Publications by authors named "Vijayvel Jayaprakash"

32 Publications

Two-year follow-up of a randomized phase III clinical trial of nivolumab vs. the investigator's choice of therapy in the Asian population for recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CheckMate 141).

Head Neck 2020 Oct 24;42(10):2852-2862. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Head and Neck Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan.

Background: The present study evaluated the 2-year survival of the Asian population in the CheckMate 141 trial.

Methods: The CheckMate 141 trial included patients with recurrent or metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). In the present study, 34 Asian patients (nivolumab group: 23 patients; investigator's choice of therapy [IC] group: 11 patients) were analyzed.

Results: The median overall survival (OS) was 12.1 and 6.2 months for the nivolumab and IC groups, respectively. The estimated 2-year OS rates were 22.7% and 0% for the nivolumab and IC groups, respectively. In the nivolumab group, the patients with any treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), including skin-related disorders, showed better OS than the patients without any TRAEs.

Conclusions: Nivolumab demonstrated prolonged OS benefits in the Asian population with platinum-refractory R/M SCCHN and a favorable safety profile. TRAEs, including skin-related disorders, may be favorable prognostic factors for nivolumab efficacy.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02105636.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540331PMC
October 2020

Nivolumab versus investigator's choice in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Efficacy and safety in CheckMate 141 by age.

Oral Oncol 2019 09 3;96:7-14. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

University Hospital of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, Bonn 53127, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: Many patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) are ≥65 years old; comorbidities and other age-related factors may affect their ability to tolerate traditional chemotherapy. Nivolumab is the only immunotherapy to significantly improve overall survival (OS) versus investigator's choice (IC) of single-agent chemotherapy at primary analysis in a phase 3 trial (CheckMate 141) in patients with recurrent/metastatic SCCHN post-platinum therapy. In this post hoc analysis, we report efficacy and safety by age.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (n = 240) or IC (methotrexate, docetaxel, or cetuximab n = 121). The primary endpoint of the trial was OS. For this analysis, outcomes were analyzed by age < 65 and ≥65 years. The data cut-off date was September 2017 (minimum follow-up 24.2 months).

Results: At baseline, 68 patients (28.3%) receiving nivolumab and 45 patients (37.2%) receiving IC were ≥65 years. Baseline characteristics were generally similar across age groups. OS and tumor response benefits with nivolumab versus IC were maintained regardless of age. The 30-month OS rates of 11.2% (<65 years) and 13.0% (≥65 years) with nivolumab were more than tripled versus corresponding IC rates of 1.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The nivolumab arm had a lower rate of treatment-related adverse events versus IC regardless of age, consistent with the overall patient population.

Conclusion: In CheckMate 141, nivolumab resulted in a higher survival versus IC in patients <65 and ≥65 years, with a manageable safety profile in both age groups. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02105636.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.06.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723820PMC
September 2019

Nivolumab treatment beyond RECIST-defined progression in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in CheckMate 141: A subgroup analysis of a randomized phase 3 clinical trial.

Cancer 2019 09 27;125(18):3208-3218. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Response patterns with immune checkpoint inhibitors may be different from those with chemotherapy. Therefore, assessment of response to immunotherapy with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1, could result in premature treatment termination. The randomized, open-label, phase 3 CheckMate 141 trial (NCT02105636), which evaluated nivolumab in recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after platinum therapy, allowed treatment beyond first RECIST-defined progression (TBP) according to protocol-specified criteria.

Methods: In CheckMate 141, patients with RECIST-defined progression who had a stable performance status and demonstrated clinical benefit without rapid disease progression were permitted to receive TBP with nivolumab at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until further progression, which was defined as an additional ≥10% increase in tumor volume. This post hoc analysis evaluated outcomes for patients who received TBP with nivolumab.

Results: Of 240 patients randomized to nivolumab, 146 experienced RECIST-defined progression. Sixty-two of these patients received TBP, and 84 discontinued treatment (no TBP). Among the 60 TBP patients evaluable for response, 15 (25%) had no change in their tumor burden, and 15 (25%) had reductions in target lesion size; 3 patients (5%) had reductions >30%. The median overall survival among TBP patients was 12.7 months (95% confidence interval, 9.7-14.6 months). No new safety signals were observed with TBP. Exploratory analyses of immune cell biomarkers suggested a potential relationship with initial and TBP responses.

Conclusions: Tumor burden reduction was noted in a proportion of patients who received TBP with nivolumab in CheckMate 141. Additional research is warranted to identify factors predictive of a TBP benefit in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771504PMC
September 2019

Nivolumab vs investigator's choice in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: 2-year long-term survival update of CheckMate 141 with analyses by tumor PD-L1 expression.

Oral Oncol 2018 06 17;81:45-51. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Objectives: We report 2-year results from CheckMate 141 to establish the long-term efficacy and safety profile of nivolumab and outcomes by tumor PD-L1 expression in patients with recurrent or metastatic (R/M),platinum-refractory squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).

