Publications by authors named "Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Idiopathic first bite syndrome - A rare case report with review of literature.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 May-Aug;24(2):403. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

First bite syndrome (FBS) is a condition that classically presents as severe pain in the preauricular region, initiated on the first bite of a meal. In most of the cases reported, it is associated with a history of upper neck surgery or tumor of the parotid salivary gland or parapharyngeal space (PPS). Some propose that FBS arises due to damage to the cervical sympathetic trunk leading to the loss of sympathetic innervations to the parotid salivary gland. Literature also showed occurrence of this syndrome in individuals who had no history of parotid tumor, PPS tumor or surgery of the upper neck, and such cases are referred to as idiopathic FBS (IFBS). There are very few case reports reported on IFBS. We report the one such rare case of IFBS in a 35-year-old male, referred to the outpatient department, with a 5-month history of severe, sharp pain and bilateral swelling in the parotid region occurring only on the first bite of eating and would diminish over few minutes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_46_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802840PMC
September 2020

culture of oral keratinocytes using direct explant cell culture technique.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2019 May-Aug;23(2):243-247

Center for Incubation, Innovation, Research and Consultancy, Jyothy Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Background: Culture of cells and tissues is a standard research method practiced in many laboratories. In most of the cases, these cultures are being used as substrates for cell products or as investigative tools for delving the mechanism of gene expression, cell proliferation and transformation. Primary monolayer cell culture has been beneficial to study the general biology of both oral and skin keratinocytes. There are two different techniques of primary cell cultures followed, which include direct explant and enzymatic techniques.

Aims: The aim of the study was to optimize the culture of keratinocytes obtained from patients with normal oral mucosa by direct explant technique.

Materials And Methods: Keratinocytes were isolated from 15 patients and were cultured and observed under an inverted microscope. The cultured cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry method using pan-cytokeratin.

Results: The total success rate of primary culture of the oral epithelial cells by direct explant technique was 88.6%. No contamination of microorganisms in the primary cell cultures was obtained.

Conclusion: Within the limited numbers of samples used in the current pilot study, we conclude that the direct explant technique appears to be a simple and successful technique for the isolation of oral mucosal keratinocytes if we follow the appropriate protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_105_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714247PMC
September 2019

Forensic application of frontal sinus measurement among the Indian population.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2019 Jan-Apr;23(1):147-151

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Aim: Studies have been done in diversified population, demonstrating the uniqueness of frontal sinus; data related to the Indian population are less. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine the frontal sinus measurement and to assess its forensic application in the Indian population.

Materials And Methods: A total of 400 individuals with Indian origin (21-30 years) were included in the study. The digitized posteroanterior skull radiographs were obtained and was transferred to Adobe CS4 extended to measure the dimensions of frontal sinus and orbit for 12 parameters.

Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed.

Results: The descriptive statistics showed the presence of bilateral frontal sinus in 87.7% and bilateral absence in 8.0% of the individuals and the absence of left and right frontal sinus in 3.3% and 1%, respectively. Maximum population showed high asymmetry index (64.7%); the right side frontal sinus (height, 59.3% and width, 40.8%) was superior to the left side in both males and females. The partial septa among the Indian population were absent for maximum population (55.2%), and supraorbital cells of the frontal sinuses were present on both sides among the Indian population.

Conclusion: The observation of the present study suggests that the frontal sinus is highly asymmetrical and unique to the individual and hence can be effectively used in personal identification method in forensic anthropology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_214_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6503804PMC
May 2019

Detection of antibodies against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in serum and saliva through ELISA in periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 9;125:438-442. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Molecular Biology & Immunology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, 590010, Karnataka, India.

Background: Periodontitis is a persistent polymicrobial infection, which leads to chronic inflammation in the tooth supporting tissues. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are normal commensals of oral cavity but are low in number in periodontally healthy subjects. They are one of the major pathogens aetiologically linked to periodontal disease. Plasma and salivary antibody measurement may be useful to support diagnosis, disease activity, classification and prognosis of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the serum and salivary antibody levels to A. actinomycetemcomitans and therefore, to find whether this association was varying in different grades of periodontitis.

