon (IFN) β-1a may prevent the underlying event of vascular leakage.

Objective: To determine the efficacy and adverse events of IFN-β-1a in patients with moderate to severe ARDS.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial conducted at 74 intensive care units in 8 European countries (December 2015-December 2017) that included 301 adults with moderate to severe ARDS according to the Berlin definition. The radiological and partial pressure of oxygen, arterial (Pao2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) criteria for ARDS had to be met within a 24-hour period, and the administration of the first dose of the study drug had to occur within 48 hours of the diagnosis of ARDS. The last patient visit was on March 6, 2018.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive an intravenous injection of 10 μg of IFN-β-1a (144 patients) or placebo (152 patients) once daily for 6 days.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was a score combining death and number of ventilator-free days at day 28 (score ranged from -1 for death to 27 if the patient was off ventilator on the first day). There were 16 secondary outcomes, including 28-day mortality, which were tested hierarchically to control type I error.

Results: Among 301 patients who were randomized (mean age, 58 years; 103 women [34.2%]), 296 (98.3%) completed the trial and were included in the primary analysis. At 28 days, the median composite score of death and number of ventilator-free days at day 28 was 10 days (interquartile range, -1 to 20) in the IFN-β-1a group and 8.5 days (interquartile range, 0 to 20) in the placebo group (P = .82). There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between the IFN-β-1a vs placebo groups (26.4% vs 23.0%; difference, 3.4% [95% CI, -8.1% to 14.8%]; P = .53). Seventy-four patients (25.0%) experienced adverse events considered to be related to treatment during the study (41 patients [28.5%] in the IFN-β-1a group and 33 [21.7%] in the placebo group).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among adults with moderate or severe ARDS, intravenous IFN-β-1a administered for 6 days, compared with placebo, resulted in no significant difference in a composite score that included death and number of ventilator-free days over 28 days. These results do not support the use of IFN-β-1a in the management of ARDS.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02622724.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.22525DOI Listing
February 2020

Protocol and statistical analysis plan for the REstricted fluid therapy VERsus Standard trEatment in Acute Kidney Injury-REVERSE-AKI randomized controlled pilot trial.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2020 07 26;64(6):831-838. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Intensive Care, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Fluid accumulation frequently coexists with acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with increased risk for AKI progression and mortality. Among septic shock patients, restricted use of resuscitation fluid has been reported to reduce the risk of worsening of AKI. Restrictive fluid therapy, however, has not been studied in the setting of established AKI. Here, we present the protocol and statistical analysis plan of the REstricted fluid therapy VERsus Standard trEatment in Acute Kidney Injury-the REVERSE-AKI trial that compares a restrictive fluid therapy regimen to standard therapy in critically ill patients with AKI.

Methods: REVERSE-AKI is an investigator-initiated, multinational, open-label, randomized, controlled, feasibility pilot trial conducted in seven ICUs in five countries. We aim to randomize 100 critically ill patients with AKI to a restrictive fluid treatment regimen vs standard management. In the restrictive fluid therapy regimen, the daily fluid balance target is neutral or negative. The primary outcome is the cumulative fluid balance assessed after 72 hours from randomization. Secondary outcomes include safety, feasibility, duration, and severity of AKI, and outcome at 90 days (mortality and dialysis dependence).

Conclusions: This is the first multinational trial investigating the feasibility and safety of a restrictive fluid therapy regimen in critically ill patients with AKI.

Trial Registration: clinical.trials.gov NCT03251131.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384021PMC
July 2020

Costs and Cost-Utility of Critical Care and Subsequent Health Care: A Multicenter Prospective Study.

Crit Care Med 2020 05;48(5):e345-e355

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: The number of critical care survivors is growing, but their long-term outcomes and resource use are poorly characterized. Estimating the cost-utility of critical care is necessary to ensure reasonable use of resources. The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term resource use and costs, and to estimate the cost-utility, of critical care.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Seventeen ICUs providing critical care to 85% of the Finnish adult population.

Patients: Adult patients admitted to any of 17 Finnish ICUs from September 2011 to February 2012, enrolled in the Finnish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study, and matched hospitalized controls from the same time period.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: We primarily assessed total 3-year healthcare costs per quality-adjusted life-years at 3 years. We also estimated predicted life-time quality-adjusted life-years and described resource use and costs. The costing year was 2016. Of 2,869 patients, 1,839 (64.1%) survived the 3-year follow-up period. During the first year, 1,290 of 2,212 (58.3%) index episode survivors were rehospitalized. Median (interquartile range) 3-year cumulative costs per patient were $49,200 ($30,000-$85,700). ICU costs constituted 21.4% of the total costs during the 3-year follow-up. Compared with matched hospital controls, costs of the critically ill remained higher throughout the follow-up. Estimated total mean (95% CI) 3-year costs per 3-year quality-adjusted life-years were $46,000 ($44,700-$48,500) and per predicted life-time quality-adjusted life-years $8,460 ($8,060-8,870). Three-year costs per 3-year quality-adjusted life-years were $61,100 ($57,900-$64,400) for those with an estimated risk of in-hospital death exceeding 15% (based on the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II).