Methods: Patients with R/M SCCHN with tumor progression/recurrence within 6 months of platinum therapy were randomized 2:1 to nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or investigator's choice (IC). Primary endpoint: overall survival (OS). Data cutoff: September 2017.

Results: With 24.2 months' minimum follow-up, nivolumab (n = 240) continued to improve OS vs IC (n = 121), hazard ratio (HR) = 0.68 (95% CI 0.54-0.86). Nivolumab nearly tripled the estimated 24-month OS rate (16.9%) vs IC (6.0%), and demonstrated OS benefit across patients with tumor PD-L1 expression ≥1% (HR [95% CI] = 0.55 [0.39-0.78]) and  < 1% (HR [95% CI] = 0.73 [0.49-1.09]), and regardless of tumor HPV status. Estimated OS rates at 18, 24, and 30 months with nivolumab were consistent irrespective of PD-L1 expression (<1%/≥1%). In the nivolumab arm, there were no observed differences in baseline characteristics or safety profile between long-term survivors and the overall population. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse event rates were 15.3% and 36.9% for nivolumab and IC, respectively.

Conclusion: Nivolumab significantly improved OS at the primary analysis and demonstrated prolonged OS benefit vs IC and maintenance of a manageable and consistent safety profile with 2-year follow-up. OS benefit was observed with nivolumab irrespective of PD-L1 expression and HPV status. (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02105636).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2018.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563923PMC
June 2018

Cancer stem cell and its niche in malignant progression of oral potentially malignant disorders.

Oral Oncol 2017 12 12;75:140-147. Epub 2017 Nov 12.

Head and Neck Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, USA; Integrated Head and Neck Oncology Research Program, Mazumdar Shaw Centre for Translational Research, Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation, Bangalore, India; Head and Neck Oncology, Mazumdar Shaw Medical Centre, Bangalore, India; Mazumdar Shaw Medical Centre-Roswell Park Collaboration Program, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine association between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their niche with progression of oral potentially malignant disorders.

Materials And Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders, stratified into high/low risk lesions based on the degree of dysplasia and oral cancer were included in this study. Immunohistochemical profiling of markers of CSCs (CD44), endothelial cells (CD31) and CSC-vascular niche cross-talk (CXCR4 and SDF1) were carried out. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate the relationship of markers with histopathology grade (ANOVA, and χ test, unpaired t test) using GraphPad InStat v3.06.

Results: The study included 550 samples (349 patients) and analysis showed progressive increase in expression levels of CSC and its niche markers with increase in grade of dysplasia as compared to the normal cohort (p < 0.05). Co-expression analysis revealed that, in comparison to the normal cohort, a larger percentage of patients showed increased expression of CD31 and CD44 (CD31/CD44; p < 0.05) and of CXCR4 and SDF1 (CXCR4/SDF1; p = 0.04), suggesting an association of the CSCs and the vascular niche. Further, distribution of patients with CD44/CXCR4 (p < 0.05) and CD31/SDF1 (p = 0.01) was significantly increased in the high-risk group (18%), suggesting a correlation between CD44/CXCR4 cells, the vascular niche and progression of oral dysplastic lesions.

Conclusion: The increased expression of CSCs, the vascular niche and their cross talk markers are associated with increase in severity of dysplasia suggesting their role in the progression of oral potentially malignant disorders and may hence be used in identifying high-risk OPMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2017.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880641PMC
December 2017

Correlation of Symptoms, Clinical Signs, and Biomarkers of Inflammation in Postsurgical Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2017 Jun 4;126(6):455-462. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York, Gromo Institute and Sinus Center, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate symptoms described by patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polypoid changes/nasal polyps and their correlation with computed tomography (CT), nasal endoscopy, and intranasal biomarkers.

Study Design: Prospective multicenter study symptom data from postsurgical adult chronic rhinosinusitis study participants with recurrent disease refractory to medical therapy were analyzed in comparison with objective data.

Methods: Using logistic regression analysis, participant-rated 16-question surveys from 258 participants were assessed for correlation with nasal endoscopy scores, CT percentage of sinus occlusion, and intranasal biomarkers of fungal antigens (Alternaria and Aspergillus), eosinophilic inflammation (eosinophil-derived neurotoxin [EDN] and major basic protein [MBP]), and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 5 and 13).

Results: Study participant assessments revealed increased CT occlusion in participants presenting with greater inability to smell ( P < .019). Mucosal inflammation identified on nasal endoscopy was positively correlated with congestion ( P < .028), runny nose ( P < .002), and ear pain ( P < .007). Elevated EDN was positively correlated in patients with bothersome congestion ( P < .031) and runny nose ( P < .011). Sneezing was positively correlated with multiple markers: Alternaria ( P < .024), interleukin-13 ( P < .027), MBP ( P < .034), and interleukin-5 ( P < .019).

Conclusion: Nasal endoscopy, not CT imaging, has the strongest correlation with the 2 cardinal symptoms of congestion and runny nose in CRS patients; these correlate with biomarkers of eosinophilic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003489417701939DOI Listing
June 2017

Subsite variation in survival of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas 2004 to 2011.