Method: Total of 50 periodontally healthy and 50 chronic periodontitis subjects (35-65 years) of both sexes were included for the study. 2 ml of un-stimulated saliva and 5 ml of venous blood was collected under sterile conditions. The detection of antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis was performed using indirect ELISA.

Results: Results showed serum IgG, IgA mean levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans were higher in chronic periodontitis subjects compared to mean levels in periodontally healthy subjects. Similarly, salivary IgG, IgA levels were also raised in chronic periodontitis patients as compared in healthy subjects. Also the mean levels of serum IgG and salivary IgA were increased as the severity of disease increased.

Conclusion: Antibody titer using saliva and serum could be useful tool for screening of patients with chronic periodontitis. Further, monitoring the various phases of treatment outcome using saliva could be a useful, non-invasive, prognostic indicator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.10.007DOI Listing
December 2018

Comparison of microvessel density using CD34 and CD105 in oral submucous fibrosis and its correlation with clinicopathological features: An immunohistochemical study.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Jul-Sep;14(5):983-988

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NG Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: To compare immunohistochemical expression of CD34 and CD105 in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) and correlate with clinicopathological features of OSF.

Materials And Methods: Total of thirty clinically diagnosed and histologically confirmed cases of OSF and 15 NOM were included in the study. Tissues sections were immunostained using CD34 and CD105 antibodies.

Results: Twenty-eight cases (93.33%) were positive for CD34, and only 12 cases (40%) were positive for CD105 in OSF. In NOM all cases were positive for CD34 and only one case was positive for CD105. CD34 and CD105 significantly expressed in moderately advanced OSF when compared to very early, early, and advanced cases. It was found that the microvessel density (MVD) in NOM was significantly higher as compared to OSF and MVD decreased with advanced OSF. MVD was higher in CD34 when compared to CD105. MVD decreased with disease progression in OSF using both the markers.

Conclusion: The role of CD34 in determining the premalignant nature of OSF could not be ascertained, since all endothelial cells were positive for CD34, whereas CD105 appeared to be more specific as it is associated with hypoxia-induced angiogenesis which is occurring in OSF due to hyalinization suggesting, CD105 to be more specific marker to determine neoangiogenesis in OSF. Thus further follow-up study of the cases positive for CD105 is required to determine the true nature of angiogenesis in OSF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.181186DOI Listing
November 2018

Comparison of palatal rugae pattern among Indian and Tibetan population.

J Forensic Dent Sci 2018 Jan-Apr;10(1):40-44

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Palatoscopy is the study of palatal rugae pattern to establish the identity of a person. The palatal rugae are permanent and unique to each person and can establish identity through discrimination (via casts, tracings, or digitized rugae patterns). In addition, rugae pattern may be specific to racial groups facilitating population identification (which may require postdisasters). Hence, they can be used in postmortem identification provided an antemortem record exists.

Aim: To determine the palatal rugae pattern and to assess the predominant palatal rugae pattern in Indian and Tibetan (in Mundgod Taluka, Karnataka) populations.

Materials And Methods: The impressions of the maxillary arch were made for a total of one hundred adults comprising fifty Indian and fifty Tibetan populations aged between 20 and 40 years, and the dental cast was made using dental stone. The rugae were highlighted by a sharp graphite pencil on the cast under adequate light and a magnification lens. Rugae patterns were assessed using Thomas and Kotze and Kapali . classification.

Results: Total number of palatal rugae in Indian population (461) was more than Tibetan population (351). Moreover, Indian population showed predominantly wavy (43.60%) rugae pattern, whereas Tibetan showed curved (38.2%) rugae pattern.

Conclusion: This suggests that there is a difference in the rugae pattern between Indian and Tibetan populations. Hence, palatal rugae pattern can be used as one of the methods in determining the ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfo.jfds_18_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080164PMC
August 2018

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction detection of selected bacterial species from symptomatic and asymptomatic non-vital teeth with primary endodontic infections.