Conclusions: Healthcare resource use was substantial after critical care and remained higher compared with matched hospital controls. Estimated cost-utility of critical care in Finland was of high value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004210DOI Listing
May 2020

Burden of acute kidney injury and 90-day mortality in critically ill patients.

BMC Nephrol 2019 12 31;21(1). Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Mortality rates associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) vary among critically ill patients. Outcomes are often not corrected for severity or duration of AKI. Our objective was to analyse whether a new variable, AKI burden, would outperform 1) presence of AKI, 2) highest AKI stage, or 3) AKI duration in predicting 90-day mortality.

Methods: Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria using creatinine, urine output and renal replacement therapy were used to diagnose AKI. AKI burden was defined as AKI stage multiplied with the number of days that each stage was present (maximum five), divided by the maximum possible score yielding a proportion. The AKI burden as a predictor of 90-day mortality was assessed in two independent cohorts (Finnish Acute Kidney Injury, FINNAKI and Simple Intensive Care Studies I, SICS-I) by comparing four multivariate logistic regression models that respectively incorporated either the presence of AKI, the highest AKI stage, the duration of AKI, or the AKI burden.

Results: In the FINNAKI cohort 1096 of 2809 patients (39%) had AKI and 90-day mortality of the cohort was 23%. Median AKI burden was 0.17 (IQR 0.07-0.50), 1.0 being the maximum. The model including AKI burden (area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) 0.78, 0.76-0.80) outperformed the models using AKI presence (AUROC 0.77, 0.75-0.79, p = 0.026) or AKI severity (AUROC 0.77, 0.75-0.79, p = 0.012), but not AKI duration (AUROC 0.77, 0.75-0.79, p = 0.06). In the SICS-I, 603 of 1075 patients (56%) had AKI and 90-day mortality was 28%. Median AKI burden was 0.19 (IQR 0.08-0.46). The model using AKI burden performed better (AUROC 0.77, 0.74-0.80) than the models using AKI presence (AUROC 0.75, 0.71-0.78, p = 0.001), AKI severity (AUROC 0.76, 0.72-0.79. p = 0.008) or AKI duration (AUROC 0.76, 0.73-0.79, p = 0.009).

Conclusion: AKI burden, which appreciates both severity and duration of AKI, was superior to using only presence or the highest stage of AKI in predicting 90-day mortality. Using AKI burden or other more granular methods may be helpful in future epidemiological studies of AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1645-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938017PMC
December 2019

Time course of signaling profiles of blood leukocytes in acute pancreatitis and sepsis.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2020 Feb - Apr;80(2):114-123. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Bacteriology and Immunology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Activation of intracellular signaling pathways in circulating leukocytes represents an early step in systemic immune-inflammatory response occurring e.g. in acute pancreatitis (AP) and sepsis. Previously, we found aberrations in the phosphorylation of leukocyte signaling proteins in patients with sepsis or AP (measured <48 h from hospital admission) resembling each other and associating with AP severity. Of these patients, those with sepsis or severe AP complicated by persistent organ dysfunction (OD+,  = 17) and patients with moderately severe AP (OD-,  = 6) were followed up in this study by measuring the phosphorylations at two additional time points (2-4 and 5-8 days after the initial sample) using phosphospecific whole blood flow cytometry. Twenty-eighty healthy subjects served as controls (HC). Constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation (pSTAT3) declined in monocytes and neutrophils of OD-/OD + and in lymphocytes of OD + and remained higher in OD- than HC. Monocytes of OD-/OD + showed low pSTAT3 and pSTAT1 levels in response to IL-6 through follow-up. Monocyte pNF-κB levels in response to TNF, LPS and in OD+, to in OD-, and lymphocyte pNF-κB levels in response to TNF in OD- increased during follow-up but remained lower than in HC, and neutrophil pNF-κB levels in response to TNF declined in OD-. Phorbol myristate acetate + Ca ionophore-stimulated pERK1/2 decreased in neutrophils of OD-/OD+. To conclude, in patients with moderately severe or severe AP or sepsis, improvement and molecular events contributing to OD can be assessed at the level of blood leukocyte signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365513.2019.1700548DOI Listing
February 2021

Mortality prediction models in the adult critically ill: A scoping review.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2020 04 26;64(4):424-442. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Critical Care, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Mortality prediction models are applied in the intensive care unit (ICU) to stratify patients into different risk categories and to facilitate benchmarking. To ensure that the correct prediction models are applied for these purposes, the best performing models must be identified. As a first step, we aimed to establish a systematic review of mortality prediction models in critically ill patients.

Methods: Mortality prediction models were searched in four databases using the following criteria: developed for use in adult ICU patients in high-income countries, with mortality as primary or secondary outcome. Characteristics and performance measures of the models were summarized. Performance was presented in terms of discrimination, calibration and overall performance measures presented in the original publication.