Laryngoscope 2017 05 3;127(5):1087-1092. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: To evaluate subsite-specific differences in survival between squamous cell carcinomas of the base of tongue and tonsillar fossa in a modern cohort likely to have been treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy, chemotherapy for stage III and IV, and have had a high incidence of human papillomavirus-associated tumors.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort analysis utilizing data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of patients with base of tongue and tonsillar fossa squamous cell carcinoma from 2004 to 2011.

Methods: The cohort included 15,299 primary base of tongue and tonsillar fossa squamous cell carcinoma patients without distant metastases treated between 2004 and 2011. Subsite differences in overall survival and disease-specific survival were examined with Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate cox proportional hazard ratios were estimated for overall and disease-specific survival.

Results: The cohort included 7,220 (47.2%) base of tongue and 8,079 (52.8%) tonsillar fossa squamous cell carcinoma patients. Overall survival with all stages combined favored tonsillar fossa (P < .001) and remained superior when stratified by stage. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, race, and treatment, the hazard ratio for overall survival was superior for tonsillar fossa tumors compared to base of tongue tumors for all stages (stage 1, P = .041; stage 2, P = .006; stages 3 and 4, P < .001). Disease-specific survival also favored improved outcomes for tonsillar fossa.

Conclusions: In this large modern cohort, overall and disease-specific survival favored outcomes in tonsillar fossa compared with base of tongue. Further study is required to evaluate factors that influence survival differences between tonsillar fossa and base of tongue despite modern therapy.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1087-1092, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.26369DOI Listing
May 2017

Smoking cessation is associated with improved survival in oropharynx cancer treated by chemoradiation.

Laryngoscope 2016 12 27;126(12):2733-2738. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: The effect of smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) on overall survival (OS) of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT) remains unclear.

Study Design: Retrospective review.

Methods: Clinical characteristics of OPSCC patients treated between 2008 and 2015 with CCRT were abstracted from medical records. OS curves and multivariate cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were examined.

Results: Of 120 evaluable patients, 71% had HPV tumors. Median follow-up duration for the entire cohort was 41.5 months (range = 6-88 months). HPV current smokers experienced significantly worse 5-year OS (73% alive vs. 36% alive, P = .01) and there was a similar trend in HPV current smokers (66% alive vs. 31% alive, P = .28) compared to former/never smokers undergoing CCRT. In a multivariate cox proportional hazard model adjusted for age, gender, and overall tumor stage, HPV current smokers experienced nearly a fourfold increase in overall mortality in comparison to HPV never/former smokers (HR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.35-10.0). Similarly, current smokers with HPV tumors (HR = 6.80, 95% CI = 1.11-41.67) had increased mortality compared to never/former smokers.

Conclusions: Current smoking is associated with poor prognosis, independent of HPV status, in CCRT-treated OPSCC patients. Current smoking produced an approximately four- to sevenfold increase in risk of mortality for HPV and HPV patients, respectively. Regardless of pack years and HPV status, efforts should be made to achieve smoking cessation before CCRT.

Level Of Evidence: 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2733-2738, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.26083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880216PMC
December 2016

A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase IIB Trial of Curcumin in Oral Leukoplakia.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2016 Aug 7;9(8):683-91. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, India.

Oral leukoplakia is a potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity, for which no effective treatment is available. We investigated the effectiveness of curcumin, a potent inhibitor of NF-κB/COX-2, molecules perturbed in oral carcinogenesis, to treat leukoplakia. Subjects with oral leukoplakia (n = 223) were randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive orally, either 3.6 g/day of curcumin (n = 111) or placebo (n = 112), for 6 months. The primary endpoint was clinical response obtained by bi-dimensional measurement of leukoplakia size at recruitment and 6 months. Histologic response, combined clinical and histologic response, durability and effect of long-term therapy for an additional six months in partial responders, safety and compliance were the secondary endpoints. Clinical response was observed in 75 (67.5%) subjects [95% confidence interval (CI), 58.4-75.6] in the curcumin and 62 (55.3%; 95% CI, 46.1-64.2) in placebo arm (P = 0.03). This response was durable, with 16 of the 18 (88.9%; 95% CI, 67.2-96.9) subjects with complete response in curcumin and 7 of 8 subjects (87.5%) in placebo arm, demonstrating no relapse after 6 months follow-up. Difference in histologic response between curcumin and placebo was not significant (HR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.45-1.71; P = 0.71). Combined clinical and histologic response assessment indicated a significantly better response with curcumin (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; P = 0.02). Continued therapy, in subjects with partial response at 6 months, did not yield additional benefit. The treatment did not raise any safety concerns. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with curcumin (3.6 g for six months), thus was well tolerated and demonstrated significant and durable clinical response for 6 months. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 683-91. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-15-0390DOI Listing
August 2016

Progression of gingival squamous cell carcinoma from early to late stage after invasive dental procedure.