J Investig Clin Dent 2018 May 11;9(2):e12312. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G Halgekar's Institute of Dental Sciences, Karnataka, India.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of selective anaerobic microorganisms in primary root canal infections of symptomatic and asymptomatic non-vital teeth with periapical pathosis using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

Methods: A total of 100 root canal samples (50 from symptomatic and 50 from asymptomatic teeth) were obtained from patients with primary endodontic infections. DNA extracted from the samples was amplified by using specific primers for the 16S rRNA gene of each bacterium, and semiquantification was done to analyze the prevalence of microorganisms and their correlation to clinical features.

Results: Treponema denticola (T. denticola) was present in 21 (42%) and 29 (58%) samples in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups, respectively. Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) were significantly high (P < .05) in the symptomatic group, whereas Prevotella intermedia was significantly high (P < .05) in the asymptomatic group. The mean counts of T. denticola and F. nucleatum were significantly high (P < .05) in the symptomatic group. For symptoms, P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and F. nucleatum were significantly associated with clinical features.

Conclusion: Significant differences exist in the bacterial composition between asymptomatic and symptomatic primary endodontic infections. As well as presence of pathogens, other factors, such as the phenotypic trait of bacteria and interactions among bacterial members, might play a determining role in the pathogenicity of primary endodontic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jicd.12312DOI Listing
May 2018

Culture-based identification of pigmented Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in primary endodontic infections.

J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2016 17;10(3):136-41. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Professor and HOD, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Maratha Mandal's NG Halgekar Institute Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belagavi -590010, Karnataka, India.

Background. The most common species isolated from primary endodontic infections are black-pigmented bacteria. These species are implicated in apical abscess formation due to their proteolytic activity and are fastidious in nature. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the presence and identification of various pigmented Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in the infected root canal through culture-based techniques. Methods. Thirty-one patients with primary endodontic infections were selected. Using sterile paper points, samples were collected from the root canals after access opening and prior to obturation, which were cultured using blood and kanamycin blood agar. Subsequently, biochemical test was used to identify the species and the results were analyzed using percentage comparison analysis, McNemar and chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon match pair test and paired t-test. Results. Out of 31 samples 26 were positive for black-pigmented organisms; the predominantly isolated species were Prevotella followed by Porphyromonas. In Porphyromonas only P. gingivalis was isolated. One of the interesting features was isolation of P. gingivalis through culture, which is otherwise very difficult to isolate through culture. Conclusion . The presence of Prevotella and Porphyromonas species suggests that a significant role is played by these organisms in the pathogenesis of endodontic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/joddd.2016.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5025213PMC
September 2016

Immunohistochemical Expression of Podoplanin in Clinical Variants of Oral Leukoplakia and Its Correlation With Epithelial Dysplasia.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2018 Feb;26(2):132-139

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal NG Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Oral leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral cavity and is associated with development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Certain changes at cellular and molecular level are important indicators for transformation into carcinoma. Podoplanin, a transmembrane glycoprotein is involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and increased motility of the cell which helps in determining the malignant potential of oral leukoplakic lesions. The objective of the study was to determine immunohistochemically the expression of podoplanin in homogenous (HOL) and nonhomogenous oral leukoplakia (NHOL) and to compare the expression with clinicopathological parameters. Study group included 15 cases each of HOL, NHOL and control group included 15 healthy volunteers. Both tissues were immunohistochemically stained for podoplanin (D2-40) antibody. No statistical significant difference was observed between the study and control groups for expression of podoplanin but significant difference was observed on comparison of podoplanin scores between HOL and NHOL. Statistical significant difference was observed when the podoplanin expression in the epithelium and the lymphatic vessel density were correlated with the histologic grading of HOL and NHOL. Expression of podoplanin was greater in NHOL as compared with HOL, this supports the fact that NHOL has a greater risk of malignant transformation when compared with HOL. Podoplanin expression, lymphangiogenesis, and lymphatic vessel density increased with increasing grades of dysplasia, suggesting that cellular modeling and motility is increased as the grade of dysplasia advances. Thus suggesting podoplanin can be used as a prognostic marker to determine the malignant potential in oral leukoplakias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000383DOI Listing
February 2018

Radiographic assessment of facial soft tissue thickness in South Indian population--An anthropologic study.

