Publications by authors named "Vijaya Nagabhushanam"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

IL-4 confers resistance to IL-27-mediated suppression on CD4+ T cells by impairing signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 signaling.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013 Oct 16;132(4):912-21.e1-5. Epub 2013 Aug 16.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colo; Zhangshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: TH2 cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Established TH2 cells have been shown to resist reprogramming into TH1 cells. The inherent stability of TH2 cells poses a significant barrier to treating allergic diseases.

Objective: We sought to understand the mechanisms by which CD4(+) T cells from asthmatic patients resist the IL-27-mediated inhibition.

Methods: We isolated and cultured CD4(+) T cells from both healthy subjects and allergic asthmatic patients to test whether IL-27 can inhibit IL-4 production by the cultured CD4(+) T cells using ELISA. Culturing conditions that resulted in resistance to IL-27 were determined by using both murine and human CD4(+) T-cell culture systems. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 phosphorylation was analyzed by means of Western blotting and flow cytometry. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (Socs) mRNA expression was measured by using quantitative PCR. The small interfering RNA method was used to knockdown the expression of Socs3 mRNA.

Results: We demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells from asthmatic patients resisted the suppression of IL-4 production mediated by IL-27. We observed that repeated exposure to TH2-inducing conditions rendered healthy human CD4(+) T cells resistant to IL-27-mediated inhibition. Using an in vitro murine culture system, we further demonstrated that repeated or higher doses of IL-4 stimulation, but not IL-2 stimulation, upregulated Socs3 mRNA expression and impaired IL-27-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. The knockdown of Socs3 mRNA expression restored IL-27-induced STAT1 phosphorylation and IL-27-mediated inhibition of IL-4 production.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that differentiated TH2 cells can resist IL-27-induced reprogramming toward TH1 cells by downregulating STAT1 phosphorylation and likely explain why the CD4(+) T cells of asthmatic patients are resistant to IL-27-mediated inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2013.06.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788709PMC
October 2013

Patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease exhibit unique body and immune phenotypes.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013 Jan 9;187(2):197-205. Epub 2012 Nov 9.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Rationale: Among patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is a subset of previously healthy women with a slender body morphotype, often with scoliosis and/or pectus excavatum. We hypothesize that unidentified factors predispose these individuals to pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

Objectives: To compare body morphotype, serum adipokine levels, and whole-blood cytokine responses of patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (pNTM) with contemporary control subjects who are well matched demographically.

Methods: We enrolled 103 patients with pNTM and 101 uninfected control subjects of similar demographics. Body mass index and body fat were quantified. All patients with pNTM and a subset of control subjects were evaluated for scoliosis and pectus excavatum. Serum leptin and adiponectin were measured. Specific cytokines important to host-defense against mycobacteria were measured in whole blood before and after stimulation.

Measurements And Main Results: Patients with pNTM and control subjects were well matched for age, gender, and race. Patients with pNTM had significantly lower body mass index and body fat and were significantly taller than control subjects. Scoliosis and pectus excavatum were significantly more prevalent in patients with pNTM. The normal relationships between the adipokines and body fat were lost in the patients with pNTM, a novel finding. IFN-╬│ and IL-10 levels were significantly suppressed in stimulated whole blood of patients with pNTM.

Conclusions: This is the first study to comprehensively compare body morphotype, adipokines, and cytokine responses between patients with NTM lung disease and demographically matched controls. Our findings suggest a novel, predisposing immunophenotype that should be mechanistically defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201206-1035OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5446199PMC
January 2013

A pilot study to assess inflammatory biomarker changes when raltegravir is added to a virologically suppressive HAART regimen in HIV-1-infected patients with limited immunological responses.

Antivir Ther 2012 5;17(7):1301-9. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA.

Background: Despite successful suppression of HIV-1 with HAART, some patients do not have robust immunological recovery. Chronic inflammation from persistent immune activation could contribute to this poor response, resulting in HIV-1 disease progression and the development of some non-HIV-1 comorbidities.

Methods: We conducted a pilot study of 30 HIV-1-infected patients with undetectable viral loads and poor CD4(+) T-cell responses on long-term stable HAART to assess whether the addition of raltegravir would have an effect on biomarkers of chronic inflammation. A total of 26 patients were followed for 1 year on the intensified regimen. In addition to T-cell responses, we evaluated changes in activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and memory cell responses to HIV-1-associated peptides.

Results: Although there was no improvement in CD4(+) T-cell counts, the percentage change in CD4(+)%, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cells expressed and secreted) increased significantly while the percentage change in CD8(+) T-cell counts and CD8(+)%, activated CD4(+) T-cells and several pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines decreased significantly. The percentage change in HIV-1-specific nef, pol set 1, gag and env memory T-cells also declined.

Conclusions: The addition of raltegravir to a virologically suppressive HAART regimen in patients with poor immunological responses resulted in the reduction of several pro-inflammatory biomarkers; increases were seen in RANTES levels and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratios. The clinical relevance of these observations is beyond the scope of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP2350DOI Listing
April 2013

Case report of a young child with disseminated histoplasmosis and review of hyper immunoglobulin e syndrome (HIES).