Gen Dent 2016 Mar-Apr;64(2):38-43

Early presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC) is at times misdiagnosed as a benign inflammatory or reactive oral condition. Some misdiagnosed patients undergo unnecessary, invasive dental procedures, resulting in delayed cancer diagnosis and an increased risk of accelerated disease progression due to disruption of the periosteum and cortical bone. The records of 58 patients with biopsy-proven GSCC were retrospectively reviewed. The sample included 32 patients who underwent an invasive dental procedure (IDP) prior to cancer diagnosis and 26 patients who did not undergo an IDP (non-case group). Patients from both groups initially presented with similar symptoms. The median duration of symptoms at initial clinical presentation was 6 months for the IDP group and 2 months for the non-case group. In IDP patients, symptoms worsened after the IDP was rendered, with 37.5% presenting with a severe-grade symptom. In both groups, the majority of lesions were found on the posterior mandible and had a histologic grading of moderately differentiated GSCC. The odds of the IDP group having late-stage disease were 2.94 times greater than the odds for the control group. Stage T3/T4 malignancy was diagnosed in 77.4% of the IDP patients versus 53.8% of non-case patients. Disease-specific mortality was comparable; however, surgical treatment was significantly more extensive in the IDP group than in the non-case group. The disruption of alveolar periosteum in undiagnosed oral cancer patients results in significant delay in diagnosis, necessitating more complicated treatment regimens because of local tumor progression.
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March 2017

An Analysis of Current Techniques Used for Intraoperative Flap Evaluation.

Ann Plast Surg 2015 Dec;75(6):679-85

From the *Department of Head, Neck & Plastic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY; and †Department of Plastic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Over the last decade, microsurgeons have used a greater variety of more complex flaps. At the same time, microsurgeons have also become more interested in technology, such as indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT), and photospectrometry, for preoperative planning and postoperative monitoring. These technologies are now migrating into the operating room, and are used to optimize flap design and to identify areas of hypoperfusion or problems with the anastomoses. Although relatively more has been published about ICG angiography, information is generally lacking about the intraoperative role of these techniques.

Methods: A systematic analysis of articles discussing intraoperative ICG angiography, DIRT, and photospectrometry was performed to better define the sensitivity, specificity, expected outcomes, and potential complications associated with these techniques.

Results: For intraoperative ICG angiography, the sensitivity was 90.9% (95% CI: 77.5-100) and the accuracy was 98.6% (95% CI: 97.6-99.7). The sensitivity of DIRT was 33% (95% CI: 11.3-64.6), the specificity was 100% (95% CI: 84.9-100), and the accuracy was 80% (95% CI: 71.2-89.7). The sensitivity of intraoperative photospectrometry was 92% (95% CI: 72.4-98.6), the specificity was 100% (95% CI: 98.8-100), and the accuracy was also 100% (95% CI: 98.7-100).

Conclusion: These technologies for intraoperative perfusion assessment have the potential to provide objective data that may improve decisions about flap design and the quality of microvascular anastomoses. However, more work is needed to clearly document their value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000000235DOI Listing
December 2015

Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries.

Int J Cancer 2015 Mar 23;136(5):1125-39. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Glasgow Dental School, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4531373PMC
March 2015

Folate intake and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer: a pooled analysis within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

Int J Cancer 2015 Feb 7;136(4):904-14. Epub 2014 Jul 7.

Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.

There are suggestions of an inverse association between folate intake and serum folate levels and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OPCs), but most studies are limited in sample size, with only few reporting information on the source of dietary folate. Our study aims to investigate the association between folate intake and the risk of OPC within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from ten case-control studies participating in the INHANCE consortium, including 5,127 cases and 13,249 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the associations between total folate intake (natural, fortification and supplementation) and natural folate only, and OPC risk. We found an inverse association between total folate intake and overall OPC risk (the adjusted OR for the highest vs. the lowest quintile was 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99), with a stronger association for oral cavity (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.75). A similar inverse association, though somewhat weaker, was observed for folate intake from natural sources only in oral cavity cancer (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.91). The highest OPC risk was observed in heavy alcohol drinkers with low folate intake as compared to never/light drinkers with high folate (OR = 4.05, 95% CI: 3.43-4.79); the attributable proportion (AP) owing to interaction was 11.1% (95% CI: 1.4-20.8%). Lastly, we reported an OR of 2.73 (95% CI:2.34-3.19) for those ever tobacco users with low folate intake, compared with nevere tobacco users and high folate intake (AP of interaction =10.6%, 95% CI: 0.41-20.8%). Our project of a large pool of case-control studies supports a protective effect of total folate intake on OPC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262536PMC
February 2015

Socioeconomic factors and the risk for sarcoma.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2014 Nov;23(6):560-5