J Forensic Leg Med 2016 Apr 6;39:161-8. Epub 2016 Feb 6.

Department of Community Medicine, JN Medical College, Belgaum 590010, Karnataka, India.

Facial reconstruction is a technique used in forensic anthropology to identify an unknown person. Various methods used for facial reconstruction are drawings, sculpture and computer aided image building which is mainly based on facial soft tissue thickness measurement. Several methods have been established for measuring facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) with each one having certain limitations. There is limited data available on FSTT among South Indian population. Hence the present study was ventured to determine the FSTT among South Indian adults and also to find FSTT difference between male and female. 308 subjects of South Indian origin (18-27 years) having full set of permanent dentition who require orthodontic treatment were included in the study. Subjects were assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI) and diagnostic digital x-ray of lateral cephalogram (LC), Lateral oblique (LO) view and posterior-anterior (PA) view was obtained. The digital image was transferred to Adobe Photoshop CS4 software and 23 different soft tissue points were measured. Mean FSTT was more in males compared to females except for three landmarks. Statistically significant difference was observed in 20 landmarks when height and weight was compared in males, whereas in females only 12 landmarks showed significant difference. BMI showed good correlation with FSTT in both males and females, which was confirmed by linear regression. The best regressor in terms of estimating FSTT in association with age/sex/BMI were nasion, sub nasale, labial superioris, labrale inferius, gnathion, inferior border of zygomatic, right and left gonion. Stepwise discriminant analysis using all variables showed 94.8% of overall accuracy in sex determination. The observation of present study suggests that LO and PA view along with LC gives information regarding mean FSTT among South Indian population. Even though BMI plays a dominant role in determining FSTT, but age, sex, height and weight should also be considered with care while facial reconstruction. Additionally the present regression equation contributes towards increase in the specificity of the tissue depths and can be used in real cases by allowing the practitioners to calculate individual tissue depth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2016.01.032DOI Listing
April 2016

Immunohistochemical Expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Apparently Normal Oral Mucosa and its Correlation With Clinicopathologic Features.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2016 Jan;24(1):35-41

Departments of *Oral Pathology and Microbiology †Molecular Biology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) is essential for its growth, invasion, and metastasis. This entails a shift in the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. CD105 and TGF-β1 are 2 such proangiogenic factors wherein CD105 exerts its angiogenic effect by binding to and modulating the TGF-β1 pathway. A total of 50 resected specimens of OSCC were considered. One tissue specimen was taken from tumor proper and another specimen from adjacent apparently normal mucosa (AANM). Both tissues were immunohistochemically stained using CD105 and TGF-β1 antibodies. The expression of each antibody was individually assessed and then compared. Pearson χ test was used for statistical comparison of expression. CD105 was significantly expressed in OSCC as compared with AANM and also correlated with increasing TNM stage. The mean microvessel density was higher in OSCC. TGF-β1 was significantly expressed in epithelium of OSCC as compared with AANM. On comparing expression of TGF-β1 and CD105, 79.54% of endothelial cells expressed positivity for both molecules. Both CD105 and TGF-β1 were increased in OSCC, although based on our results CD105 alone can be used as a prognostic marker. On the basis of immunohistochemical expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in endothelial cells, our results demonstrate that CD105 acts as one of the receptors of TGF-β1 on endothelial cells and induces the angiogenic pathway in OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000152DOI Listing
January 2016

Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Mar 18;67(Suppl 1):21-8. Epub 2014 May 18.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, 590010 Karnataka India.

Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12070-014-0730-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4298603PMC
March 2015

Assessment of frontal sinus dimensions to determine sexual dimorphism among Indian adults.

J Forensic Dent Sci 2014 Jan;6(1):25-30

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Background: Sex identification of unknown individuals is important in forensic sciences. At times when only skull remains are found and other means of identification fails, radiographs of frontal sinus can be used for identification. Frontal sinus morphology is unique to individual and can be used effectively in person identification; whereas its use in determining sexual dimorphism is limited.