Results: In total, 43 mortality prediction models were included in the final analysis. In all, 15 models were only internally validated (35%), 13 externally (30%) and 10 (23%) were both internally and externally validated by the original researchers. Discrimination was assessed in 42 models (98%). Commonly used calibration measures were the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (60%) and the calibration plot (28%). Calibration was not assessed in 11 models (26%). Overall performance was assessed in the Brier score (19%) and the Nagelkerke's R (4.7%).

Conclusions: Mortality prediction models have varying methodology, and validation and performance of individual models differ. External validation by the original researchers is often lacking and head-to-head comparisons are urgently needed to identify the best performing mortality prediction models for guiding clinical care and research in different settings and populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13527DOI Listing
April 2020

Long-term patient-important outcomes after septic shock: A protocol for 1-year follow-up of the CLASSIC trial.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2020 03 26;64(3):410-416. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Intensive Care, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: In patients with septic shock, mortality is high, and survivors experience long-term physical, mental and social impairments. The ongoing Conservative vs Liberal Approach to fluid therapy of Septic Shock in Intensive Care (CLASSIC) trial assesses the benefits and harms of a restrictive vs standard-care intravenous (IV) fluid therapy. The hypothesis is that IV fluid restriction improves patient-important long-term outcomes.

Aim: To assess the predefined patient-important long-term outcomes in patients randomised into the CLASSIC trial.

Methods: In this pre-planned follow-up study of the CLASSIC trial, we will assess all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cognitive function 1 year after randomisation in the two intervention groups. The 1-year mortality will be collected from electronic patient records or central national registries in most participating countries. We will contact survivors and assess EuroQol 5-Dimension, -5-Level (EQ-5D-5L) and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale and Montreal Cognitive Assessment 5-minute protocol score. We will analyse mortality by logistic regression and use general linear models to assess HRQoL and cognitive function.

Discussion: With this pre-planned follow-up study of the CLASSIC trial, we will provide patient-important data on long-term survival, HRQoL and cognitive function of restrictive vs standard-care IV fluid therapy in patients with septic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13519DOI Listing
March 2020

Association of endothelial and glycocalyx injury biomarkers with fluid administration, development of acute kidney injury, and 90-day mortality: data from the FINNAKI observational study.

Ann Intensive Care 2019 Sep 11;9(1):103. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Injury to endothelium and glycocalyx predisposes to vascular leak, which may subsequently lead to increased fluid requirements and worse outcomes. In this post hoc study of the prospective multicenter observational Finnish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) cohort study conducted in 17 Finnish intensive care units, we studied the association of Syndecan-1 (SDC-1), Angiopoetin-2 (Ang-2), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with fluid administration and balance among septic critical care patients and their association with development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and 90-day mortality.

Results: SDC-1, Ang-2, sTM, VAP-1 and IL-6 levels were measured at ICU admission from 619 patients with sepsis. VAP-1 decreased (p < 0.001) and IL-6 increased (p < 0.001) with increasing amounts of administered fluid, but other biomarkers did not show differences according to fluid administration. In linear regression models adjusted for IL-6, only VAP-1 was significantly associated with fluid administration on day 1 (p < 0.001) and the cumulative fluid balance on day 5/ICU discharge (p = 0.001). Of 415 patients admitted without AKI, altogether 112 patients (27.0%) developed AKI > 12 h from ICU admission (AKI). They had higher sTM levels than patients without AKI, and after multivariable adjustment log, sTM level was associated with AKI with OR (95% CI) of 12.71 (2.96-54.67), p = 0.001). Ninety-day non-survivors (n = 180; 29.1%) had higher SDC-1 and sTM levels compared to survivors. After adjustment for known confounders, log SDC-1 (OR [95% CI] 2.13 [1.31-3.49], p = 0.002), log sTM (OR [95% CI] 7.35 [2.29-23.57], p < 0.001), and log Ang-2 (OR [95% CI] 2.47 [1.44-4.14], p = 0.001) associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality. Finally, patients who had high levels of all three markers, namely, SDC-1, Ang-2 and sTM, had an adjusted OR of 5.61 (95% CI 2.67-11.79; p < 0.001) for 90-day mortality.

Conclusions: VAP-1 and IL-6 associated with fluid administration on the first ICU day. After adjusting for confounders, sTM was associated with development of AKI after 12 h from ICU admission. SDC-1, Ang-2 and sTM were independently associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-019-0575-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738365PMC
September 2019

No Association between Genetic Loci near and and Acute Kidney Injury in the Critically Ill.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 01;201(1):109-111

University of Helsinki and Helsinki University HospitalHelsinki, Finlandand.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201903-0633LEDOI Listing
January 2020

The association of endothelial injury and systemic inflammation with perioperative myocardial infarction.

Ann Clin Biochem 2019 11 4;56(6):674-683. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004563219873357DOI Listing
November 2019