Departments of aCancer Prevention and Control bHead & Neck Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York cDepartment of Cancer Epidemiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida dDepartment of Sarcoma Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissue. Although several occupational exposures have been evaluated in association with sarcoma, little is known about the role of socioeconomic indicators such as education. Socioeconomic status has been found to be associated with risk of development of several types of cancers, primarily lung, gastric, and cervical cancers. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association of socioeconomic level with the risk for sarcoma. A total of 371 incident cases of sarcoma were matched in terms of age, sex, and year of enrollment in the study with 742 cancer-free controls. Education and income levels were evaluated as the indicators of socioeconomic status. Higher education (college level) was associated with a significantly lower risk for sarcoma [odds ratio (OR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.80], even after adjusting for important confounders. After stratifying by sex, significantly lower risk for sarcoma was observed among men who had college level education compared with men with a level of education of eighth grade or lower (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.19-0.74). A significant association between education and the risk for sarcoma remained after stratifying by income (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.86, among the low income group). When analyzed as a composite exposure, individuals with high education and high income status had significantly lower risk for sarcoma compared with those with low income and low education status (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.23-0.71). Thus, socioeconomic factors may play a significant role in determining the risk for sarcoma and should be explored further to elucidate the underlying factors that may explain these sociodemographic inequalities related to sarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000004DOI Listing
November 2014

Survival differences between organ preservation surgery and definitive radiotherapy in early supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Feb 19;150(2):237-44. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Department of Head and Neck/Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Objective: Single-modality treatment, either with organ preservation surgery (OPS) or definitive radiation (RT), is the treatment of choice for patients with early supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SGC). However, studies comparing the effectiveness of these 2 techniques are lacking. This study compares the survival outcomes in early SGC patients treated with OPS versus RT.

Study Design: Secondary data analysis.

Setting: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database.

Subjects And Methods: This study included adult patients with early-stage (T1N0, T2N0) SGC undergoing single-modality treatment with either OPS (with or without neck dissection [ND]) or RT between 1988 and 2008. Survival analysis was used to compare the overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) between patients treated with OPS+ND, OPS alone, and RT.

Results: A total of 2631 T1/T2 N0 SGC patients were identified, of whom 167 (6%) were treated with OPS+ND, 186 (7%) with OPS only, and 2278 patients (87%) with definitive RT only. In stage I (T1N0) SGC patients, a significantly better 5-year DSS was noted for both OPS+ND (81% vs 68%, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.61, P = .03) and OPS only (82% vs 68%, HR = 0.70, P = .05) when compared with definitive RT. For stage II (T2N0) patients, only OPS+ND resulted in a significantly better 5-year DSS (86% vs 60%, HR = 0.31, P < .001) when compared with patients treated with RT.

Conclusions: Patients with early SGC who underwent OPS+ND had better OS and DSS than patients undergoing RT alone. OPS+ND may be considered a viable and preferred treatment option in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599813512783DOI Listing
February 2014

Osteonecrosis of the jaw - prevention and treatment strategies for oral health professionals.

Oral Oncol 2013 Sep 23;49(9):878-886. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Department of Dentistry & Maxillofacial Prosthetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma and metastatic breast, prostate and renal cancers have a better opportunity for longer survival due to a myriad of chemotherapies regimens that attempt to manage disease progression while decreasing treatment-related side effects. Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a known side effect of bisphosphonates and other anti-neoplastic drugs. This complication can lead to oncologic treatment interruptions as well as diminished quality of life. Most recommendations for treatment of ONJ are based on position papers and case reports, while evidence-based treatment paradigms are lacking. With cancer survivorship on the rise, long-term chemotherapeutic side effects are becoming more prevalent and attention to untoward oral complications cannot be understated. In this review, the accepted recommendations for dental clearance prior to head and neck chemo-radiation therapy are put forth as a means of possibly preventing and treating drug induced ONJ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.06.008DOI Listing
September 2013

Sentinel node biopsy in lieu of neck dissection for staging oral cancer.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 Aug;139(8):779-82

Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton St, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

Importance: Neck dissection is the standard staging procedure to ascertain the pathologic status of cervical lymph nodes in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but it results in multiple morbidities.

Objective: To examine outcomes of patients with OSCC who underwent sentinel node biopsy (SNB) as the sole neck staging procedure.

Design: Retrospective review of patients who underwent SNB during the period 2005 through 2011.

Setting: National Cancer Institute–designated comprehensive cancer center.

Participants: Thirty-eight patients with clinically T1 or T2N0 OSCC.

Interventions: Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with intraoperative gamma probe localization was used. Sentinel lymph nodes were serially sectioned, formalin fixed, and examined at 3 levels. All patients with positive SNB results underwent neck dissection, and the patients with negative SNB results were observed clinically.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Sensitivity and predictive value of SNB, recurrence rates, and disease-specific survival rates.

Results: There were 18 T1 and 20 T2 tumors. Five patients had positive SNB results, of whom 3 had additional positive nodes on subsequent neck dissection. Two of 33 patients with negative SNB results developed a regional recurrence. The sensitivity and negative predictive value for staging the neck with SNB alone were 71% (5 of 7) and 94% (31 of 33), respectively. Mean follow-up was 31 months. The mean disease-free survival duration for patients with positive and negative SNB results was 30 and 65 months, respectively (P = .08). The disease-specific survival rate for patients with positive and negative SNB results was 80% and 91%, respectively. There was no significant difference in disease-specific survival between patients with true-negative and false-negative SNB results (34 vs 44 months; P = .38).