Aim: To determine sexual dimorphism among Indians by evaluating frontal sinus pattern using postero-anterior radiograph.

Materials And Methods: The right and left areas, maximum height and width of frontal sinus were determined in 300 digital postero-anterior view radiographs obtained from 150 males and 150 females aged between 18-30 years. The measurements were carried out by transferring the image to Adobe(®) Photoshop(®) CS3 extended. Comparison of values were done using student's t-test and accuracy of sex determination was assessed through Logistic regression analysis.

Results And Conclusions: One hundred and forty seven males and 142 females show presence of frontal sinus with seven individuals showing unilateral/bilateral absence of frontal sinuses. The mean values of the frontal sinus height, width and area are greater in males. Right frontal sinus is larger than the left sinus in both the sex. The mathematical model based on logistic regression analysis gives an average concordance index for sex determination of 64.6%. Thus, frontal sinus provides average accuracy in sex determination among Indian population. This may be due to its greater variation in morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-1475.127766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3970383PMC
January 2014

HSP70 induces TLR4 signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.

J Cancer Res Ther 2013 Oct-Dec;9(4):624-9

Department of Oral Pathology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: Toll like receptors play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Heat shock proteins play a significant role in cell proliferation, differentiation and oncogenesis. HSP70 acts as one of the ligands of TLR4 and binds to it in a CD14 dependent fashion to bring about proinflammatory cytokine production leading to an anti-tumor response. On the contrary, TLR4 has been implicated in carcinogenesis by secretion of anti-apoptotic proteins. Thus the aim of this study was to compare and correlate the association of HSP70 and TLR4 in various grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Study Design: Twenty-seven cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma were considered. Ten cases each of well-differentiated (WDSCC) and moderately differentiated (MDSCC), 7 cases of poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDSCC) were considered. Sections were stained for HSP70 and TLR4 and were evaluated for staining degree and intensity.

Results And Conclusion: Positive expression of both HSP70 and TLR4 was found in all cases of WDSCC and MDSCC, whereas in PDSCC out of 7 cases only 6 showed positivity for TLR4 and 4 cases showed positivity for HSP70. Those cases that were positive for TLR4, also showed positivity for HSP70. HSP70 acts as a ligand and binds to TLR4 thus activating the My88 pathway resulting in production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors etc., enhancing anti-cancer immunity in the early stages of disease. In later stages, TLRs expressed on cancer cells can produce anti-apoptotic proteins contributing to carcinogenesis and cancer cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.126460DOI Listing
December 2014

Reliability of mandibular canines as indicators for sexual dichotomy.

J Int Oral Health 2013 Feb 26;5(1):1-7. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Oral Pathology, Maratha Mandal's N.G.H.I.D.S & R.C. Belgaum, India.

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex.

Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated.

Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant.

Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768077PMC
February 2013

Histomorphometric analysis of nuclear and cellular volumetric alterations in oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and normal oral mucosa using image analysis software.

Indian J Dent Res 2013 Mar-Apr;24(2):277

Department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology, M.S. Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital, M.S.R. Nagar, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that clinically and histologically resembles lichenoid lesions, although the latter has a different etiology. Though criteria have been suggested for differentiating oral lichen planus from lichenoid lesions, confusion still prevails.

Aims: To study the cellular and nuclear volumetric features in the epithelium of normal mucosa, lichen planus, and lichenoid lesions to determine variations if any.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was done on 25 histologically diagnosed cases each of oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions, and normal oral mucosa. Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software.

Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test.

Results: The basal cells of oral lichen planus showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear and cellular areas, and in nuclear volume; there was a significant decrease in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa. The suprabasal cells showed a significant increase in nuclear and cellular areas, nuclear diameter, and nuclear and cellular volumes as compared to normal mucosa. The basal cells of oral lichenoid lesions showed significant difference in the mean cellular area and the mean nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa, whereas the suprabasal cells differed significantly from normal mucosa in the mean nuclear area and the nuclear and cellular volumes.