Clin Mol Allergy 2011 Nov 29;9:14. Epub 2011 Nov 29.

Children's Foundation Research Center at Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis, TN 38103-2800, USA.

Type 1 hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), also known as Job's Syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder due to defects in STAT3 signaling and Th17 differentiation. Symptoms may present during infancy but diagnosis is often made in childhood or later. HIES is characterized by immunologic and non-immunologic findings such as recurrent sinopulmonary infections, recurrent skin infections, multiple fractures, atopic dermatitis and characteristic facies. These manifestations are accompanied by elevated IgE levels and reduced IL-17 producing CD3+CD4+ T cells. Diagnosis in young children can be challenging as symptoms accumulate over time along with confounding clinical dilemmas. A NIH clinical HIES scoring system was developed in 1999, and a more recent scoring system with fewer but more pathogonomonic clinical findings was reported in 2010. These scoring systems can be used as tools to help in grading the likelihood of HIES diagnosis. We report a young child ultimately presenting with disseminated histoplasmosis and a novel STAT3 variant in the SH2 domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-7961-9-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3248830PMC
November 2011

Disease-specific gene expression profiling in multiple models of lung disease.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008 Feb 20;177(4):376-87. Epub 2007 Nov 20.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center/Division of Immunobiology, 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 7038, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Rationale: Microarray technology is widely employed for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying complex diseases. However, analyses of individual diseases or models of diseases frequently yield extensive lists of differentially expressed genes with uncertain relationships to disease pathogenesis.

Objectives: To compare gene expression changes in a heterogeneous set of lung disease models in order to identify common gene expression changes seen in diverse forms of lung pathology, as well as relatively small subsets of genes likely to be involved in specific pathophysiological processes.

Methods: We profiled lung gene expression in 12 mouse models of infection, allergy, and lung injury. A linear model was used to estimate transcript expression changes for each model, and hierarchical clustering was used to compare expression patterns between models. Selected expression changes were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Measurements And Main Results: A total of 24 transcripts, including many involved in inflammation and immune activation, were differentially expressed in a substantial majority (9 or more) of the models. Expression patterns distinguished three groups of models: (1) bacterial infection (n = 5), with changes in 89 transcripts, including many related to nuclear factor-kappaB signaling, cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors; (2) bleomycin-induced diseases (n = 2), with changes in 53 transcripts, including many related to matrix remodeling and Wnt signaling; and (3) T helper cell type 2 (allergic) inflammation (n = 5), with changes in 26 transcripts, including many encoding epithelial secreted molecules, ion channels, and transporters.

Conclusions: This multimodel dataset highlights novel genes likely involved in various pathophysiological processes and will be a valuable resource for the investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying lung disease pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200702-333OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258439PMC
February 2008

T-cell tolerance and autoimmunity to systemic and tissue-restricted self-antigens.

Immunol Rev 2005 Apr;204:116-27

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

We have used transgenic mouse models to examine the mechanisms of tolerance in CD4(+) T lymphocytes to soluble, systemic and cell-associated, tissue-restricted self-antigens. Anergy to an islet antigen, as a model of a tissue antigen, is dependent on the inhibitory receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and tissue-restricted autoimmunity is inhibited by regulatory T lymphocytes. Anergy to a circulating systemic antigen can occur independently of CTLA-4 signals, and it is induced primarily by a block in proximal receptor-initiated signals. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells are generated in response to both forms of self-antigens, but the induction is much more efficient with the tissue antigen. Receptor desensitization can be induced by the systemic antigen even in the absence of regulatory T cells, but tolerance can be broken by immunization much more easily if these cells are absent. Deletion of mature T cells is striking with the systemic antigen; there is little evidence to support peripheral deletion as a mechanism of tolerance to the tissue antigen. Thus, both distinct and overlapping mechanisms account for unresponsiveness to different forms of self-antigens. These results establish a foundation for searching for genetic influences and pathogenic mechanisms in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0105-2896.2005.00241.xDOI Listing
April 2005

T cell tolerance and autoimmunity.

Autoimmun Rev 2004 Nov;3(7-8):471-5

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, 505 Parnassus Avenue, Suite M590, San Francisco, CA 94143-0511, USA.

CD4 T cells are the master controllers of immune responses to protein antigens, and many autoimmune diseases are thought to arise from a breakdown of immunological tolerance in CD4 cells. Peripheral tolerance in CD4 T cells is maintained by several mechanisms, including functional anergy, deletion (death) by apoptosis and suppression by regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg). Using transgenic mouse models, we have explored the roles of these mechanisms in tolerance to cell-associated tissue-restricted self-antigens and secreted systemic self-antigens. Tolerance to a membrane form of the antigen expressed in islet beta cells is maintained by Treg, which block T cell differentiation into pathogenic effectors, and by CTLA-4, which increases the activation threshold of T cells and prevents responses to the self-antigen. A systemically produced soluble form of the antigen induces rapid T cell anergy followed by deletion. The induction of anergy does not require either CTLA-4 or Treg, although in the absence of Treg tolerance can be broken more readily by potent immunogenic signals. Encounter with circulating antigen in T cells induces a state of antigen receptor "desensitization" that is associated with a block in proximal receptor-triggered signals. Thus, different mechanisms play dominant roles in T cell tolerance to different types of self-antigens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2004.07.004DOI Listing
November 2004

Cooperative roles of CTLA-4 and regulatory T cells in tolerance to an islet cell antigen.