Conclusions And Relevance: The majority of patients with positive results on SNB had additional positive nodes on neck dissection. A low rate of isolated neck recurrence was found in patients with negative results on SNB. Individuals with negative results on SNB exhibited better overall and disease-specific survival than those with positive results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2013.3863DOI Listing
August 2013

Survival rates and prognostic factors for infiltrating salivary duct carcinoma: Analysis of 228 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

Head Neck 2014 May 7;36(5):694-701. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Department of Head and Neck/Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York; Department of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Prosthetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.

Background: The survival rates and prognostic factors for salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) are not clear.

Methods: Survival estimates and prognostic factors were evaluated for 228 patients with SDC identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

Results: Median overall survival (OS) duration for patients with SDC was 79 months and 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate was 64%. Among patients with SDC with lymph node involvement, larger primary tumor size (>3 cm) was associated with twice the risk of death (p < .03). Factors predictive of improved DSS were age (p = .01), tumor size (p = .006), tumor grade (p = .02), and lymph node involvement (p < .001). Adjuvant radiotherapy did not improve survival when compared to surgery alone for early-stage (I-II) disease (p = .28).

Conclusion: Younger patients with SDC (<50 years) showed a better prognosis. Primary tumor size and lymph node involvement were independent and additive risk factors for poor prognosis. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of SDC needs to be explored further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.23350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524549PMC
May 2014

Lung cancer screening update.

J Carcinog 2013 31;12. Epub 2013 Jan 31.

Department of Medicine Pulmonology, Elm and Carlton Streets, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally and the American cancer society estimates approximately 226,160 new cases and 160,340 deaths from lung cancer in the USA in the year 2012. The majority of lung cancers are diagnosed in the later stages which impacts the overall survival. The 5-year survival rate for pathological st age IA lung cancer is 73% but drops to only 13% for stage IV. Thus, early detection through screening and prevention are the keys to reduce the global burden of lung cancer. This article discusses the current state of lung cancer screening, including the results of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial, the consideration of implementing computed tomography screening, and a brief overview of the role of bronchoscopy in early detection and potential biomarkers that may aid in the early diagnosis of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1477-3163.106681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3622360PMC
April 2013

Enterococcus faecalis enhances cell proliferation through hydrogen peroxide-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor activation.

Infect Immun 2012 Oct 30;80(10):3545-58. Epub 2012 Jul 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA.

Enterococcus faecalis is a member of the intestinal and oral microbiota that may affect the etiology of colorectal and oral cancers. The mechanisms by which E. faecalis may contribute to the initiation and progression of these cancers remain uncertain. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is postulated to play a crucial role in oral carcinogenesis. A link between E. faecalis and EGFR signaling in oral cancer has not been elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between E. faecalis and oral cancer and to determine the underlying mechanisms that link E. faecalis to EGFR signaling. We report the high frequency of E. faecalis infection in oral tumors and the clinical association with EGFR activation. Using human oral cancer cells, we support the clinical findings and demonstrate that E. faecalis can induce EGFR activation and cell proliferation. E. faecalis activates EGFR through production of H(2)O(2), a signaling molecule that activates several signaling pathways. Inhibitors of H(2)O(2) (catalase) and EGFR (gefitinib) significantly blocked E. faecalis-induced EGFR activation and cell proliferation. Therefore, E. faecalis infection of oral tumor tissues suggests a possible association between E. faecalis infection and oral carcinogenesis. Interaction of E. faecalis with host cells and production of H(2)O(2) increase EGFR activation, thereby contributing to cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00479-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3457582PMC
October 2012

Diabetes mellitus and gastric carcinoma: Is there an association?

J Carcinog 2011 2;10:30. Epub 2011 Dec 2.

Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with the risk of several gastrointestinal cancers including liver, pancreas, colon and rectum. However, the evidence is inconclusive for gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). In the current review, we summarize 20 population-based cohort studies that compared GC incidence and mortality between diabetic and non-diabetic population. We discuss the shared risk factors and provide qualitative and quantitative (meta-analytic) summary of the current evidence evaluating the association by high-risk subgroups. The overall risk-estimate based on all studies did not show an increased risk of GC in diabetics. However, 2 cohort studies conducted in East Asian countries, where Helicobacter pylori infection and GC rates are higher, showed a higher risk of GC in diabetics. Additionally, high plasma glucose levels in the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection increased the risk of GC by over four times, suggesting a multiplicative effect. Results from the meta-analysis show that, the risk of GC was also higher in populations with greater prevalence of type 1 DM (relative risk = 1.60), suggesting an insulin-independent carcinogenic process in this subgroup. The risk of mortality due to GC was higher in diabetics compared to non-diabetics (relative risk = 1.62). Although the overall risk estimates do not show an association between DM and GC, complex interactions between infectious, molecular, demographic and host factors may convey a higher risk in certain subgroups. Future studies should be sufficiently powered for detailed subgroup analysis to elucidate the causative and mechanistic association between DM and GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1477-3163.90481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243346PMC
August 2012