Conclusions: Morphometry can differentiate lesions of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions from normal oral mucosa. Thus, morphometry may serve to discriminate between normal and premalignant lichen planus and lichenoid lesions. These lesions might have a high risk for malignant transformation and may behave in a similar manner with respect to malignant transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.116678DOI Listing
September 2015

Karyotyping, dermatoglyphic, and sweat pore analysis of five families affected with ectodermal dysplasia.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012 Sep;16(3):380-7

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Background: Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a genetic recessive trait characterized by hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc. There is marked decrease in sweat and salivary secretion. Due to skin involvement palm and sole ridge patterns are disrupted.

Aim: In this study an attempt has been made to classify the affected members according to the degree of penetrance by pedigree analysis and also study karyotyping for cytogenetics, dermatoglyphic analysis for the various ridge patterns and variations in the number of sweat glands by sweat pore analysis in affected individuals.

Materials And Methods: A total of five families who were affected with ectodermal dysplasia were considered. Pedigree analysis was drawn up to three generation by obtaining history. Dermatoglyphics and sweat pore analysis was done by obtaining palm and finger print impression using stamp pad ink. Karyotyping was done by collecting 3-5 ml peripheral blood. Karyotyping was prepared using lymphocyte culture. Chromosomes were examined at 20 spreads selected randomly under ×100 magnification. Results were analyzed by calculating mean values and percentage was obtained.

Results: Karyotyping did not show any abnormalities, dermatoglyphic analysis and sweat pore counts showed marked variations when compared with normal. Moreover, pedigree analysis confirmed the status of the disease as that of the recessive trait.

Conclusion: Large number of affected patients needs to be evaluated for dermatoglypic analysis. Genetic aspect of the disease needs to be looked into the molecular level in an attempt to locate the gene locus responsible for ectodermal dysplasia and its manifestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-029X.102491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519214PMC
September 2012

Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012 May;16(2):245-50

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NG Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare acquired disorder characterized by diffuse hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa and longitudinal melanonychia in adults. They appear as macular lesions less than 5 mm in diameter. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is considered to be a benign disease with no systemic manifestation or malignant potential. Therefore, it is important to rule out other mucocutaneous pigmentary disorders that do require medical management. Prompt clinical recognition also averts the need for excessive and invasive procedures and treatments. In India, the reported cases of this syndrome are very few. We provide a review of literature on Laugier-Hunziker syndrome with its differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-029X.99079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3424942PMC
May 2012

Intraosseous fibrosarcoma of maxilla in an HIV patient.

Arch Iran Med 2012 Jan;15(1):59-62

KLE VK Institute of Dental College, Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Hospital Karnataka, India.

Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblasts that rarely affects the oral cavity and can cause local recurrences or metastasis. Fibrosarcomas account for 15% of all soft tissue sarcomas, which represent only 1% of all malignant tumors of the head and neck region. The clinical behavior of the fibrosarcoma is characterized by a high local recurrence rate, and low incidence of loco regional lymph node and/or distant hematogenous metastasis. The etiology for fibrosarcoma has no definite cause but is thought to occur from preexisting lesions or in previously irradiated areas of bone lesions. Immunosuppression associated with HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been consistently linked to various cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Rare neoplasms like Hodgkin's disease, anal cancer, leukemia, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma have also been demonstrated. This paper presents one such a rare incidence of an intraosseous fibrosarcoma occurring in an HIV-positive patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/012151/AIM.0016DOI Listing
January 2012

Determination of palatal rugae patterns among two ethnic populations of India by logistic regression analysis.