J Exp Med 2004 Jun;199(12):1725-30

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, M590, 505 Parnassus Ave., San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Adoptive transfer of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells from the DO.11 TCR transgenic mouse on a Rag(-/-) background into mice expressing OVA in pancreatic islet cells induces acute insulitis and diabetes only if endogenous lymphocytes, including regulatory T cells, are removed. When wild-type OVA-specific/Rag(-/-) T cells, which are all CD25(-), are transferred into islet antigen-expressing mice, peripheral immunization with OVA in adjuvant is needed to induce diabetes. In contrast, naive CTLA-4(-/-)/Rag(-/-) OVA-specific T cells (also CD25(-)) develop into Th1 effectors and induce disease upon recognition of the self-antigen alone. These results suggest that CTLA-4 functions to increase the activation threshold of autoreactive T cells, because in its absence self-antigen is sufficient to trigger autoimmunity without peripheral immunization. Further, CTLA-4 and regulatory T cells act cooperatively to maintain tolerance, indicating that the function of CTLA-4 is independent of regulatory cells, and deficiency of both is required to induce pathologic immune responses against the islet self-antigen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20040124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2212810PMC
June 2004

Innate inhibition of adaptive immunity: Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced IL-6 inhibits macrophage responses to IFN-gamma.

J Immunol 2003 Nov;171(9):4750-7

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, and Loewenstein Laboratory for Tuberculosis Research, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.

In humans and in mice, control of the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), requires IFN-gamma. Although the adaptive immune response results in production of substantial amounts of IFN-gamma in response to Mtb, the immune response is unable to eradicate the infection in most cases. We have previously reported evidence that Mtb inhibits macrophage responses to IFN-gamma, suggesting that this may limit the ability of IFN-gamma to stimulate macrophages to kill Mtb. We have also observed that uninfected macrophages, adjacent to infected macrophages in culture, exhibit decreased responses to IFN-gamma. Here we report that IL-6 secreted by Mtb-infected macrophages inhibits the responses of uninfected macrophages to IFN-gamma. IL-6 selectively inhibits a subset of IFN-gamma-responsive genes at the level of transcriptional activation without inhibiting activation or function of STAT1. Inhibition of macrophage responses to IFN-gamma by IL-6 requires new protein synthesis, but this effect is not attributable to suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 or 3. These results reveal a novel function for IL-6 and indicate that IL-6 secreted by Mtb-infected macrophages may contribute to the inability of the cellular immune response to eradicate infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.171.9.4750DOI Listing
November 2003

Identification of an I-Ad restricted peptide on the 65-kilodalton heat shock protein of Mycobacterium avium.

Immunol Cell Biol 2002 Dec;80(6):574-83

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Rosalind Russell Arthritis Research Laboratory and Loewenstein Laboratory for Mycobacterial Research, San Francisco General Hospital, 94110, USA.

The 65 kilodalton heat shock protein (Hsp65) from mycobacterial species elicits immune responses and in some cases protective immunity. Here we have used a DNA sublibrary approach to identify antigenic fragments of Mycobacterium avium Hsp65 and a synthetic peptide approach to delineate CD4+ T cell determinants. A panel of Hsp65 reactive CD4+ T cell clones was established from lymph node cells obtained from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Hsp65. The clones were tested for proliferative reactivity against the products of the DNA sublibrary of the hsp65 gene. A T cell epitope, restricted by the I-Ad molecule, was identified within the C-terminal region of Hsp65 and the minimal epitope (amino acid residues 489-503) delineated using overlapping peptides spanning the C-terminal fragment. Additionally, the CD4+ T cell clone recognizing this epitope also responded to native Hsp65 present in M. avium lysates by both proliferation and cytokine production, indicating that the epitope was present and processed similarly both in the native and the recombinant forms of Hsp65. This sequence identified in BALB/c mice (Hsp65 489-503) is identical in other mycobacteria, notably M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. leprae, suggesting the epitope may have wider application in murine models of other mycobacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1711.2002.01128.xDOI Listing
December 2002

Oxidised mannan-listeriolysin O conjugates induce Th1/Th2 cytokine responses after intranasal immunisation.

Vaccine 2002 Mar;20(13-14):1877-86

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.

Clearance of infectious organisms does not always require polarised Th1 or Th2 responses and it may be advantageous for both Th1 and Th2 responses to be elicited for effective protection against an invading pathogen. It was the aim of this study to investigate oxidised mannan as a possible Th1/Th2 adjuvant. Oxidised mannan was conjugated to two candidate antigens and delivered intranasally to mice. Immunisation with the oxidised conjugate resulted in significant antigen specific proliferative responses, IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 production when compared to unconjugated controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0264-410x(02)00039-7DOI Listing
March 2002
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