Selenium and other antioxidants for chemoprevention of gastrointestinal cancers.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2011 Aug;25(4-5):507-18

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 901 Washington Street, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

Antioxidants such as selenium, vitamin E and C and carotenoids have been hypothesized as chemopreventive agents for several cancers. In the current review, we evaluate the results of epidemiological and interventional studies and summarize current knowledge of the prevention potential of the antioxidants, specific to gastrointestinal cancers. While early studies based on animal models and cell lines showed promise for antioxidants as chemopreventive agents for several gastrointestinal cancers, results from epidemiological studies and randomized trials do not support this promise. One large randomized trial, conducted in a region with widespread nutritional deficiency, showed that antioxidant use may confer protection against gastrointestinal cancers. However, this result has not been replicated in other epidemiological studies or the 10 other randomized trials conducted in developed Western countries. Overall, currently there is no evidence that antioxidants are protective against gastrointestinal cancers in populations whose members are replete in antioxidant intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpg.2011.09.006DOI Listing
August 2011

Previous head and neck cancers portend poor prognoses in lung cancer patients.

Ann Thorac Surg 2011 Sep;92(3):1056-60; discussion 1060-1

Department of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Prosthetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA.

Background: Although a common clinical pairing, the epidemiology and prognosis of lung cancer (LC) after head and neck cancer (HNC) is not well described.

Methods: Data from the database of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to study the epidemiology and survival of patients with LC after HNC. These data were compared with those from our institutional cancer registry.

Results: Of all patients with a history of HNC in the SEER database, 8,225 (5%) patients went on to develop LC. This was more than three times the incidence of second primary lung cancers (1.5%). Subsequent LCs in patients with a history of HNC were more common among those with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and those with localized HNC. Patients with HNC followed by LC had poorer overall survival than did the overall population of patients with LCs in the SEER database. Overall survival after the onset of LC was dismal (median survival, 8 months). Survival was not affected by histologic concordance between HNC and LC. An analysis of 72 patients with LC after HNC reported in our institutional tumor registry over the past 37 years yielded similar results.

Conclusions: Of patients who survive LC or HNC, the latter are much more likely to develop a new pulmonary malignancy. Lung cancers that develop after HNC have a poor prognosis. This phenomenon is not explained by misclassified metastases, because histologically discordant cases behave just as poorly. Enhanced surveillance and chemoprevention strategies are needed to detect and prevent subsequent primary LC in survivors of HNC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.03.146DOI Listing
September 2011

Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in epithelial dysplasia of oral cavity and oropharynx: a meta-analysis, 1985-2010.

Oral Oncol 2011 Nov 3;47(11):1048-54. Epub 2011 Aug 3.

Department of Dentistry and MFP, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are causally related to a sub-set of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers. However, a clear estimate of the prevalence of HPV-16/18 in oral cavity and oropharyngeal dysplasia (OOPD) is not available. This literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to provide a prevalence estimate for HPV-16/18 in OOPD. Twenty-two studies that reported prevalence of HPV-16 and/or 18 in 458 OOPD lesions were analyzed. Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the prevalence of HPV-16/18 and logistic regression was used for stratified analysis by age, gender, and histological grade. The overall prevalence of HPV-16/18 in OOPD lesions was 24.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 16.4-36.7%)]. The individual prevalence for HPV-16 alone was 24.4%. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 in oral cavity lesions alone was 25.3% (95% CI, 14.2-45.2%). The odds of detection of HPV-16/18 in dysplastic lesions in males were twice that of females [odds ratio (OR), 2.44]. HPV-16/18 were 3 times more common in dysplastic lesions (OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.95-5.53%) and invasive cancers (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 2.07-5.69%), when compared to normal biopsies. There was no significant difference in HPV-16/18 rates between dysplastic lesions and cancers or between mild, moderate or severe dysplastic lesions. This meta-analysis provides a quantification of the prevalence of HPV types 16/18 in OOPD lesions. These results also support the assumption that HPV-16/18 infection occurs during the early phase of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.07.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3640331PMC
November 2011

Tobacco smoking as a risk factor of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung: pooled analysis of seven case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).

Cancer Causes Control 2011 Jan 12;22(1):73-9. Epub 2010 Nov 12.

The Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) was established in 2004, based on the collaboration of research groups leading large molecular epidemiology studies of lung cancer that are ongoing or have been recently completed. This framework offered the opportunity to investigate the role of tobacco smoking in the development of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), a rare form of lung cancer.

Methods: Our pooled data comprised seven case-control studies from the United States, with detailed information on tobacco smoking and histology, which contributed 799 cases of BAC and 15,859 controls. We estimated the odds ratio of BAC for tobacco smoking, using never smokers as a referent category, after adjustment for age, sex, race, and study center.

Results: The odds ratio of BAC for ever smoking was 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08, 2.93); the risk increased linearly with duration, amount, and cumulative cigarette smoking and persisted long after smoking cessation. The proportion of BAC cases attributable to smoking was 0.47 (95% CI 0.39, 0.54).