J Forensic Leg Med 2011 Nov 19;18(8):360-5. Epub 2011 Aug 19.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Palatal rugae patterns are relatively unique to an individual and are well protected by the lips, buccal pad of fat and teeth. They are considered to be stable throughout life following completion of growth, although there is considerable debate on the matter, they can be used successfully in post mortem identification provided an antemortem record exists. Thus the aim of this study was to examine palatal rugae shape among two Indian populations and determine the accuracy in defining the Indian population using logistic regression analysis. The study comprises two groups from geographically different regions of India with basic origin from Maharashtra and Karnataka state. The sample includes 100 plaster cast equally distributed between two populations and genders with age ranging between 18 and 40 years. Impression of maxillary arch was obtained using alginate impression material and plaster cast was made. The rugae was delineated on the cast using a sharp graphite pencil under adequate light and magnification and recorded according to classification given by Kapali et al. and Thomas and Kotze (1983). Chi-Square analysis showed significant difference in wavy, circular and divergent pattern between the two populations. The straight and wavy forms were significant in logistic regression analysis. A predictive value of 71% was obtained in determining the original cases correctly when straight, wavy, curved and circular patterns were assessed. 70% of predictive value was achieved when all rugae patterns were assessed. Mean number of rugae was greater in females compared to males with straight pattern showing statistically significant difference between males and females. Significant difference was recorded among straight, wavy, circular and divergent pattern between two populations. Consequently this study demonstrates moderate accuracy of palatal rugae pattern using logistic regression analysis in identification of Indians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2011.07.007DOI Listing
November 2011

Oral pulse granuloma associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumor: Report of a case and review on etiopathogenesis.

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2011 Jan;1(1):83-6

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NG Halgekar Institute Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Pulse granuloma is a distinct oral entity characterized as a foreign body reaction occurring either centrally or peripherally. It is usually seen in the periapical or in the sulcus area. Occasionally the lesions occur in the wall of the cyst, commonest being the inflammatory odontogenic cyst. Histologically, they present as eosinophilic hyaline mass with giant cell inclusions and inflammatory cells. They may show different histological characteristics, possibly related to the length of time in the tissue. Adequate recognition is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Many authors suggest that pulse granuloma results due to implantation of food particles of plant or vegetable origin into the tissue following tooth extraction. This paper aims to report a case of pulse granuloma associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumor with its histochemical and polarizing microscopic features and discuss on etiopathogenesis of pulse granuloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-0746.83153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3591034PMC
January 2011

Histopathologic changes in soft tissue associated with radiographically normal impacted third molars.

Indian J Dent Res 2010 Jul-Sep;21(3):385-90

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Belgaum - 590 010, Karnataka, India.

Background: The incidence of impacted or embedded third molars accounts for approximately 98%. Since 1948, there are studies reporting pathological changes in an asymptomatic dental follicle. Controversy still exists for removal of asmptomatic impacted teeth. Hence, this study was performed to histologically evaluate soft tissue pathosis in the pericoronal tissues of impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucency measuring up to 2.5 mm on orthopantomographs.

Materials And Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic impacted third molars with follicular space of up to 2.5 mm on radiographs were included. The disimpacted teeth and the follicular tissues were obtained for histological examination.

Results: Age of the patients ranged from 14 to 25 years. Of 41 tissues evaluated, histopathological reports of 18 follicles were suggestive of dentigerous cyst, two follicles showed odontogenic keratocyst, one follicle each of calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst, ameloblastoma-like proliferation, odontogenic myxoma and odontogenic fibroma.

Conclusion: This study showed 58.5% of asymptomatic cases with definite pathological changes. Hence, thorough clinical and radiographic examination should be carried out for all impacted third molars and the dental follicular tissue should be submitted for histopathological evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.70809DOI Listing
February 2011

Informed consent: a survey of general dental practitioners in Belgaum city.

Indian J Med Ethics 2010 Apr-Jun;7(2):90-4

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

The informed consent process allows the patient or legal guardian to participate in and retain autonomy over the medical service received. Obtaining informed consent may also decrease the practitioner's liability from claims associated with miscommunication. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs) regarding informed consent. 118 GDPs in Belgaum city, Karnataka, India, were given questionnaires asking for information on their knowledge and practices related to informed consent. The questions covered general information, treatment-specific issues and the consent process. 80 responses were received out of which 44 were complete. 63.6% of GDPs reported that they obtained written consent. All of them reported that they obtained only general consent. 4 of them obtained written consent in the local language. 37 said they gave a detailed explanation of the procedure. 3 said they did not inform their patients on radiation exposure. Dentists should upgrade their knowledge regarding legal jurisprudence and legal medicine to avoid any litigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20529/IJME.2010.031DOI Listing
May 2010
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