Publications by authors named "Vijayan Arun"

2 Publications

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Heavy metal impression in surface sediments and factors governing the fate of macrobenthic communties in tropical estuarine ecosystem, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 26;29(25):38567-38590. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Biogeochemistry Group, National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram, India.

The present study aims to investigate the contamination of heavy metals in the sediments of a tropical ecosystem, India, and to evaluate the factors responsible for the dominance of specific macrobenthic communities, particularly in estuarine sediments. For the analysis of Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in sediments, acid digestion and subsequent quantification by microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was performed, whereas for Hg determination, cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used. The general trend of the heavy metal concentration was observed as Cr > Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > Hg, regardless of any seasonal alteration. The estuarine region was considerably contaminated by Cu and Cr (C.F. > 2) irrespective of any seasonal difference, and by Cd in 2017 non-monsoon (CF > 3). Heavy metal contamination was most pronounced during the monsoon (2018). Estuarine and marine zone together considered as deteriorated zone especially during monsoon seasons (PLI > 1, 2018 monsoon) while riverine zone remained poorly contaminated (PLI < 1). Clay Loam/Clay/Heavy Clay textures preferred polychaetes and bivalves in the estuarine and marine zone as compared to other macrobenthic communities (OMC). Among the hydrochemical parameters, total dissolved solids in general and euryhaline and slightly alkaline pH preferred domination of bivalves followed by polychaetes in non-monsoon seasons. The trace metal contamination in estuarine sediments increases the concern of bioaccumulation tendency of dominant bivalves of the estuarine and coastal sediments.
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May 2022

Degradation of fluorescent high-visibility colors used in safety garments for the Australian railway industry.

J Safety Res 2016 Feb 2;56:1-7. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

School of Fashion and Textiles, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: This study investigated the compliance of four fluorescent orange high-visibility garment substrates that are predominantly used in the Australian railway industry. While Special Purpose Orange (SPO), a shade of the Fluorescent orange (Fl-orange) is recommended by most Australian states as the high-visibility background color of a safety garment, there appear to be variations in the background color of clothing used by line-workers and rail contractors. The color of the garment was assessed for compliance with the Australian Standard AS/NZS 1906.2.2010 for high-visibility materials for safety garments. The results were also compared with ANSI Z535.2011 and BS EN ISO 20471.2013 Standards.

Method: Photometric and colorimetric assessments of the background color of the garment substrates were performed using a spectrophotometer and were evaluated for compliance with the Standards after washing and exposure to UV.

Results: The spectrophotometry measurements showed that Fl-orange background color for all samples except one complied with the AS/NZS 1906.2 Standard for daytime high-visibility garments after 20 washes but failed to comply after exposure to UV. It was also found that the chromaticity coordinates of the corners of the Fl-orange color space, specified in the AS/NZS 1906.4.2010 Standard are much wider and yellower when compared with the ANSI Z535.1.2011 and BS EN ISO 20471.2013 Standards. The sample that failed to comply with the Australian and American Standards however complied with the ISO Standard.

Practical Applications: Irrespective of the Standard used, the research has shown the degrading effect of washing and light exposure and raises the questions as to how regularly, and under what conditions high-visibility garments need to be replaced. These findings will provide information for safety garment manufacturers about the characteristics and performance of high-visibility safety garments which make them conspicuous during daytime use. This research recommends that colors for railway workers should be chosen based on the conspicuity, commercial viability, reproducibility and durability rather than simply adopting standards from other industry domains or other countries.
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February 2016