Conclusions: This analysis provides a precise estimate of the risk of BAC for tobacco smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-010-9676-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002160PMC
January 2011

Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study.

BMC Cancer 2010 Apr 27;10:162. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

Background: Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed.

Methods: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis.

Results: Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend < 0.05). Interestingly, significant associations were observed for intake of fruits and total vegetables with lung cancer among never smokers. Conversely, significant inverse associations with cruciferous vegetable intake were observed primarily among smokers, in particular former smokers, although significant interactions were not detected between smoking and intake of any food group. Of four lung cancer histological subtypes, significant inverse associations were observed primarily among patients with squamous or small cell carcinoma - the two subtypes more strongly associated with heavy smoking.

Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2874783PMC
April 2010

Autofluorescence-guided surveillance for oral cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2009 Nov;2(11):966-74

Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA.

Early detection of oral premalignant lesions (OPL) and oral cancers (OC) is critical for improved survival. We evaluated if the addition of autofluorescence visualization (AFV) to conventional white-light examination (WLE) improved the ability to detect OPLs/OCs. Sixty high-risk patients, with suspicious oral lesions or recently diagnosed untreated OPLs/OCs, underwent sequential surveillance with WLE and AFV. Biopsies were obtained from all suspicious areas identified on both examinations (n = 189) and one normal-looking control area per person (n = 60). Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for WLE, AFV, and WLE + AFV. Estimates were calculated separately for lesions classified by histopathologic grades as low-grade lesions, high-grade lesions (HGL), and OCs. Sequential surveillance with WLE + AFV provided a greater sensitivity than WLE in detecting low-grade lesions (75% versus 44%), HGLs (100% versus 71%), and OCs (100% versus 80%). The specificity in detecting OPLs/OCs decreased from 70% with WLE to 38% with WLE + AFV. Thirteen of the 76 additional biopsies (17%) obtained based on AFV findings were HGLs/OCs. Five patients (8%) were diagnosed with a HGL/OC only because of the addition of AFV to WLE. In seven patients, additional HGL/OC foci or wider OC margins were detected on AFV. Additionally, AFV aided in the detection of metachronous HGL/OC in 6 of 26 patients (23%) with a history of previously treated head and neck cancer. Overall, the addition of AFV to WLE improved the ability to detect HGLs/OCs. In spite of the lower specificity, AFV + WLE can be a highly sensitive first-line surveillance tool for detecting OPLs/OCs in high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653312PMC
November 2009

Higher intakes of vegetables and vegetable-related nutrients are associated with lower endometrial cancer risks.

J Nutr 2009 Feb 11;139(2):317-22. Epub 2008 Dec 11.

Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

A limited number of studies have investigated diet in association with endometrial cancer (EC). We examined the association between intakes of selected food groups and nutrients with EC risk among 541 women with histologically confirmed EC and 541 women with an intact uterus and noncancer diagnoses seen at Roswell Park Cancer Institute between 1982 and 1998. Self-reported dietary and other epidemiologic data were collected by questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI, adjusting for age, BMI, hormone replacement therapy use, cigarette smoking, lifetime duration of menstruation, and total energy intake. We observed significant inverse associations for women in the highest vs. lowest quartiles of intake of total vegetables (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34-0.75), vitamin E (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.27-0.70), dietary fiber (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39-0.94), beta-carotene (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37-0.82), lutein (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34-0.78), and folate (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.91). Our results support that vegetables and related nutrients are associated with decreased risk of EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.099960DOI Listing
February 2009

Usual adult body mass index is not predictive of ovarian cancer survival.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 Mar;16(3):626-8

Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, A-316 Carlton House, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-1052DOI Listing
March 2007

Chemoprevention of head and neck cancer with aspirin: a case-control study.

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006 Nov;132(11):1231-6

Department of Epidemiology, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the chemopreventive potential of aspirin against head and neck cancer.

Design: Hospital-based case-control study.

Setting: National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. Patients Individuals who received medical services at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, between 1982 and 1998 and who completed a comprehensive epidemiologic questionnaire.

Main Outcome Measure: Aspirin use among 529 patients with head and neck cancer and 529 hospital-based control subjects matched by age, sex, and smoking status.

Results: Aspirin use was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of head and neck cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.96). Consistent risk reductions were also noted in association with frequent and prolonged aspirin use. Further, a consistently decreasing trend in risk was noted with increasing duration of aspirin use (P(trend) = .005). Risk reduction was observed across all 5 primary tumor sites, with cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx exhibiting greater risk reduction. When analyzed by smoking and alcohol exposure levels, participants moderately exposed to either showed a statistically significant 33% risk reduction (adjusted odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.91), whereas participants exposed to both heavy smoking and alcohol use did not benefit from the protective effect of aspirin. The reduction in risk was relatively more significant in women.

Conclusions: Aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of head and neck cancer. This effect is more pronounced in individuals with low to moderate exposure to cigarette smoke or alcohol consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archotol.132.11.1231DOI Listing
November 2006